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CHARLES C. BABINGTON, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 
JOHN EDWARD GRAY, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. &c, 












"Omncs res creatae sunt divinse sapiential et potentiae testes, divitiac felicitatis 
humanse: — ex liarum usu bonitas Creatoris ; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini; 
ex ceconomiain conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis elucet. 
Earum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibirelictis semper aestimata; a vere eruditis 
et sapientibus semper exculta ; male doctis et barbaris semper inimica fuit." — 

" Quel que soit le prineipe de la vie animale, il ne faut qu'ouvrir les yeux pour voir 
qu'elle est le cbet'-d'oeuvre de la Toute-puissance, et le but auquel se rapportent 
toutes ses operations." — Bkuckner, Tlieorie liu Systeme Animal, Leyden, 1707. 

The sylvan powers 

Obey our summons ; from their deepest dells 

The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild 

And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs 

That press with nimble step the mountain thyme 

And purple heath-flower come not empty-handed, 

But scatter round ten thousand forms minute 

Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock 

Or rifted oak or cavern deep : the Naiads too 

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face 

They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush 

That drinks the rippling tide: the frozen poles, 

Where peril waits the bold adventurer's tread, 

The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, 

All, all to us unlock their secret stores 

And pay their cheerful tribute. 

J. Taylor, Norwich, 1818 





I. Descriptions of new Genera and Species of Diatoms from Hong- 
kong. By R. K. Greville,LL.D., F.R.S.E. &c. (Plate V.) 1 

II. Notes on British Lichens. By the Rev. W. A. Leighton, 
B.A., F.B.S.E. (Plate IV.) 8 

III. On the Gland of the Phyllodiura of Acacia magnifica. By 

the Rev. W. A. Leighton, B.A., F.B.S.E 12 

IV. On the Nomenclature of the Foraminifera. By Messrs. 
W. K. Parker, F.R.S., T. R. Jones, F.G.S., and H. B. Brady, 
F.L.S., F.G.S. (Plates L, II., III.) 15 

V. On JEgeon Alfordi, a new British Sea- Anemone. By Philip 
Henry Gosse, F.R.S. (Plate VII.) 41 

VI. On the Presence of certain Secreting Organs in Nematoidea. 
By Alexander Macalister, F.R.C.S.I., Demonstrator of Ana- 
tomy, Royal College of Surgeons, Ireland 45 

VII. Description of a new Species of Corvina from the Gambia. 

By Dr. Albert Gunther 48 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society 49 — 65 

On the Pollen-grains of Ranunculus arvensis, by George Gulliver, 
F.R.S. ; On the Feathers of Dinornis robustus, Owen, by W. S. 
Dallas, F.L.S., Keeper of York Museum ; On the Metamorphoses 
undergone by certain Fishes before acquiring the Adult Form, 
by Prof. Agassiz ; Description of the Egg of Parra gallinacea, 
by John Gould, F.R.S. &c; On a new Form of Brachiolaria, by 
M. Sars ; Investigation of the Structure of the Encephalon of 
Fishes, and of the Ilomological Signification of its different parts, 


by M. Hollard ; Description of a new Species of Rock- Kangaroo 
{Pterogule longicauda) from New South Wales, by Gerard Krefft 



VIII. On the Homology of the Buccal Parts of the Mollusca. By 
Dr. Otto A. L. Morch, of Copenhagen. (Plate VI.) 73 

IX. Descriptions of recently discovered Spiders collected in the 
Cape de Verde Islands by John Gray, Esq. By John Blackwall, 
F.L.S 80 

X. Contributions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazons Valley. 
Coleoptera : Longicornes. By II. W. Bates, Esq 101 

XI. On the Occurrence of Limopsis Belcheri, Corbula sulcata, and 
some other recent Shells in the fossil state in Miocene Tertiary Beds 
near Melbourne. By Frederick M'Coy, Professor of Natural 
Science in the University of Melbourne, and Director of the Melbourne 
National Museum, &c , 113 

XII. Observations on Raphides and other Crystals in Plants. 

By George Gulliver, F.R.S 115 

XIII. On the Operculum and its Mantle. By Dr. O. A. L. 
Morch 117 

XIV. Notes on some Amphibians. By John Hogg, M.A., F.R.S., 
F.L.S. &c 120 

XV. Remarks on the Histology of two Specimens of Rhynchopora 
Geinitziana, De Verneuil, from near the River Oukhta, Province of 
Archangel, and belonging to the Collection of the Corps des Mines of 

St. Petersburg. By Professor William King 124 

Proceedings of the Royal Society; Zoological Society 128 — 142 

Note on the Food of the Aye-Aye, by Mr. A. D. Bartlett ; On the His- 
tology of the Acalephse, by Prof. Kolliker ; On a new Type in 
the Group of Ascidians (Chevreulius callensis), by M. Lacaze- 
Duthiers ; On some singular Organs appended to the Feet of 
certain Crustacea, by MM. Claus and Sars 142 — 144 

XVI. On a new Lizard, with Ophidian Affinities, from the Lower 
Chalk (Saurospondylus dissimilis). By Harry Skeley, F.G.S., of 
the Woodwardiau Museum, Cambridge 145 



XVII. Notice of a new Firmer Whale from Formosa. By Dr. J. 

E. Gray, F.R.S. &c 148 

XVIII. On the Male Generative Organs of Phalangium. By Dr. 

A. Krohn 149 

XIX. Descriptions of new Species of Crioceridce. By J. S. Baly . 153 

XX. Description of a new Species of Cetonia in the Collection of 
the British Museum. By Arthur G. Butler, Assistant, Zoological 
Department, British Museum 161 

XXI. Investigations on new or rare Crustacea of the French 
Coasts. By M. Hesse 162 

XXII. Contributions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazons Valley. 
Coleoptera : Longicornes. By H. W. Bates, Esq 167 

XXIII. A Description of some Fossil Corals from the South- 
Australian Tertiaries. By P. Martin Duncan, M.B. (Lond.), Sec. 
Geol. Soc. (Plate VIII.) 182 

XXIV. Notes on the Australian Species of Arripis. By Frede- 
rick M'Coy, Professor of Natural Science in the University of Mel- 
bourne, and Director of the National Museum at Melbourne 187 

XXV. On Undescribed Fossil Eutomostraca from the Brick-earth 

of the Nar. By George Stewardson Brady. (Plate IX.) 189 

XXVI. Classification of Polyps. (Extract condensed from a 
Synopsis of the Polypi of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition 
under Captains Ringgold and Rodgers, U.S.N.) By A. Verrill ... 191 

Proceedings of the Royal Society ; Zoological Society 197 — 220 

On the Chilian " Anguilla," by Dr. R. A. Philippi ; On the Parasitic 
Nature of the Mistletoe, by Joseph Boehm ; On a Fungus which 
is developed in Ivory and Bone, by Prof. Wedl ; Note on the 
Ammobroma Sonorte ; On the Intercellular Matter and the Ves- 
sels of the Latex in the Root of the Dandelion, by Dr. A. Vogel; 
On the Structure of the Luminous Organs in the Male of Lam- 
pyris splendidula, by M. Schultze; De Jeude's Collection of 
Mollusca 221—224 


XXVII. On Ammonites from the Cambridge Greensand. By 
Harry Seeley, F.G.S., of the Woodvvardian Museum, Cambridge. 
(Plates X. & XI.) 225 

XXVIII. Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Gallerucidcc. 

By J. S. Baly 247 



XXIX. On the Australian Species of Puludinii. By E. von 
Martens, M.D., C.M.Z.S 255 

XXX. An Examination of the Dejeanian Genus Ccelomera (Coleo- 
plera Phytophaga) and its Affinities. By the Rev. Hamlet Clark, 
M.A., E.L.S 256 

XXXI. On the Occurrence of Orcynus alalonga on the Coast of 
Devon. By Dr. W. R. Scott 268 

XXXII. Proofs of the Animal Nature of the Cilio-flagellate Infu- 
soria, based upon Investigations of the Structure and Physiology of 
one of the Peridinia (Peridinium cypripedium, u. sp.). By Prof. II. 
James Clark, A.B., B.S. (Plate XII.) 270 

New Books : — Travels and Researches in Crete, by Capt. T. A. B. 
Spratt, R.N., C.B., F.R.S. &c.— Handbook of British Water- 
weeds or Algae, by Dr. John Edward Gray, F.R.S., late President 
of the Botanical Society of London. The Diatomaceae, by W. 
Carruthers, F.L.S. &c. — Natural- History Transactions of North- 
umberland and Durham. Vol. I. Part 1 279—282 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society 283 — 2.97 

On Pristolepis margbiatus, Jerd., by T. C. Jerdon, Esq. ; On the 
Constitution of the Fruit in the Crucifeiac, by M. E. Fournier ; 
On the Male Generative Organs of Phalangium, by Sir John 
Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. ; On the Mode in which the Long-eared 
Bat captures its Prey, by Wra. Sowerby ; On the Habits of the 
Water-Shrew (Crossopus fodiens), by N. L. Austen 298 — 302 


XXXIII. On the Microscopic Structure of the Shell of Rhyncho- 
nella Geinitziana. By William B. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., F.G.S 305 

XXXIV. Contributions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazons Valley. 
Coleoptera : Longicornes. By H. W. Bates, Esq 308 

XXXV. An Examination of the Dejeanian Genus Cwlomera {Coleo- 
ptera Phytophaga) and its Affinities. By the Rev. Hamlet Clark, 
M.A., F.L.S 315 

XXXVI. On the Muscular Anatomy of the Leg of the Crocodile. 
By the Rev. Samuel Haughton, M.D., Fellow of Trinity College, 
Dublin. (Plate XVI.) 326 



XXXVII. Observations on Raphides and other Crystals in Plants. 

By George Gulliver, F.R.S 331 

XXXVIII. Note on the Cretaceous Deposits of Australia. By 
Frederick M'Coy, Professor of Natural Science in the University 

of Melbourne, and Director of the National Museum of Victoria 333 

XXXIX. On a new Growing Slide for the Microscope. By II. L. 
Smith, Kenyon College, U.S 334 

XL. Descriptions of recently discovered Species, and Characters of 
a new Genus, of Araneidea from the East of Central Africa. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S 336 

XLI. On two new Plesiosaurs from the Lias. By Harry Seeley, 
F.G.S., of the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge. (Plates XIV. & 
XV.) 352 

New Books : — A History of British Ferns, by Edw. Newman. The 
Fourth or School Edition. — Chart of Fossil Crustacea, by J. W. 
Salter and H. Woodward. With Descriptive Catalogue. — Genera 
Plantarum : auctoribus G. Bentham et J. D. Hooker. Vol. i. 
Pars 2 359—364 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society 365 

Dr. Sturm's Collection of Objects of Natural History in Nuremberg ; 
On the Existence of Liquid and Solid Matters in the Trachean 
Vessels of Plants, by M. T. Lestiboudois ; On the Organization 
of the Cypridince, by Prof. Claus ; On the Anatomy of Tridacna 
elongata, by M. Leon Vaillant ; Remarks on the Protective Sheath 
and on the Formation of the Stem of the Root, by M. R. Caspary; 
Graduation from " Individual Peculiarities" to Species in Insects, 
by Dr. B. D. Walsh ; Note on the Cultivation of Eels, by M. L. 
Soubeiran '677 — 384 


XLII. On the Systematic Value of the Organs which have been 
employed as Fundamental Characters in the Classification of Mollusca. 
By Dr. O. A. L. Morch 385 

XLIII. Description of four new Species of Butterflies in the Col- 
lection of the British Museum. By A. G. Butler, F.Z.S., Assistant, 
Zoological Department, British Museum 39/ 

XLIV. Remarks on Prof. II. J. Clark's Peridinium cypripedium. 
By II. J. Carter, F.R.S. &c 399 


XLV. Descriptions of new Genera and Species of Gallerucidcc. 
By J. S. Baly, F.L.S 402 

XLVI. On the Limits of the Suhkingdom Mollusca. By Dr. O. 
A. L. Morch 411 

XLVII. Notes on the Palaeozoic Bivalved Entomostraca. No. VI. 
Some Silurian Species (Primitia). By Professor T. Rupert Jones, 
F.G.S., and Dr. H. B. Holl, F.G.S. (Plate XIII.) 414 

XLVIII. On the Names of the Genus Mystomys. (In a Letter to 
Professor Allman.) By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., F.L.S. &c. 425 

XLIX. Descriptions of new Species of Shells. By E. von Mar- 
tens, M.D 428 

L. On Glyptodon ornatus. By M. Serres 432 

New Book: — British Conchology. Vol. III. Marine Shells, com- 
prising the remaining Conchifera, the Solenoconchia, and Gas- 
teropoda as far as Littorina, hy John Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S., 
F.G.S. &c 4-13 

Capture of Muscicapa parva at Scilly, by E. II. Rodd ; On the Canine 
Teeth of Thylacoleo carnifeoc, Ow., by Prof. M'Coy ; On ^Egeon the Rev. D. P. Alford ; On the Nest of the Ten-spined 
Stickleback, by W. II. Ransom, M.D 44/— 451 

Index 452 


Plate 1.1 

II. ^D'Orbignv's Models of Foraminifera. 

IV. New British Lichens. 

V. New Genera and species of Diatoms. 

VI. Buccal parts of Mollusca. 

VII. iEgeon Alfordi. 

VIII. Fossil Corals from South Australia. 

IX. Fossil Entomostraca. 

X 1 

■^j' ?New Ammonites from the Cambridge Greensand. 

XII. Peridinium cvpripedium. 

XIII. Palaeozoic Bivalved Entomostraca. 

XIV. Plesiosaurus eleutheraxon. 
XV. Plesiosaurus cliduchus. 

XVI. Muscular Anatomy of the Leg of the Crocodile. 





** perlitora spargite museum. 

Naiades, et circum vitreos considite fontes : 
Pollice virgineo teneros IVic carpite flores : 
Floribus et pictum, diva;, replete canistrum. 
At vos, o Nympha; Craterides, ite sub undas ; 
Ite, recurvato variata corallia trunco 
Vellite muscosis e rupibus, et mihi conchas 
Ferte, Deae pelagi, et pingui conchylia succo." 

N.Parthenii Gianneltasii Ecl.l, 

No. 91. JULY 1865. 

I. — Descriptions of new Genera and Species of Diatoms from 
Hongkong. By R. K. Greville, LL.D., F.R.S.E. &c. 

[Plate V.] 

Palmeria, nov. gen., Grev. 

Frustules free, hemispherical, having an axis on the plane, 
and longitudinal lines, indicative of fissiparous division, on the 
convex surface; structure an exceedingly minute hexagonal 
cellulation, appearing (except under a high magnifying power) 
like a fine close moniliform striatum, radiating from a subcentral 
nucleus to the margin of the valve, along with a more distant 
series of fine costse terminating in intramarginal punctiform 

This very singular Diatom cannot be satisfactorily referred to 
any of the families defined in the most recent general arrange- 
ment — that of Mr. Ralfs in the last edition (1861) of Pritchard's 
' History of Infusoria/ With two of them, however (the Cym- 
bellece and the Coscinodiscece) , there appear to be some points 
in common. The form of the valve agrees with the first of these 
families, and the frustule, as in Amphora, presents a ventral and 
a dorsal aspect ; but there are no transverse stria?, no longitudinal 
line, no nodules. With regard to the second family named, it is 
excluded at once by the absence of the requisite disciform struc- 

Ann. fy Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. xvi. 1 

2 Dr. R. K. Grcville on new Genera and 

ture and intermediate ring-like zone. Nevertheless the minute 
organization is very similar ; for we have an hexagonal cellulation 
radiating from a centre, along with a series of other sharply 
defined lines, which may be called radiating costse, and which 
terminate in submarginal nodules — the analogues of the lines 
and minute spines in Coscinodiscus concinnus of Smith. But 
our new Diatom seems, at first sight, to have a closer affinity 
with Dr. WallicVs curious genus Hemidiscus, which at present 
is placed (I fear erroneously) among the Angulifercce. The 
arcuate form, radiating cellulation, and submarginal puncta 
certainly show an approximation between the two. Whatever 
view, however, may be taken of their family relations, there are 
differences which must keep them apart as genera — the chief of 
which is the nodule on the ventral margin of Hemidiscus. The 
submarginal puncta in that genus are also very different from 
the minute nodules which terminate the radiating costse in Pal- 
meria; and it is not unworthy of notice that the point of radia- 
tion in the latter genus is never exactly centrical, being invariably 
somewhat to the ventral side of the centre ; whereas in Hemi- 
discus it is truly centrical. 

In a popular view, the frustule of Palmeria is graphically 
compared by its discoverer to the half of a peeled orange, the 
lines on the convex surface representing the segments of that 

In the living state, the endochrome is collected into minute 
roundish masses, which dot the whole of the interior of the 
siliceous covering. The nucleus in the valve is then very con- 
spicuous ; and I have a sketch, from Mr. Palmer, showing 
radiating " reticulated cords," similar to those described and 
figured by Professor Max Schultze in Coscinodiscus centralis and 
his Denticella regia (Mic. Journ. vol. vii. p. 13, pi. 2. figs. 1 1-13). 
This appearance has also been observed, even in this country, in 
specimens received from China, both of Palmeria and of a spe- 
cies of Coscinodiscus, by my friend Mr. Laurence Hardman. The 
peculiar current-like motions described by Prof. Max Schultze 
have been witnessed likewise to some extent by Mr. Palmer, 
especially the formation of a more compact mass of active parti- 
cles, changing both its shape and position within the cell from 
time to time. (Letter, June 1864.) 

Palmeria Hardmaniana, n. sp., Grev. PI. V. figs. 1-4. 

Hab. Hongkong Harbour ; John Linton Palmer, Esq., Surgeon 
R.N., 1863. 

A very large Diatom (varying, however, greatly in size), some 
examples being as much as *0160" and upwards in diameter. 

Species of Diatoms from Hongkong. 3 

Frustules nearly, but not fully, hemispherical previous to self- 
division ; on one side plane, with an axis through the middle 
and a valve on each side; on the convex surface marked with a 
middle longitudinal line and two fainter ones, indicating the 
direction of future tissiparous division. The valves lunate, with 
a straight ventral margin and obtuse ends ; the surface covered 
with very fine lines of hexagonal cellulation, radiating from a 
blank nucleus or roundish vacant space, not situated exactly in 
the centre, but a little towards the ventral side. Radiating from 
the same point, and at more remote intervals, are also exceed- 
ingly fine, but stronger, lines or delicate costse, which terminate 
in a continuous row of punctiform nodules a little within the 
margin of the whole circumference. 

The first gatherings of Diatoms in Hongkong Harbour, sent 
me by Mr. Palmer, contained some imperfect frustules of this 
Diatom, which, along with his notes and sketches, greatly stimu- 
lated my desire for more perfect materials. Fortunately my 
friend Mr. L. Hardman had also received some collections from 
the same locality; and, as they were rich in this production, he, 
at my request, most kindly instituted a careful and minute 
examination into its structure ; and it is only due to his friendly 
aid and unrivalled manipulation to state that it is mainly from 
his notes, sketches, and specimens that my drawings and de- 
scriptions were prepared. My valued correspondent Mr. Palmer 
subsequently forwarded a cell filled with frustules, preserved in 
fluid, along with additional interesting information confirming 
the results at which both Mr. Hardman and myself had arrived. 
It is with sincere pleasure that I unite with the name of the 
discoverer, now so worthily bestowed on the genus, that of the 
gentleman who so materially aided me in the investigation of 
its structure. 

Palmeria Hardmaniana is a very delicate and fragile Diatom, 
readily dividing (if arrived at the proper stage) at the slightest 
touch — falling asunder as the segments of an orange are sepa- 
rated, to use a simile already referred to. In size the frustules 
appear to have a great range. Mr. Hardman has observed some, 
however, which seem to belong to a second species, only half 
the average size of the one now described, and much stronger 
and thicker. As far as I can judge from a specimen he has 
kindly given me, I am disposed to agree with him ; but it will 
be well to examine a larger series of examples before coming to 
a positive conclusion. Mr. Palmer informs me that he also has 
observed frustules of a much smaller size ; but, in the absence 
of details, it is impossible to say whether they belong to the 
supposed new species or not. 


4 Dr. R. K. Grcville on new Genera and 

Genus Asterionella. 
Asterionella Synedraformis, n. sp., Grev. PI. V. figs. 5, 6. 

Frustules exactly linear throughout, truncate, with two minute 
apiculi at the apex; valve slightly dilated and rounded at the 
Hab. Hongkong Harbour; J. L. Palmer, Esq. 

A very fine and distinct species, agreeing only with A. Ralfsii 
in the frustules being exactly linear; but the latter is a fresh- 
water species, having, besides, the valve of a different shape. 
The present species is a large one, the frustules being sometimes 
•0080" and upwards in length. Towards the apex the margins 
appear to be thickened, and terminate in two minute apiculi. 
The valve is transversely striated, shortly acuminated at the 
apex, becoming more slender below (as in other species), and 
then slightly dilated at the base. The late Prof. Smith com- 
mitted an oversight in resting the character of the genus partly 
upon the frustules being "inflated towards one or both extremi- 
ties •" for he defines one of his own three species (A. Ralfsii) as 
" on F. V. exactly linear," which they are. This is of little 
consequence, as the main character depends upon the stellate 
arrangement of the frustules, combined with the form of the 
valve, which is different at the two extremities. Our new spe- 
cies appears to be abundant at Hongkong. I have one specimen 
in my cabinet in which only two frustules are absent from a 
circle of fourteen. 

Genus Surirella. 

Surirella Palmeriana, n. sp., Grev. PI. V. fig. 7. 

Valve ovate-oblong, with obtuse ends ; alse inconspicuous ; costae 
very slender, numerous, regular, terminating in a narrow me- 
dian line, and having very delicate intermediate striae. 

Hab. Hongkong Harbour ; in material communicated by J. L. 
Palmer, Esq. 

A very fine species, allied to S. gemma, but differing in im- 
portant particulars, especially in the total absence of alse, and in 
the canaliculi being equally distant. It is, besides, a much 
larger species. Prof. Smith gives the length of S. gemma at 
from -0025" to -0058"; that of S. Palmeriana is -00'80". The 
canaliculi are 4 in '001", and the intervening spaces are beauti- 
fully arched or crenate at the margin. It appears to be exceed- 
ingly rare, as Mr. Palmer has not referred to it in his letters. 

Genus Creswellia. 

Creswellia annulata, n. sp., Grev. PI. V. fig. 8. 

Minute; frustules short, cylindrical, truncate, transversely stri- 

Species of Diatoms from Hongkong. 5 

ated so as to appear annulate ; connecting processes very nu- 
merous, very short, linear, obtuse. 
Hab. Hongkong Harbour; in material communicated by J. L. 
Palmer, Esq. 

A fragile little species, seldom found quite entire, and gene- 
rally in solitary frustules; but I have repeatedly seen two in 
connexion, and have at the present moment a chain of three 
under my eye. I have not been able to perceive any cellulation ; 
but the annulate character is very obvious. The length of the 
frustule is about '0010"; the breadth a little less. 

I take the present opportunity of mentioning that in speci- 
mens burnt on the cover, and mounted dry, I have observed 
indications of an annulate structure in C. cylindracea, to which 
our new species appears to be allied. 

Genus Hemiaulus. 
Hemiaulus chinensis, n. sp., Grev. PI. V. fig. 9. 

Frustules rectangular, very minutely punctate ; the angles pro- 
duced into linear-attenuated horns, tipped with a spine ; space 
between the horns nearly straight. 

Hab. Hongkong Harbour; J. L. Palmer, Esq, 

Like Hemiaulus Polycystinorum and others of the genus, the 
present Diatom is most inconstant in point of size, not so much 
in the length as in the breadth of the frustules. I have them 
from -0007" to •0030". It is a delicate and transparent species, 
and liable to be overlooked, unless burnt on the cover previous 
to mounting. At the sutural line the puncta are exceedingly 
minute, and gradually increase in size to the surface of the valve 
included between the horns. I am not acquainted with any true 
species of Hemiaulus in which the punctation is so minute. The 
horns are somewhat truncate, and furnished with a terminal, 
slender, short spine. 

In his memorandum sketch, Mr. Palmer has represented the 
valve, a view of which I have not been so fortunate as to obtain. 

Genus Amphiprora. 
Amphiprora lepida, n. sp., Grev. PI. V. fig. 10. 

Front view broadly linear, elongated, rounded at the ends, very 
slightly constricted in the middle, and with a marginal row 
of very minute puncta ; middle portion grooved with straight 
longitudinal lines. 

Hab. Hongkong Harbour ; in material transmitted by Mr. J. L. 

Well characterized by its narrow form, almost straight mar- 

6 Dr. R. K. Greville on new Genera and 

gins, and ribbed appearance of the connecting zone. I cannot 
perceive any trace of strise or of supplementary wings. The 
length of the frustule is "0065" ; breadth in the middle -0010". 

Amphiprora hyalina, n. sp., Grev. PI. V. fig. 11. 

Hyaline; front view divided, by a deep and sharp constriction, 
into two roundish lobes, with a row of extremely minute 
marginal puncta, and a second inner row of irregular ones ; 
supplementary wings forming a single curve; connecting 
zone with longitudinal lines. 

Hab. Hongkong Harbour; in material communicated by J. L. 
Palmer, Esq. 

I offer this species with some little apprehension that it may 
turn out to be an extraordinary variety or condition of A. alata. 
Assuredly it appears to have absolutely nothing in common with 
the figures given by Prof. Smith in his ' Synopsis of the British 
Diatomacese ;' but it more nearly resembles Kutzing's figures in 
his ' Bacillarien/ which, although not quoted in Pritchard's 
' Infusoria/ are copied in the plates. These figures, however, 
are somewhat confused, and, being deficient in details, cannot 
be regarded as definitive. There is, if I may be allowed the 
expression, a great difference in the physiognomy of the Chinese 
Diatom. The supplementary wings also, which sweep down and 
intersect the lines of constriction, constitute an important cha- 
racter. I have been unable to observe whether the wing be 
continued round the ends, as is said to be the case in A. alata. 
The marginal puncta are much more minute than in that spe- 
cies ; and I cannot make out any stria?. Length -0028", breadth 

Amphiprora venusta, n. sp., Grev. PI. V. fig. 12. 

Front view broadly panduriform, truncate at the ends ; wings 
widely rounded at the corners, and then rapidly constricted; 
supplementary wings narrow, passing in a single curve within 
the nodule, striated ; margin strong, with a row of minute 

Hab. Hongkong Harbour; in material communicated by J. L. 
Palmer, Esq. 

This species possesses a considerable likeness to A. alata 
(Ediu. New. Phil. Journ. vol. xviii. pi. 1. fig. 13), but differs in 
its strong margin, in the row of marginal puncta, and in the 
apparent absence of strise in the wings. In general outline it is 
also very similar to A.Meneyhiniana and A. B re bissoniana (loc. cit. 
pi. 4. figs. 7, 8) ; but here the single curve of the supplementary 
wings, besides other characters, removes it at once. In the dry 

Species of Diatoms from Hongkong. 7 

mounted slide the margin appears of a fine blue colour. Length 
of frustule -0040". 

Amphiprora chinensis, n. sp., Grev. PI. V. fig. 13. 

Front view transversely striated, oblong, rounded at the ends, 
moderately constricted at the middle ; wings flatly convex ; 
supplementary wings narrow, with a marginal row of dark 
points ; connecting zone with a few narrow, ridge-like lines ; 
striae minutely moniliform. 
Hah. Hongkong Harbour; in material communicated by J. L. 
Palmer, Esq. 

The frustules are sometimes twisted so as to throw a portion 
of the wings out of focus ; and the disposition to twist seems 
almost always to cause more or less undulation in the rib-like 
lines of the middle portion. The whole surface is transversely 
striated, and the striae of the wings are clearly, although ex- 
tremely minutely, moniliform. The flatness of the wing-curves 
gives a degree of parallelism to the general outline, which is 
very characteristic. The supplementary wings follow the curve 
of the primary ones in a somewhat less degree, and pass down 
within the nodules, having the appearance of an elevated ridge, 
the ridge-line marked with a row of minute dark spots (scarcely 
puncta), caused possibly by the intersection of the striae. Length 
of frustule •0040" and upwards. 


Fig. 1. Frustule of Palmeria Hardmaniana : front view, magnified 100 
diams., showing the lines of future fissiparous division. 

Fig. 2. The same, showing the valves. 

Fig. 3. The same, showing the valves and frustule in the process of divi- 

Fig. 4. Valve of the same, showing the radiating structure, magnified 
150 diams. 

Fig. 5. Asterionella Synedrceformis, exhibiting two of the frustules and 
the bases of others in situ. 

Fig. 6. Valve of the same. 

Fig. 7. Surirellu Palmeriana. 

Fig. 8. Cresswellia annulata : two frustules in situ, the valves of one of 
them separating. 

Fig. 9. Hemiaulus chinensis : two frustules in situ. 

Fig. 10. Amphiprora lepida. 

Fig. 11. „ hyalina. 

Fig. 12. „ venusta. 

Fig. 13. „ chinensis. 

[All the figures are magnified 400 diameters, except figs. 1 to 3, which 
are magnified 100, and tig. 4, which is magnified 150 diameters.] 

8 Rev. W. A. Leighton on British Lichens. 

II. — Notes on British Lichens. 
By the Rev. W. A. Leighton, B.A., P.B.S.E. 

[Plate IV.] 

I purpose, in this and subsequent papers, from time to time to 
present notes and illustrations of new or recently discovered 
British Lichens, or such as have not been figured and described 
in Sowerby's 'English Botany ' and Supplement. 

Gonionema, Nyl. 

Thallus filiform ; gonidial cells large, filled with granules, con- 
catenated into a central axis. Apothecia biatorine or gyalec- 

Gonionema velutinum, Nyl. Thallus dark brown, slender, en- 
tangled ; apothecia dark brown, terminal, centre depressed, margin 
swollen, pale within ; sporidia in asci 8, ellipsoid, simple, colour- 
less; paraphyses slender. 

Gonionema velutinum, Nvl. Prodr. 16 (1857), Syn. 88, 1. 1. fig. 11 (1858), 

Scand. 23 (1861). 
Collema velutinum, Ach. Syn. 329 (1814). 

On the northern precipices of Craig Breidden, Montgomery- 
shire, June 1864. 

This minute lichen grows in scattered or continuous patches 
on the face of the rock, and resembles in general appearance a 
coarse dense velvety pile, of a blackish-brown colour. It con- 
sists of minute, slender, cylindrical filaments, simple or branched, 
erect, uniform in height, crowded and entangled into a casspitose 
mass. When moistened and viewed under the microscope, these 
filaments are found to consist of an outer fleshy or cartilaginous 
continuous membrane, of a darkish-brown or olive-tawny colour, 
within which is seen a central axis filling the entire external 
cylindrical membrane, formed of large globular or spherical cells 
concatenated in a moniliform manner, compressed longitudinally 
by juxtaposition, and thus giving the cells a transverse dilata- 
tion. On the external membrane being ruptured, the central 
axis in longer or shorter lengths extrudes itself, and is then seen 
to be of a pale dirty glaucous-green colour, and the cells to be 
filled with very minute spherical granules, which, on the appli- 
cation of diluted sulphuric acid, become of a reddish tinge. I 
did not observe any apothecia on the Breidden specimens; but 
the structure of the thallus in these so corresponds with an 
authentic specimen in fructification, received from Dr. Nylander 
himself, as to leave little or no doubt of their identity, notwith- 
standing a slight difference in the width of the filaments, most 
probably resulting from age and situation. The apothecia on 

Rev. W. A. Leighton on British Lichens. 9 

Dr. Nylander* s specimen are very minute, appressed, and sessile 
on the upper extremities of the thalline filaments, and of a 
similar colour, depressed or gyalectoid in the centre, and sur- 
rounded with a thickish tumid margin, internally pale, and con- 
sisting of narrow linear-oblong asci interspersed among very 
slender paraphyses slightly swollen at the apices. Sporidia 8 
in each ascus, ellipsoid, hyaline. 

Dr. Nylander (/. c.) describes the spermogonia (which I have 
not seen) as pale, globular or turbinate, and terminal ; spermatia 
oblong, short ; sterigmata slender. He also says, the hymeneal 
gelatine becomes blue by the action of iodine, and finally of a 
vinous red. 

Plate IV. fig. 1. Portion of filament of thallus, magn. 330 times linear, 
fig. 2. Central axis, magn. 330 times linear, 
fig. 3. Cells of central axis, magn. 1200 times linear, 
fig. 4. Asci and paraphyses, magnified 330 times linear, 
fig. 5. Sporidia, magn. 1200 times linear, 
fig. 6. Sterigmata and spermatia, after Nylander. 

Spilonema, Born. 

Thallus filiform, branched, fruticulose ; granula gonima large, 
in transverse strata ; apothecia lecideine, lenticular. 

Spilonema paradoxum, Born. Thallus blackish brown, slender, 
csespitose, entangled, branched ; apothecia black, terminal, hemi- 
spherical, immarginate ; hypothecium nigrescent ; sporidia in 
asci 8, oblong, simple, colourless; paraphyses thick, articulate. 

Spilonema paradoxum, Bornet ! Trois Lich. Nouv. p. 4, in Mem. Cherb. 
Dec. 1856, tab. 1 & 2; Nyl. ! Prodr. 17 (1857), Syn.89,t.2.f.3(1858), 
Scand. 23 (1861); Leight. ! Lich. Brit. Exs. 347 (1858); Mudd, Man. 
35 (1861). 

On rocks near the Harlech turnpike, at Barmouth, North 
Wales, June 1856, in fructification. 

Thallus forming larger or smaller, dense or scattered patches 
of a black olive-brown colour, on the bare surface of granitic 
rocks, presenting a dense csespitose velvety aspect. Filaments 
of thallus erect, flexuose, and curved, entangled, irregularly and 
somewhat secundly branched, about |th of an inch in height. 
The extremities of the branches, when moistened and viewed 
under the microscope, are found to consist of a continuous outer 
membrane, of an olive-tawny colour, within which the large 
rounded or oblong gonidial cells are seen arranged in tolerably 
regular transverse strata. The older stems exhibit the gonidia 
more scattered and irregular, but still disposed in a distinctly 
transverse direction, and immersed in a dense cellular tissue. 
Apothecia terminal, minute, hemispherical, without any margin, 
black ; hypothecium nigrescent. Paraphyses short, thick, arti- 

10 Rev. W. A. Leighton on British Lichens. 

culate, the apical cell slightly enlarged and dark coloured. 
Sporidia 8, in narrow asci, linear-oblong, simple, hyaline. 
Spermogonia (which I have not seen), according to Bornet and 
Nylander, lateral, tubercular, black; arthrosterigmata articulate; 
spermatia "ovoides, fort petites" (Bornet), "breviter cylindrica" 

Even in a sterile state, this plant, which has a general resem- 
blance to Ephebe pubescens, may be distinguished by attention 
to the regular transverse arrangement of the gonidia, which are 
also of much larger size than those of that plant, and altogether 
differently grouped together. The outline of the filaments in 
Spilonema is uniform, whilst in Ephebe it is crenate or wavy, 
arising from the minute rugosities or tuberculations of the sur- 
face corresponding with the internal strata of gonidia. I thought 
at one time that there was also a chemical distinction, — dilute 
sulphuric acid turning the old and young filaments of Spilonema 
to a dark-green colour, whilst in Ephebe the younger branches 
were coloured green, and the older stems reddish ; but this 
character did not seem, after experiments on different specimens, 
to be satisfactorily constant. 

It is to be feared that, at least in some copies of my ' Lich. 
Brit. Exsic./ specimens of Ephebe pubescens, which grew in the 
same locality at Barmouth with Spilonema paradoxum, have been 
inadvertently inserted. 

Plate IV. fig. 7- Extremity of younger branch, magn. 330 times linear, 
fig. 8. Portion of older stem, magn. 330 times linear, 
fig. 9. Sporidia, magn. 1200 times linear, 
fig. 10. Paraphyses. 
fig. 11. Sterigmata and spermatia, after Bornet and Nylander. 

Ephebe, Fr., Born. 

Thallus filiform, branched, fruticulose ; granula gonima smaller, 
subtransversely arranged, in little heaps, two, four, or more 
together. Apothecia endocarpoid, in thickened portions of 
the thallus. 

Ephebe pubescens, Fr. Thallus blackish brown, slender, cses- 
pitose, entangled, branched, slightly rugulose. Sporidia 8 in 
asci, lineari-oblong or subfusiform, 1 -septate, hyaline; para- 
physes none. 

Ephebe pubescens, Fr. S. O. V. 256 (1825) ; Bornet, in Ann. Sc. Nat. se'r. 3. 
xviii. 170, t. 7 ; Nyl. Prod. 17, Syn. 90, t. 2. f. 1. & 17-20; Scand. 24 ; 
L. P. 1!; Moug. & Nestl. 358!; Henpe, 712!; Fellm. Licb. Lapp. 
Or. 2! 

Summit of Pen-Maen-Mawr, June 1851. Harlech turnpike, 
at Barmouth, Caernarvonshire, June 185G. Rocks at Dartmoor, 

Rev. W. A. Leighton on British Lichens. 11 

J. Ralfs, Esq. ! Rocks at Coachford, west of Cork, J. Carroll, 

This plant occurs in dense, entangled, decumbent masses, 
loosely attached to the rocks. Filaments rather coarse, and of 
a minute, tubercular, or scabrous appearance, dark brown, va- 
riously and irregularly branched. When seen moistened under 
the microscope, they are of an olive-brown colour ; the granula 
gonima in the young branches and extremities of the branches 
appear transversely arranged, very similarly to those of Spilo- 
nema paradoocum ; but in the larger and older stems they are 
more scattered and distant, and smaller in size, and are arranged 
somewhat irregularly transversely, in heaps of several together. 
The apothecia are immersed in subfusiform swollen portions of 
the thallus, at a little distance from the extremities of the 
branches, and are similar to those of Endocarpon, spherical, 
with brownish perithecia. Paraphyses indistinct, mucilaginous. 
Sporidia 8 in each ascus, oblong, elongated, shortly fusiform, 
1 -septate, hyaline. Spermogonia in lateral prominences; sterig- 
mata simple; spermatia straight, cylindrical. 

For the unravelling of the synonymy, see Bornet, /. c. 

Plate IV. fig. 12. Portion of older stem, magn. 330 times linear, 
fig. 13. Sporidia, magn. 1200 times linear, 
fig. 14. Spermatia and sterigmata, after Nylander. 

I possess a plant from Dr. Nylander, without any locality, 
named Pilonema contextum, Nyl., which, from the general ap- 
pearance and structure of the thallus, seems allied to the fore- 
going. It grows in dense entangled csespitose masses, of a 
blackish-brown colour. The filaments are very much branched, 
and seem, when moistened under the microscope, to consist of 
longitudinal series of small moniliform granula gonima immersed 
in cellular tissue. There is no fructification on the specimen. 

Plate IV. fig. 14. Portion of thallus, magn. 330 times linear, 
fig. 15. Granula gonima, magn. 1200 times linear. 

Racodium mpestre, Pers., of which I have a specimen from 
Dr. Th. M. Fries, gathered at " Smolandia, Femsjo, 1851," 
and which I have gathered on rocks at Sychnant, near Conway, 
and on the High Rock, Bridgenorth, Shropshire, and have also 
specimens from Llandrindod (Rev. T. Salwey), Leicestershire 
(Rev. A. Bloxam), and Cleveland (Mr. W. Mudd), and which, 
according to a specimen received from Dr. Guthnich, from the 
collections of Schaerer, gathered at " Tete Noire/' and labelled 
" Collema pannosum, Schaer. Enum. p. 248," would seem to be 
included in that species by that author. Of this plant a fair 
representation is given in Dillwyn's ' Confervas/ tab. 101, as 
C. ebenea. Viewed under the microscope, it is found to consist 

12 Rev. W. A. Leigh ton on the Gland of 

of minute filaments indistinctly septate, over which is spread a 
network of longitudinal fibres. No fructification has hitherto 
been detected. There can be little doubt of the lichenoid nature 
of this plant, the structure being similar to that of Ccenogonium. 
(See Karstcu's Paper in Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 3. vol. viii. p. 203, 
pi. 11.) 

Plate IV. fig. 16. Filament, magn. 330 times linear, 
fig. 17. Filament, magn. 1200 times linear. 

Chroolepus Arnottii, Hook., of which I have an authentic spe- 
cimen gathered " Kinross-shire, July 7, 1837," approaches these 
plants in external aspect ; but the microscope shows it to consist 
of branched filaments of spherical cells, of a rich chocolate- 
brown, tapering towards the extremities, where a distinct con- 
jugation may be seen. 

Plate IV. fig. 18. Filament, magn. 330 times linear. 

fig. 19. Conjugation at extremity of filament, magn. 330 times 

fig. 20. Conjugation, magnified 660 times linear. 

Lichina pygmaa, Ag. (Leight. Lich. Brit. Exs. 260) is beauti- 
fully represented in Grev. Scott, Crypt, t. 219, and its micro- 
scopic details in Tulasne's Mem. Lich. tab. 9. figs. 1-6. 

Mount's Bay, Cornwall (J. Ralfs, Esq. !) may be recorded as 
an additional habitat. 

Plate IV. fig. 21. Sporidium, magn. 1200 times linear. 

Lichina confinis, Ag. This Lichen is also beautifully given 
in Grev. Scott, Crypt, t. 221, and in Tulasne, /. c. tab. 10. 
figs. 12-18. 

Mount's Bay, Cornwall (J. Ralfs, Esq. !), and Black Stones, 
Conway Bay, Caernarvonshire ! June 1856, are additional 

Plate IV. fig. 22. Sporidium, magn. 1200 times linear. 

Pterygium centrifugum, Nyl. Syn. 92; Arnold, Lich. Juras. 
Exs. 159, may probably be found on our limestone-rocks. 

The scales on the Plate are the iVoo'th of an inch, magn. 330, 660, and 
1200 times linear. 

III. — On the Gland of the Phyllodium of Acacia magnifica. 
By the Rev. W. A. Leighton, B.A., F.B.S.E. 

My attention has been attracted to a plant of Acacia magnifica 
when in blossom. On the upper edge of the vertical phyllodia 
(for the plant has no true leaves) subtending the showy spikes of 
yellow flowers, which proceed from their axils, appeared a pellucid 
drop of liquid, varying in size from that of a large pin's head 

the Phyllodium of Acacia magnifica. 


to that of a grain of mustard-seed. This to the taste was sweet 
and sugary. The flowers themselves had no odour, except to- 
wards nightfall, when they gave out a weak disagreeable smell, 
only perceptible on close contact. On wiping off the sugary 
secretion, it was observed that it proceeded from a small sunken 
linear-oblong orifice or slit, surrounded by a swollen margin. 
The phyllodium itself is attached to the branch by a swollen 
base, the surface of which is curiously marked by shallow rimse, 
alternately arranged, halfway round the base. From this swollen 
portion the base tapers gradually, and becomes much narrower, 
until, about a quarter or half an inch from the branch, the phyl- 
lodium expands into a fusiform swelling, on the centre of which 
the above linear-oblong orifice is situated. From this fusiform 
swelling the phyllodium tapers to its uniform thickness. These 
appearances are seen on looking down on the upper edge of 
the phyllodium from above, and are represented in fig. 1, 

where a is the swollen rimose base, b the fusiform expansion 
bearing the orifice. Fig. 2 represents a lateral view of the same, 
where b is the situation of the glandular orifice, and c the large 
bundles of vascular and spiral tissue, which proceed in a parallel 
direction to the apex of the phyllodium. On making a vertical 
section of this basal part of the phyllodium transversely through 
the glandular orifice, the section, in a dry state, shows the ap- 
pearances represented in fig. 3. Externally there is the bright- 
yellow epidermis, with a layer of large cells immediately under- 
neath, containing chlorophyll ; then similar large cellular tissue, 
of a white colour and loose in texture ; then a denser cellular 
tissue of much smaller cells of a white colour, which is continued 
towards the central slit of the gland, but becomes of a pale 
yellow or slightly tawny colour, probably from the very minute 
granular contents. Dilute sulphuric acid and weak solution of 

14 Rev. W. A. Lcierhton on Acacia magnifica. 


iodine produced no change of colour in any of these parts. On 
moistening the section with water, the external lips of the orifice 
become swollen and partially closed, the slit alone being visible, 
as seen, more highly magnified, in fig. 4 (where the same letters 
indicate the same parts as in fig. 3, viz. d, epidermis ; e, chloro- 
phyll-cells ; /, loose white cellular tissue ; y, dense white cellular 
tissue ; //, dense yellow cellular tissue ; i, glandular slit ; k, bun- 
dles of vascular and spiral vessels). Here it is seen that the 
epidermis ceases somewhat above the base of the slit, where 
apparently the cellular tissue is exposed, and from which surface 
the pellucid liquid is excreted. 

The plant began to blossom on the 27th of March, and was 
then removed from the green-house into the drawing-room, 
where the secretion immediately attracted my attention. I my- 
self watered the plant every morning; and thus it was daily, and, 
indeed, many times every day, under my constant observation ; 
and the secretion was pointed out to members of my family and 
to many friends almost daily. As I proposed to investigate the 
source and cause of the secretion with the microscope, I carefully 
watched it day by day, and am thus able to state definitely that 
the liquid drop was visible on the upper edge of every phyllodium 
subtending a spike of flowers during the whole time the plant 
continued in flower, viz. from March 27 to April 22. For a few 
days previous to April 22, the secretion appeared to decrease 
and partially to cease on some of the phyllodia. On April 23 
the blossoms began to wither and fall. On the 24th the blos- 
soms fell more rapidly and abuudantly; and, to my surprise, 
there was an almost total cessation of the secretion, which now 
appeared on a very few only of the phyllodia. On the 24th the 
plant was returned to the greenhouse, and since that day to the 
present time (May 30), although the plant has been watched 
carefully for this express purpose, not the least secretion has 
taken place, and the orifice of the gland appears to have become 
partially filled up or obliterated. 

Here observation ends; but, on beholding such a curious 
structure, the mind naturally speculates — but in vain — How is 
this secretion effected ? Nature does not disclose her vital forces. 
We then turn to the probable end to be effected by such a pro- 
vision ; and here conjecture may be possibly more successful. 
The secretion takes place only during the period that the plant 
is in blossom. So soon as the flowers fade and begin to fall, 
the secretion ceases and disappears. It would seem then to be 
in some way or other connected with the fertilization of the 
flower; and as, when the secretion becomes excessive, it falls 
and blotches the lateral expansion of the phyllodium, it is pro- 
bably to attract insects to effect this. It is right, however, to 

On the Nomenclature of the Foraminifera. 15 

confess that no insects were observed to alight on the plant ; 
but this may be owing in some measure to the early season of 
the year at which the plant blooms in this country, or to its 
having been taken from the green-house into a drawing-room, 
where the windows were generally closed ; or, what is still more 
probable, that British insects are not the same as Australian, and 
have not the same habits ; for it seems almost evident that it would 
require an insect of some considerable size and of some peculiar 
structure and habits to remove and apply the pollen, the secre- 
tion not being in the blossom itself, but at a short distance from 
it, on the phyllodium. 

However, none of the flowers were fertilized ; but it was re- 
marked that the styles became elongated to nearly double the 
length of the stamens, particularly towards the time of the fading 
and falling of the blossoms. The thought readily arises, Is this 
another instance of dimorphism ? and is there another plant, 
with short-styled stigmas, or with some other peculiar structure, 
adapted and necessary for the perfect fertilization ? This, future 
and further observation may verify; but it appears highly sug- 
gestive of a fine field of research to those who possess or have 
access to large collections of Acacia. The fact of some Acacice 
fruiting abundantly in greenhouses, and others rarely or never, 
has often attracted attention; and artificial fertilization would 
do much towards ascertaining whether it is to the absence of 
insect agency that the sterility of the plants is due. 

An intelligent nurseryman here informs me that he has never 
observed the plant to form legumes, or, at all events, other than 
abortive ones. He says the plant was originally raised at Ghent, 
from seed from Australia, and that that place is the great mart 
where it is propagated by cuttings, and imported into this 

The microscopist will find the stamens, and indeed every por- 
tion of the floral whorls, beautiful and interesting objects, as, 
from their extreme transparency, the cellular tissue and the 
spiral vessels are distinctly displayed, without any dissection or 
other preparation than being placed in a drop of water. 

IV. — On the Nomenclature of the Foraminifera. By W. K. 
Parker, F.R.S., T. Rupert Jones, F.G.S., and H. B. Brady, 
F.L.S., F.G.S. __, x __ ,_, ., 

' [Plates I., II., III.] 

Part X. (continued). — The Species enumerated by D'Orbigny in 
the ' Annates des Sciences Naturelles,' vol. vii. 1826. 

III. The Species illustrated by Models. 
Previously to the publication of his " Tableau Methodique des 

16 Messrs. Parker, Jones, and Brady on the 

Ce'phalopodes " in the ' Annales des Sciences Naturelles/ vol. vii. 
1826, D'Orbigny had prepared and published, in part at least, 
a hundred models of Foraminifera (at that time regarded as 
microscopic Cephalopods), illustrating many of the species for 
the first time. These models were made in plaster of Paris, 
were about an inch or more in length, and were issued in sets 
of twenty-five, arranged in suitable boxes, each box bearing 
a label as follows* : — " Models of microscopic Cephalopods, 
recent and fossil, representing one individual of each of the 
principal divisions of a new method based on the mode of 
growth of the shells. The Models are from forty to two 
hundred times the size of the originals, so as to show their cha- 
racters distinctly. By M. Alcide Dessalines D'Orbigny, junior. 
There are Four Fasciculi, each comprising twenty-five Models ; 
besides, for the first sixty subscribers, three or four shells. 
The great rarity of the originals does not allow any more to be 
promised. (The specimens are in glass boxes, which must be 
opened with great care.) The four Fasciculi will be issued in 
the course of the first six months of 1823: the price of each is 
twenty francs, payable either at Rochelle to the author (Jardin 

des Capucins), or at Paris to M. . Letters and money 

to be post-free. The First Fasciculus of the Models may be 
seen at Paris, at the Museum of Natural History of the Jardin 
du Roi, and at M. 's. The subscribers will receive with 

* " Modeles de cephalopodes microscopiques, vivans et fossiles, represen- 
tant un individu seulement de chacune des prmcipales divisions d'une 
nouvelle methode, basee sur le mode d'aceroissement des coquilles. Le 
diametre de ces modeles a ete porte de 40 jusqu'a 200 fois celui des 
coquilles originates, afin de rendre plus sensibles tous leurs caracteres. 

" Par M. Alcide Dessalines D'Orbigny, fils. 

"La Souscription se composera de 4 Livraisons, qui comprendront 
chacune 25 Modeles, et en outre 3 a 4 coquilles pour les 60 premiers 
souscripteurs : l'extreme rarete des originaux ne permet pas maintenant 
d'en promettre davantage. (lis sont ici renfermes dans les boites de verre, 
qu'on ne doit ouvrir qu'avec la plus grande precaution.) 

" Les quatre Livraisons seront expedites dans le cours des 6 premiers 
mois de l'annee 1823 ; le prix de chacune d'elles est 20 francs, et sera 
paye, soit a la Rochelle, chez l'auteur (Jardin des Capucins), soit a Paris, 
chez M. , en affranchissant les lettres et l'argent. 

" On peut voir la premiere Livraison de ces Modeles, a Paris, au Museum 

d'Histoire Naturelle du Jardin du Roi, et chez M. . Les souscripteurs 

recevront, avec la quatrieme Livraison, le tableau methodique de la distri- 
bution de ces Cephalopodes, qui indiquera, par numeros correspondant a 
ceux des Modeles, le nom des individus envoyes et l'ordre de leur classifi- 

"4 me Livraison. 

" Nota. — Les Modeles colories representent les coquilles fossiles ; et les 
blancs, les vivans. Le lieu et la forme des syphons y sont indique's par 
des traces ou par des points noirs." 

Nomenclature of the Foraminifera. 17 

the Fourth Fasciculus the Systematic Table of the Distribution 
of these Cephalopods, indicating, by numbers corresponding to 
those of the Models, the names of the specimens sent, and the 
order of their classification." 

With the Fourth Fasciculus the following note was issued : — 
" The coloured Models represent the fossil shells ; the white 
Models, the recent shells. The place and shape of the siphuncles 
are indicated by the marks or black spots. " 

In his Introduction to M. D'Orbigny's memoir in the same 
volume of the ' Annales des Sciences Naturelles,' p. 99, M. Fe- 
russac says that two of the Fasciculi of Models had been pub- 
lished, and that the other two would soon follow. The Models 
therefore were issued, partly, before November 7th, 1825, when 
the Memoir was presented to the Academy of Sciences ; and 
though we do not know the exact date of the publication of the 
third and fourth sets, we shall here regard them as belonging 
to about the same period (1825-26). 

M. D'Orbigny's researches on Foraminifera appear to have 
arisen from his father's attention having been directed to these 
Microzoa; for the elder D'Orbigny, who was a physician at 
Esnaudes, near Rochelle, wrote to M. Fleurian de Bellevue, in 
1819, on his discovering, on the shores of the Atlantic, micro- 
scopic Cephalopods, among which he had seen " living Lenti- 
culines, Rotalies, Discorbes, Spirolines, &c." (See Annales de 
Physique, vol. xxxviii. p. 187.) The younger D'Orbigny en- 
larged his knowledge of these little shells by the collection of 
numerous samples of sea-sand and of fossiliferous deposits from 
various parts of the world, working perseveringly and methodi- 
cally for several years, reducing already published notices and 
his own observations to a system, which, though artificial 
throughout and otherwise defective, was very useful ; he described 
the general characters and external features with care, illus- 
trating his descriptions by the Models now under consideration 
and the elaborate plates of his noble quarto and folio volumes 
on the Foraminifera, and leaving in the end an extensive collec- 
tion of material. His several works and their numerous illus- 
trations, chiefly relating to the larger specimens which had come 
under his notice, are necessarily the groundwork for writers on 
Foraminifera up to the present time. 

We will now proceed to the examination of the Models 
seriatim, in the order in which they were originally numbered 
by D'Orbigny. A series of carefully prepared outlines appended 
to this paper (Plates I., II., & III.) will assist in forming a cor- 
rect appreciation of our remarks. In these plates the forms 
represented by the Models are grouped, as far as may be, ac- 
cording to their respective families: — the Miliolida {Vertebra- 
Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser.3. Vol.xvi. 2 

18 Messrs. Parker, Jones, and T ady on the 

Una, PI. I. figs. 1, 2; Miliola, figs. 3-15; Fabularia, fig. 16; 
Pcneroplis, figs. 17-20; Orbiculina, figs. 21, 22; Alveolina, 
fig. 23); Lituolida (Valvulina, figs. 24-26); Lagenida {No- 
dosarina, figs. 27-46; Polymorphina, PI. II. figs. 47-53; Uvi- 
gerina, fig. 54); Globigerinida (Globigerina, figs. 55, 56; 
Pullenia, fig. 57 ; Spharoidina, fig. 58 ; Textularia, figs. 59- 
63; Bulimina, figs. 64-66; Cassidulina, fig. 67; Discorbina, 
figs. 68-71 ; Planorbulina, figs. 73-77, and PI. III. figs. 78, 79 ; 
Puhinulina, PI. III. figs. 80-82 ; Ztota&a, figs. 83-86 ; C«/ca- 
rm#, figs. 87-90); Nummulinida {Amphistegina, figs. 91, 92; 
Operculina, figs. 93, 94 ; Nummulina, fig. 95 ; Polystomella, 
fig. 96; Nonionina, figs. 97-99; Heterostegina, fig. 100). 

LlVRAISON l rc . 

Model no. 1. Nodosaria Radicula*, Linn. sp. Annales des 
Sciences-]-, vol. vii. 1826, p. 252, no. 3. 

Hab. Adriatic. PI. I. fig. 27. 

The common straight Nodosarian form, with few globose 
chambers, smooth and free from any surface-markings. 

Model no. 2. Nodosaria (Orthocerina) Clavulus*, Lamk. sp. 
Page 255. no. 48. 

Hab. Fossil near Paris. PI. I. fig. 25. 

A Clavuline variety of Valvulina triangularis. The term 
Orthocerina was applied by D'Orbigny in 1839 (Foram. Cuba, 
p. 18 of 8vo edition, p. 47 of 4to ed.) to a Foraminifer really 
related to Nodosaria, namely, 0. quadrilatera (For. Cuba, pi. 1. 
figs. 11, 12). An Orthocerina which was described and figured 
by Reuss as Triplasia (and afterwards Rhabdogonium) Murchisoni 
is perhaps the best type of this somewhat peculiar genus. Al- 
though Orthocerina is evidently one of the Lagenida, allied to 
both Nodosaria and Uvigerina, it must be allowed to stand 
apart. (See Carpenter's Introd. Foram. p. 166.) 

Prof. Heuss, in describing the three-sided Orthocerina above 
alluded to, from fossil specimens found in the Cretaceous rocks 
of the Eastern Alps, made use of the generic term Triplasia for 
it (Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vii. 1854), and subsequently 
substituted Rhabdogonium as a denomination for these three- or 
four-sided Orthocerina {ibid. 1860). D'Orbigny's subgeneric 
term is misapplied to the Model under consideration, yet it was 
evidently used in 1839 on the plan that he originally intended; 

* The species and varieties marked by an asterisk have been already 
noticed by ns in former papers. 

t The references throughout arc to D'Orbigny's paper in the 'Annales 
des Sciences Naturelles,' ser. 1. vol. vii. 1826. 

Nomenclature of the Foraminifera. 19 

and in the Cuban figures we have examples of the type of the 
genus, though in a somewhat exceptional condition. 

Model no. 3. Frondicularia rhomboidalis, D'Orb. Page 256, no. 1. 

Hab. Adriatic. PI. I. fig. 31. 

A variety of Frondicularia complanata, Defr. The lozenge- 
shaped form of Frondicularia in which the lateral wings of the 
later chambers reach back only about half the length of the 

Model no. 4. Vaginulina tricarinata, D'Orb. Page 258, no. 4. 

Hab. Adriatic. PL I. fig. 34. 

A three-sided Nodosaria, with somewhat oblique chambers, 
and having a keel along each of the three edges. A similarly 
modified form is found fossil at Baden, near Vienna, and is de- 
scribed and figured by Dr. Karrer as Rhabdogonium pyramidale, 
Kar., in his valuable paper on the distribution of the fossil 
Foraminifera of the Vienna Basin (Sitzungsber. Math.-nat. 
Class. K. Akad. Wiss. vol. xliv. 1861, p. 20, pi. 1. fig. 5. 

We have met with V. tricarinata recent in Mediterranean 
sands, in which, however, it is very rare. It also occurs in a 
fossil condition, sparingly, in Tertiary clay from near Malaga, 
and in the Subapennine Tertiary shell-sands. 

Model no. 5. Nodosaria (Dentalina) obliqua, D'Orb. 
Page 254, no. 36. 

Hob. Adriatic. PL I. fig. 32. 

A Dentaline Nodosaria, with broad and oblique chambers, the 
aperture being terminal, somewhat towards the convex side of 
the slightly curved shell. 

This is a common form, both recent and fossil, and is scarcely 
separable from D. communis, D'Orb. 

Model no. 6. Marginulina Raphanus*, Linn. sp. Page 258, no. 1, 
pi. 10. figs. 7, 8. 

Hab. Adriatic ; fossil at Castel-Arquato, Italy. PL I. fig. 35. 

The Marginuline condition of Nodosarina Raphanus, and the 
best type of the group. The straight N. Raphanus is the N. 
Rapa of D'Orbigny. 

Model no. 7. Textularia pygmtea*, D'Orb. Page 263, no. 13. 

Hab. Adriatic. PL II. fig. 59. 

Another small variety of Textularia agglulinans, subsequently 
described, no. 15 (p. 263), and named T. aciculata, is identical 
with this, and must be included under the same name. 


20 Messrs. Parker, Jones, and Brady on the 

Model no. 8. Quinqueloculina Lyra, D'Orb. Page 303, no. 45. 

Hah. Adriatic and Mediterranean. PI. I. fig. 11. 
A thin, narrowish Miliola, with subsigmoid, somewhat cari- 
nate chambers. 

Model no. 9. Bulimina elegans, D'Orb. Page 270, no. 10. 

Hob. Adriatic, near Rimini. PI. II. fig. 64. 

Bulimina Preslii, lleuss, figured in the ' Verst. Kreid. Bohm/ 
(1846), pi. 13. fig. 72, and in Haidinger's 'Naturwiss. Abhand/ 
vol. iv. (1850), Kreidemergels von Lemberg, pi. 3. fig. 10, is the 
best type of the genus Bulimina. B. elegans is a delicate va- 
riety, narrower and less robust in growth, as well as more im- 
bricated in the disposition of the chambers. 

Model no. 10. Rotalia Menardii, D'Orb. Page 273, no. 26. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini. PI. III. fig. 81. 

This must be placed in the genus Pulvinulina, being a good 
subspecies of P. repanda. It is found in deep water, and is 
seldom abundant, except in Tropical seas. One or two beautiful 
specimens have occurred to us on our own coast, in sand dredged 
from deep water off the Isle of Man. 

Model no. 11. Nonionina Limba, D'Orb. Page 594, no. 14. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini. PL III. fig. 99. 

A variety of the subtype N. asterizans, F. & M., from which 
it [differs in the greater development of the stellate sutural 
limbation, and in possessing a narrow thick keel, instead of the 
rounded edge of the subtype. The same variety, but with 
stouter and somewhat encrusted shell, occurs fossil in the 
neighbourhood of Bordeaux. 

Model no. 12. Rotalia punctulat a*, D'Orb. Page 273, no. 25. 

Hah. Adriatic, near Rimini. PL III. fig. 82. 

This is a Pulvinulina, and not a Rotalia ; it is perhaps even 
a more fully developed form than the type, P. repanda, F. & M. 
We have found fine handsome specimens in dredgings from the 
coast of Norway. 

Model no. 13. Gyroidina orbicularis, D'Orb. Page 278, no. 1. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini. PL III. fig. 85. 

The thin-shelled, somewhat globular variety of Rotalia Bec- 
carii, inhabiting deepish water, usually much smaller than the 
common shallow-water form. It is a widely distributed variety, 
and has been found on our own coast, in the Irish Sea and off 
the Shetland Islands. 

Nomenclature of the Foraminifera. 21 

Model no. 14. Robulina virgata, D'Orb. Page 290, no. 17. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini. PI. I. fig. 40. 

An umbonate Cristellaria, with few chambers, and destitute 
of any keel. Thick square bands of shell-substance, covering 
the partition-walls of the chamber, radiate in straight lines from 
the central umbo to the margin. 

Model no. 15. Rotalia bisaculeata, D'Orb. Page 273, no. 20. 

Hab. From ballast-sand. PI. III. fig. 89. 

This is rather a subvariety of the Rotaline genus Calcarina, 
of which Model no. 34 may be taken as the type. It does not 
differ very greatly from Deshayes's Calcarina rarispina (Lyell's 
Manual, 5th edit. p. 228, fig. 236), but sufficiently, however, to 
render a separate trivial name convenient. Its peculiarity con- 
sists in possessing a keel, extended into double points at inter- 
vals round the margin. 

Model no. 16. Peneroplis planatus*, F. & M., sp. 
Page 285, no. 1. 

Hab. Mediterranean, New Holland (Rawack). PI. I. fig. 17. 

This is the well-known widely distributed type, for which, as 
we have before stated, Forskal's specific name Peneroplis per- 
tusus takes precedence (Ann. Nat. Hist. March 1865). 

Model no. 17. Globigerina bulloides, D'Orb. (young). 
Page 277, no. 1. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini. PI. II. fig. 56. 

This is the young shell. See note on the adult, Model 76. 

Model no. 18. Adelosina striata, D'Orb. (young). 
Page 304, no. 2. 

Hab. Fossil at Castel-Arquato, Italy. PI. I. fig. 14. 

It has been satisfactorily demonstrated that the delicate Mi- 
liotce, with retort-shaped chambers, grouped by D'Orbigny 
under the generic name Adelosina, are only young specimens of 
other well-known species. The Model now under consideration 
represents the very young condition of Quinqueloculina Brong- 
niartii ; and the Model 97, which is given as the adult of the same 
species, is only Q. Brongniurtii somewhat further developed. 

Model no. 19. Cristellaria [Saracenaria] Italica*, Defr. (young). 
Page 293, no. 26. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini ; and fossil near Sienna. PI. I. 
fig. 42. 

The young condition of the shell. See note on the adult, 
Model no. 85. 

22 Messrs. Parker, Jones, and Brady on the 

Model no. 20. Orbiculina nwnismalis*, Lamk. Page 305, no. 1. 

Hab. The Antilles and the Marianne Isles. PI. I. fig. 21. 

Though he adopts this form as the type of the genus Orbicu- 
lina, D'Orbigny rightly associates the three forms catalogued by 
Lamarck as O. wicinata (adult), O. nwnismalis (middle-aged), 
and 0. angulata (young) as the same species in different stages 
of growth. O. orbiculus, F. & M., termed O. nummata by La- 
marck, should also be included amongst the middle-aged forms. 
Subsequently D'Orbigny took the adult form, with the well- 
known name " adunca," originally conferred on it by Fichtel 
and Moll, as the central type ; and we find this figured in the 
"Cuba" Monograph, pi. 8. figs. 8-16. On the same plate 
(figs. 4-7) we find another adult form of Orbiculina, thin, flat, 
and orbicular, with the name of O. comj)ressa. 

Model no. 21. Dendritina Arbuscula*, D'Orb. Page 285, 
no. 1, pi. 15. figs. 6, 7. 

Hub. Fossil near Bordeaux. PI. I. fig. 20. 

The thick robust variety of Peneroplis pe?'tusus, with a single 
large aperture running into irregular dendritic ramifications. 
Found recent in tropical seas. 

Model no. 22. Articulina nitida*, D'Orb. Page 300, no. 1. 

Hab. Fossil near Paris. PI. I. fig. 2. 

An elongated subcylindrical variety of Vertebralina striata, 
previously figured and described by Batsch as Nautilus conico- 
articulatus. It is an exceedingly variable form, and may be 
found in every gradation, from the narrow subcylindrical con- 
dition represented in the Model to the broad Renulites opercu- 
laria of Lamarck. The specimens taken from the abyssal depths 
of the Mediterranean and the deeper portions of the Red Sea 
are characteristically small. In the Eocene marl of Baljik, in 
Bulgaria, small and still more elongated specimens occur. 

Model no. 23. Polymorphina Thouini, D'Orb. Page 265, no. 8. 
Hab. Fossil near Paris. PI. II. fig. 49. 
A long narrow variety of P. lactea, W. & J. 

Model no. 24. Spirolina cylindracea*, Lamk. Page 286, no. 1. 

Hab. Fossil near Paris. PI. I. fig. 19. 

The crozier-like, deep-water form of Peneroplis pertusus, com- 
mon in the Grignon Tertiaries, and found recent in the deeper 
seas of tropical climates. Notwithstanding the identity with 
Peneroplis, the distinctive name Spirolina is convenient, if not 
necessary, in separating the long subcylindrical varieties from 
the outspread forms found in shallow water. 

Nomenclature of the Foraminifera. 23 

Model no. 25. Valvulina triangularis*, D'Orb. 
Page 270, no. 1. 

Hub. Fossil near Paris PI. I. fig. 24. 

This is the arenaceou- triserial, three-sided shell which may 

be looked upon as the ty e of a very variable group. The two 

Clavuline varieties which e represented by Models nos. 2 and 

66 show the wide rap & jn one side ; and Prof. Williamson's 
llotalina fusca (Valvulina Aus triaca) , Monograph, pi. 5. figs. 114, 

115, exhibits the opposite extreme in contour. 

Livraison 2 me . 

Model no. 26. Lingulina carinata, D'Orb. Page 257, no. 1. 

Hah. Antilles; and fossil near Sienna. PI. I. fig. 28. 

The compressed, sharp-edged, straight subtype of Nodosarina, 
common as a fossil in the Lias and in many Tertiary clays, but 
rare in a recent condition. In D'Orbigny's "Cuba" it is men- 
tioned as occurring in the West-Indian seas and in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Canaries. It is figured in Williamson's Mono- 
graph (pi. 2. figs. 33, 34), and noted as having been found recent 
in three British localities. Dr. Carpenter has it very large from 

Model no. 27. Planularia Cymba*, D'Orb. Page 260, no. 4, 
pi. 10. fig. 9. 

Hab. Adriatic. PL I. fig. 38. 

This has been already noticed by us amongst the forms illus- 
trated by figures in D'Orbigny's Memoir. 

Model no. 28. Textularia gibbosa*, D'Orb. Page 262, no. 6. 

Hab. Mediterranean; and fossil at Castel-Arquato, Italy. 
PI. II. fig. 60. 

This is one of the largest forms of Textularia, with ventricose 
segments, and is found widely distributed. In common with 
the other bold varieties, it is at home and most luxuriant in 
water from 50 to 100 fathoms. 

Model no. 29. Polymorphina Burdigalensis, D'Orb. 
Page 265, no. 2. 

Hab. Fossil near Bordeaux. PI. II. fig. 48. 

A somewhat unsymmetrical Polymorphina, having one side 
flattened, and consequently an excentric aperture. The cham- 
bers are numerous, and are compactly put together, the edges 
overlapping and giving a general even outline to the shell. 

21 Messrs. Parker, Jones, and Brady on the 

Model no. 30. Polymorphina (Pyrulina) Gutta *, D'Orb. 
Page 267, no. 28, pi. 12. figs. 5, 6. 

Hab. Fossil, Castcl-Arquato. PI. II. fig. 51. ' 
Noticed in our previous paper on the species figured by 

Model no. 31. Biloculina aculeata, D'Orb. Page 298, no. 3. 

Hab. Fossil in the rocks of Pauliac (Gironde). PI. I. fig. 5. 

This seems to be an unusual and somewhat monstrous Bi- 
loculina, with a number of somewhat pointed prominences, 
arranged in two rows on opposite sides of the outer chamber. 
It may be regarded as a subvariety of B. ringens, which it closely 
resembles in general contour. 

Model no. 32. Quinqueloculina Ferussacii, D'Orb. 
Page 301, no. 18. 

Hab. Fossil near Paris. PI. I. fig. 12. 

A narrow, elongated, somewhat angular Quinqueloculina, 
having a few stout costse traversing the chambers from end to 
end. Williamson's Miliolina bicornis var. angulata (Monogr. 
pi. 7. fig. 196) may be assigned to this species. 

Model no. 33. Quinqueloculina Saxorwn*, Lamk. 
Page 301, no. 1. 

Hab. Fossil near Paris. PI. I. fig. 13. 

This is a well-known form, not uncommon in a recent con- 
dition on the coral-reefs of tropical seas, and very abundant in 
the Calcaire grossier near Paris. 

Model no. 34. Calcarina Calcar *, D'Orb. Page 276, no. 1. 

Hab. Martinique, Isle of France, Madagascar. PI. III. fig. 87. 

This cannot be separated from Calcarina Spengleri, Linn. 
The list of localities might be much extended, as there are few 
tropical seas in which specimens do not abound. 

Model no. 35. Rotalia rosea, D'Orb. Page 272, no. 7. 

Hab. The Antilles, the Isle of Martinique, Point Carbet. 
PI. III. fig. 79. 

This belongs to Planoi-bulina, not to Rotalia (restricted), and 
is nearly allied to Planorbulina Haidingerii. Its pink colour 
is very characteristic ; and its tolerably limited distribution gives 
it additional claims for distinctive appellation. Coloured figures 
are given in the "Cuba" Monograph, pi. 3. figs. 9, 11. Small 
specimens are not uncommon in West-Indian sponge-sand. 

Nomenclature of the Foraminifcra. 25 

Model no. 36. Gyroidina Soldani, D'Orb. Page 278, no. 5. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini. PI. III. fig. 86. 

As we have before stated, there is no sufficient reason for the 
separation of either this or G. orbicularis from the genus Rotalia. 
It is a small deep-sea variety, somewhat bolder, and having a 
thicker shell than G. orbicularis. 

Model no. 37. Truncatulina tuberculatum, D'Orb. 
Page 279, no. 1. 

Hab. All the shores of European seas. Fossil near Bordeaux, 
Paris, and Castel-Arquato. PI. II. fig. 77. 

This is Truncatulina lobatula, W. & J., sp., which is the com- 
monest variety of Planorbulina farcta, F. & M., sp. 

Model no. 38. Rosalina Parisiensis, D'Orb. Page 271, no. 1. 

Hab. Fossil near Paris. PI. II. fig. 70. 

This is a flat, outspread, thin-edged variety of Discorbina 
trochidiformis, Lamk., sp.; a good subspecies — the type being 
D. Turbo, D'Orb., sp. It is commonly somewhat concave on its 
under surface. Discorbina ochracea [Rotalina ochracea, Will. 
Rec. For. Gt. Brit. pi. 4. fig. 112, and pi. 5. fig. 113) is a feebler 
form, closely allied to the one uuder consideration. 

Model no. 39. Rotalia rosacea, D'Orb. Page 273, no. 15. 

Hab. Fossil, Bordeaux. PI. II. fig. 71. 

This is another useful subspecies of Discorbina Turbo, D'Orb., 
sp. It is identical with D'Orbigny's Asterigerina Planorbis and 
"Williamson's Rotalina Mamilla. 

Model no. 40. A?nphistegina vulgaris, D'Orb. Page 305, no. 8. 

Hab. Fossil on the borders of the Lagoon of Tau, and near 
Bordeaux. PI. III. fig. 91. 
The type of the genus. 

Model no. 41. Cassidulina lavigata, D'Orb. Page 281, no. 1, 
pi. 15. figs. 4, 5. 

Hab. From ballast-sand. PI. II. fig. 67. 
One of the species figured by D'Orbigny in the plates illus- 
trating his memoir, and, as such, noticed in our previous paper. 

Model no. 42. Anomalina elegans, D'Orb. Page 282, no. 4. 

Hab. Fossil near Bordeaux. PI. II. fig. 73. 

The generic term Anomalina should properly be confined to 
the bold and more or less biconcave forms of the Planorbuline 
type. This Model illustrates Discorbina, — a good intermediate 
subspecies, passing insensibly into D. vesicularis. The same 

26 Messrs. Parker, Jones, and Brady on the 

form is figured by D'Orbigny, in the ' For. Foss. Vien.' pi. 10. 
figs. 13-15, under the name of Rotalia complanata. 

Model no. 43. Nonionina spharoides, D'Orb. Page 293, no. 1. 

Hab. From ballast-sand. PI. II. fig. 57. 

This is Pulknia splucroides, and bears no relation to the No- 
nionine subtype. See Carpenter's 'Introduction/ p. 18k It is 
figured in D'Orbigny' s ' For. Foss. Vien.' pi. 5. figs. 8-10 as 
Nonionina bulloides. It is a small deep-water form, found both 
recent and fossil. 

Model no. 44. Cristellaria Cassis*, F. & M. Page 290, no. 3. 
Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini ; and fossil at Sienna. PI. I. fig. 45. 
The young shell. The adult is represented in Model no. 83. 

Model no. 45. Polystomella crispa*, Linn. Page 283, no. 1. 
Hab. The Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Adriatic. 
PI. III. fig. 96. 

Model no. 46. Nonionina Levis, D'Orb. Page 294, no. 11. 

Hab. Fossil near Paris. PI. III. fig. 97. 
This is Nautilus incrassatus, F. & M. (Nonionina incrassata : 
see Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 3. vol. v. p. 101). 

Model no. 47. Cristellaria lavigata, D'Orb. Page 292, no. 19. 

Hab. Fossil near Caen (Jurassic). Plate I. fig. 43. 

A not uncommon form of Cristellaria, in which the early 
chambers are rotulate, and the later chambers strive to take a 
rectilinear arrangement. D'Orbigny refers, on the same page, 
to other Cristellarice from the Limestone of Caen, namely C. 
laniellosa, C. Cadonensis, C. Lituus ; and at p. 259 he refers to 
Planularia elongata, P. depressa, and P. striata from the same 

Model no. 48. Peheroplis planatus, F. & M. Page 285, no. 1. 

Hab. Mediterranean, New Holland. PI. I. fig. 18. 
This is the narrow variety, P. arietinus, Batsch. 

Model no. 49. Planulina Ariminensis* , D'Orb. 
Page 280, no. 1, pi. 5. figs. 1-3 bis. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini. Plate III. fig. 78. 

A flat, thin Planorbulina, with raised chamber-walls. 

Model no. 50. Alveolina Boscii*, Defrance. Page 306, no. 5. 

Hab. Fossil near Paris. PI. I. fig. 23. 

The subtypical fusiform Alveolina, for which Montfort's trivial 
name, A. sabulosa, takes precedence. 

Nomenclature of the Foraminifera. 27 

Livraison 3 me . 

Model no. 51. Nodosaria (Glandulina) Glans*, D'Orb. 
Page 252, no. 2. 

Hab. Adriatic; rare. PL I. fig. 30. 

The finely striated variety of G. lavigata, D'Orb. Batsch 
figures this, together with the primary elongated Nodosarian 
form, as Nautilus comatus. (Sechs Kiipfertaf. pi. 1. figs. 2 a- d.) 

Model no. 52. Nodosaria (Mucronina) Hasta, D'Orb. 
Page 256, no. 49. 

Hab. Adriatic. PI. I. fig. 29. 

A carinate, finely striated Nodosarian, of the straight type. 
Reuss refers to this Model as a Frondicularia — a judgment in 
which we cannot agree. Its straight septa and lateral keels 
indicate rather its Linguline affinity ; besides which, it is more 
elongated in contour than is usual in Frondicularia. It is quite 
out of the question to draw a distinct line between these two 
subgenera ; but in this case there is no room for doubt as to the 
nearest relationship. 

Model no. 53. Rimulina glabra, D'Orb. Page 257, no. 1. 

Hab. Adriatic. PI. I. fig. 37. 

An oblique, robust, somewhat compressed, few-chambered 
shell, with the aperture taking the form of a long slit down the 
edge of the large terminal chamber. Type, Nodosarina Raphanus. 

Model no. 54. Vaginulina elegans, D'Orb. Page 257, no. 1. 

Hab. Adriatic. PI. I. fig. 33. 

A beautiful limbate Vaginulina, with the septal lines thickened 
by exogenous deposit of clear shell-substance. 

Model no. 55. Marginulina glabra, D'Orb. Page 259, no. 6. 

Hab. Fossil near Sienna. PI. I. fig. 36. 

A common form, not coiled enough to be a Cristellaria, and 
not well enough nourished, one may say, to be enriched with 
thickened shell-matter and ribs such as we see in Marginulina 
Raphanus, the well-grown type. 

Model no. 56. Pavonia flabelliformis* , D'Orb. Page 260, no. 1, 
pi. 10. figs. 10,11. 

Hab. Madagascar. PI. I. fig. 22. 

This is possibly a misprint for Pavonina. We have already 
noticed it in speaking of the species illustrated by figures in 
D'Orbigny's Memoir. It may be an Orbiculina. 

28 Messrs. Parker, Jones, and Brady on the 

Model no. 57. Bigencrina Nodosaria*, D'Orb. Page 261, no. 1, 
pi. 11. figs. 9-12. 

Hab. Adriatic. PI. II. fig. 62. 

A subtypical form of Textularia, with a flat wide commence- 
ment, but taking on a cylindrical uniserial mode of growth in 
its later chambers. It is a common form in the Mediterranean 
and many other seas, and has been found as far north as Shet- 

Model no. 58. Bigenerina (Gemmulina) digitata*, D'Orb. 
Page 262, no. 4. 

Hab. The Mediterranean. PI. II. fig. 61. 

Narrower in the growth of the early chambers than B. Nodo- 
saria, having frequently a curved and compressed contour. 
This form and the preceding have usually the subarenaceous 
shell-structure of the larger Textularia. 

Model no. 59. Vulvulina Capreolus*, Defr. Page 264, no. 1, 
pi. 11. figs. 5-8. 

Hab. Adriatic. PI. II. fig. 63. 

D'Orbigny refers this species to Def ranee ; but we are unable 
to find any notice of it in Defrance's works. 

As we have before stated, this is Grammostomum Pennatula } 
Batsch, sp. 

Model no. 60. Dimorphina tuberosa, D'Orb. . 

Page 264, no. 1. 

Hab. Mediterranean. PI. II. fig. 53. 

Some very dissimilar forms have been grouped under the 
name of Dimorphina. As this is the first mention of the generic 
term, we propose to confine its application to the Dimorphine 
varieties of Polymorphina, of one of which Model no. 60 is a 
correct delineation. It is rare. We have specimens of it from 
the Crag of Suffolk. A somewhat similar, but really Nodosa- 
rine, form occurs not unfrequently in the Mediterranean area, 
both fossil and recent ; off Syra (90 fathoms) ; and fossil, from 
Tertiary clays near Malaga. 

Model no. 61. Polymorphina (Gattulina) Problema, D'Orb. 
Page 266, no. 14. 

Hab. Fossil, Castel-Arquato, Italy. PL II. fig. 50. 

A many-chambered Polymorphina, somewhat irregular in the 
disposition of the segments, w r hich are long and distinct, and 
do not overlap each other to the extent that is seen in most 
members of the genus. 

Nomenclature of the Foraminifera. 29 

Model no. 6.2. Polymorphina (Guttulina) communis* , D'Orb. 
Page 266, no. 15, pi. 12. figs. 1-4. 

Hab. Adriatic ; fossil near Bordeaux, Paris, Dax, and Castel- 
Arquato. PI. II. fig. 47. 

One of the forms alluded to in a previous paper as figured by 
D'Orbigny. It is the typical Polymorphina lactea, W. & J., sp. 

Model no. 63. Polymorphina (Globulina) gibbet, D'Orb. 
Page 26, no. 20. 

Hab. Atlantic (on the coast near Rochelle), Adriatic (near 
Rimini) ; fossil, near Paris, at Grignon, near Dax, near Bordeaux, 
at Chavagnes (Maine-et-Loire), and at Castel-Arquato. PI. II. 
fig. 52. 

The simplest and Globuline condition of Polymorphina; the 
chambers are few in number and embrace each other so as to 
leave no inequalities in the surface-contour. 

Model no. 64. Virgulina squamosa, D'Orb. Page 267, no. 1. 

Hab. Fossil near Sienna. Plate II. fia:. 66. 

One of the bisenal forms of Bulimina, simulating Textularia 
in its mode of growth ; much elongated, like the more delicate 
Textularice, but having the lengthened and twisted Bulimine 
aperture. V. seftamosa is subordinate to V. Schreibersii. 

Model no. 65. Sphceroidina bulloieles, D'Orb. Page 267, no. 1. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini, Isle of France; fossil near Sienna. 
PI. II. fig. 58. 

A good subtype, nearly related to Globigerina, but, in its clear 
and white shell, indistinct perforations, and general arrangement 
of chambers, bearing great similarity (or isomorphism) to the 
MiliolcE. Its home is in very deep water, and it occurs most 
plentifully in the seas of warm regions. 

Model no. 66. Clavulina Petrisiensis *, D'Orb. Page 268, no. 3. 

Hab. Fossil near Paris. PI. I. fig. 26. 

Type, Valvulina trianguleiris. This form is directly interme- 
diate between the type (Model no. 25) and the narrow, pointed 
condition shown in Model no. 2 (V. Cletvulus). See Carpen- 
ter's 'Introd.' pi. 11. figs. 17, 18, and D'Orbigny's "Cuba" 
(Valvulina tricarinatet), pi. 2. figs. 16-18. The Model appears 
to have been taken from a specimen which has accidentally lost 
its valve. 

Model no. 67. Uvigerina ' pygmaa*, D'Orb. Page 269, no. 2, 
pi. 12. figs. 8, 9. 

Hab. Fossil near Sienna. PI. II. fig. 54. 
A typical form. 

30 Messrs. Parker, Jones, and Brady on the 

Model no. 68. Bulimina caudigera, D'Orb. Page 270, no. 16. 
Hah. Adriatic, near llimini. PI. II. fig. 65. 
An acute-ovate Bulimina, with closely investing elongate seg- 
ments, the later ones reaching back to the apex formed by the first. 

Model no. 69. Rosalina globularis*, D'Orb. Page 271, no. 1, 
pi. 13. figs. 1-4. 

Hah. Shores of the Atlantic, growing attached to sea-weeds 
and corals. PL II. fig. 69. 

This is Discorbina globularis, a good subspecies. Egger (For. 
Miocan-Sch. pi. 4. figs. 1-3) describes and figures it under the 
name of Rotalina semiporata. A somewhat similar variety is 
given by D'Orbigny (Fos. For. Vien. pi. 11. figs. 4-6) as Rosalina 
ohtusa, fine specimens of which, with lineato-granulated surface, 
are common off Greenland. D. globularis is common everywhere, 
from the shore down to 50 fathoms. 

Model no. 70. Rotalia armata, D'Orb. Page 273, no. 22. 

Hob. Cayenne, Martinique; fossil at Chavagnes (Maine-et- 
Loire), near Nantes, and near Bordeaux. PI. III. fig. 88. 
The short-spined variety of Calcarina Spengleri. 

Model no. 71. Rotalia pulchella, D'Orb. Page 274, no. 32. 

(No locality given.) PI. III. fig. 80. 

This belongs to the genus Pulvinulina, of which it is a 
somewhat flat-faced variety. It is the Cidarollus plicatus of 
Montfort. The same variety is given in D'Orbigny's " Cuba " 
(pi. 5. figs. 1, 2, 3) as Rotalina Caribaa. 

Model no. 72. Rotalia (Discorbis) Gervillii*, D'Orb. 
Page 274, no. 36. 

Hah. Fossil at Valognes. PI. II. fig. 72. 
This is the Discorbites (Discorbis) vesicularis of Lamarck — a 
good varietal form of Discorbina Turbo, D'Orb., sp. 

Model no. 73. Rotalia (Trochulina) Turbo*, D'Orb. 
Page 274, no. 39. 

Hah. Fossil near Paris. PI. II. fig. 68. 

This is Discorbina Turbo ; a type-form, having its fullest 
development in D. trochidiforniis, Lamarck, sp. 

Model no. 74. Rotalia (Turbinulina) Beccarii*, Linn. 
Page 275, no. 42. 

Hah. The European shores of the Atlantic; Island of Mar- 
tinique. PL III. fig. 83. 

Specimens of this somewhat variable species have received 

Nomenclature of the Foraminifera. 31 

several different names in the course of the 'Tableau des Cepha- 
lopodes.' Thus the Model now under consideration (74) is the 
ordinary European form ; Rotalina Corallinarum (Model no. 75) 
is the more fully developed West-Indian variety, which is a still 
better type; and R. tortuosaf (page 275, no. 40) is the form 
common in the Adriatic. Rosalind Parkinsoniana (For. Cuba, 
p. 99, pi. 4. figs. 25-27) is another name given to an Atlantic 

Model no. 75. Rotalia {Turbinulina) Corallinarum, D'Orb. 
Page 275, no. 48. 

Hob. The Atlantic, at Noirmoutier. PI. III. fig. 84. 
Rotalia Beccarii, best type. 

Livraison 4 me . 

Model no. 76. Globigerina bulloides, D'Orb. (adult). 
Page 277, no. 1. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini. PI. II. fig. 55. 
The common, wide-spread, and essentially deep-sea Globi- 

Model no. 77. Truncatulina refulgens*, Montfort, sp. 
Page 279, no. 5, pi. 13. figs. 8-11. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini; Mediterranean, off Corsica; South 
Sea at Rawack, Isle of Madagascar, Cape of Good Hope. PI. II. 
fig. 76. 

This belongs to the type, Planorbulina farcta, F. & M., sp. 

Model no. 78. Planorbulina nitida*, D'Orb. Page 280, no. 1. 

Hab. Atlantic, coast of Bellisle. PI. II. fig. 75. 

A convenient subspecies, intermediate between P. Mediterra- 
nensis, D'Orb., and P. (Truncatulina) lobatula, W. & J., sp. 
Type, Planorbulina farcta, F. & M., sp. 

Model no. 79. Planorbulina Mediterranensis*, D'Orb. 
Page 280, no. 2, pi. 14. figs. 4-6 bis. 

Hab. Mediterranean, attached to various bodies. PI. II. 
fig. 74. 

D'Orbigny subsequently altered the name of this form (For. 
Cuba, p. 85, pi. 6. f. 11—13) to Planorbulina vulgaris, because 
he found that the species was not peculiar to the Mediterranean. 
Such a change seems contrary to rule ; so we adhere to the 
original trivial name. 

t Termed Rosalina Beccarii by D'Orbigny in bis ' For. Cuba,' p. 100. 

3,2 Messrs. Parker, Jones, and Brady on the 

Model no. 80. Operculum complanata *, Defrance. 
Page 281, no. 1, pi. 14. figs. 7-10. 

Hab. Fossil, Bordeaux. PI. III. fig. 93. 
Subtype of Nummulina. 

Model no. 81. Vertebralina striata*, D'Orb. Page 283, no. 1. 

Hab. Mediterranean ; lied Sea ; South Sea, near Rawack. 
PI. I. fig. 1. 

The robust, compressed, typical form. See also note on 
Model no. 22. 

Model no. 82. Robulina cultrata*, Montfort. Page 287, no. 1. 

Hab. Adriatic ; and fossil near Vienna. PI. I. fig. 39. 

There seems no necessity for Robulina as a generic term ; and 
it would be impossible to carry out even the conventional dis- 
tinction, depending upon the degree of curvature and minute 
differences in the position of the terminal orifice, laid down by 
D'Orbigny in separating it from Cristellaria. Cristellaria cul- 
trata is a good subspecific name for those carinate varieties of the 
subtype, Cristellaria Calcar, Linn., which are without spinous 

Model no. 83. Cristellaria Cassis*, F. & M. Page 290, no. 3. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini ; fossil near Sienna. PI. I. fig. 44. 
The adult shell. The young form is given in Model no. 44. 

Model no. 84. Cristellaria costata, D'Orb. Page 292, no. 10. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini. PI. I. fig. 46. 
A thin, elongated, carinate Cristellaria, with parallel costas 
over the body of the shell. 

Model no. 85. Cristellaria (Saraceiiaria) Italica*, Defr. 
Page 293, no. 26. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini ; and fossil near Sienna. PI. I. 
fig. 41. 

A trihedral keelless variety of Cristellaria Calcar. Model 
no. 19 shows the young condition of the same variety. 

Model no. 86. Nonionina umbilicata*, D'Orb. Page 293, no. 5, 
pi. 15. figs. 10-12. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini ; Mediterranean ; and fossil near 
Bordeaux and Sienna. PI. III. fig. 98. 

A variety of Nonionina asterizans, F. & M., sp., scarcely dis- 
tinguishable from N. pompilioides of the same authors. 

Nomenclature of the Foraminifera. 33 

Model no. 87. Nummulina planulata, Lamk.* (young). 
Page 296, no. 4. 

(No locality). PI. III. fig. 95. 

The Model has been constructed from a somewhat convex 
individual, and the aperture is wrongly placed. 

Model no. 88. Nummulina (Assilina) disco'idalis, D'Orb. 
Page 296, no. 1. 

Hah. South Sea, at Rawack. PL III. fig. 94. 

This is an Operculina, one of the thick subvarieties of 0. com- 
planata, Def. The term Assilina has been applied to those flat 
Nummulince which, having no alar flaps to their segments, do 
not cover up their umbones, but leave the whorls apparent, with 
or without an increased growth of the edges of the septa. 

Model no. 89. Siderolina Icevigata, D'Orb. Page 297, no. 2. 

Hub. Fossil, St. Pierre at Maestricht. PI. III. fig. 90. 
A variety of Caicarina Spengleri, Gmel., sp. ; a smooth, 
quadrangular (or rather bluntly 4-spined), biconvex form, having 
all traces of the chambers concealed by the excessive deposit of 

Model no. 90. BilocuUna bulloides*, D'Orb. Page 297, no. 1, 
pi. 16. figs. 1-4. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini; fossil near Paris and near 
Bordeaux. PI. I. fig. 3. 

This varies but little in its outline from BilocuUna ringens, 
Lamk., sp., and B. heris, Defr., sp. 

Model no. 91. BilocuUna depressa, D'Orb. Page 298, no. 7. 

Hab. Adriatic, near Rimini; fossil at Castel-Arquato. PI. I. 
fig. 4. 

The flattened carinate subvariety of B. ringens. 

Model no. 92. Spiroloculina depressa*, D'Orb. Page 298, no. 1. 

Hab. Mediterranean ; and fossil at Castel-Arquato. PI. I. 
fig. 6. 

In the c Annales des Sciences Naturelles' this Model is referred 
to as Spiroloculina perforata — evidently one of the very numerous 
misprints which occur in D'Orbigny's Memoir. We take the 
name given with the Model as the one probably intended. The 
form represented is Spiroloculina planulata, Lamk., sp. 

Model no. 93. Triloculina trigonula*, Lamk. Page 293, no. 1. 

Hab. Fossil near Paris, Soissons, and Valognes. PI. I. fig. 7. 
A'good subtype. 
Ann. $ Mag. N Hist. Ser. 3. Vol.xvi. 3 

34 Messrs. Parker, Jones, and Brady on the 

Model no. 94. Triloculina tricarinata, D'Orb. Page 299, no. 7. 

Hab. Red Sea. PL I. fig. 8. 

This form is closely allied to T. trigonula, of which it may 
be considered a variety. The outer margins of the chambers, 
instead of being rounded, as in T. trigonula, are produced, and 
form a sharp keel-like armature to the three angles of the shell. 

Model no. 95. Triloculina oblonga*, Montagu. Page 300, no. 16. 

Hob. Adriatic ; Mediterranean ; Atlantic, on the French and 
English coasts ; the Antilles ; fossil near Bordeaux, Soissons, 
Dax, and Castel-Arquato. PI. I. fig. 9. 

The elongated, compressed form of the same subtype, passing 
in many instances into weak forms of Quinqueloculina Seminu- 
lum, Linn., sp. 

Model no. 96. Quinqueloculina secans, D'Orb. Page 303, no. 43. 

Hab. Adriatic and Mediterranean. PI. I. fig. 10. 

This is the large outspread form of Quinqueloculina Seminu- 
lum, Linn., sp., common in all our littoral sands, and having 
sharp edges and obscure irregular transverse markings, never 
amounting to costse. 

Model no. 97. Adelosina striata, D'Orb. Page 304, no. 2. 

Hab. Fossil at Castel-Arquato. PI. I. fig. 15. 

The immature form of Quinqueloculina Brongniartii, D'Orb. 
See note to Model no. 18, which represents the still younger 
condition of the shell. 

Model no. 98. Amphistegina Lessoni *, D'Orb. Page 304, no. 3, 
pi. 17. figs. 1-4. 

Hab. Isle of France. PI. III. fig. 92. 

A thick variety of Amphistegina vulgaris, D'Orb. See Model 
no. 40. 

Model no. 99. Heterostegina depressa, D'Orb. f Page 305, no. 2, 
pi. 17. figs. 5-7. 

Hab. Island of St. Helena. PI. III. fig. 100. 

A high-class Foraminifer of the Nummuline group, but having 
its proper chambers subdivided by secondary septula into nu- 
merous chamberlets. See Carpenter's ' Introd. Foram.' p. 288, 
pi. 19. fig. 1. Heterostegina is plentiful in some parts of the 
tropical and subtropical seas, and occurs fossil in the Middle 
Tertiary Limestones of Malta, Vienna, and the West Indies, 
and in Arabia. 

t Inadvertently omitted to be noticed in our former paper on D'Orbigny's 
species, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 3. vol. xii. p. 439. . 

Nomenclature of the Foraminifera. 


Model no. 100. Fabularia Discolithes*, Defr. Page 307, no. 1 
pi. 17. figs. 14-17. 
Hab. Fossil near Paris ; a much depressed variety at Valognes. 
PI. I. fig. 16. 

Probably, as we have before stated, this specific name is a 
misprint for Discolithus. The name applied by Roissy, however, 
(F. ovata) takes precedence. 

Catalogue of D'Orbigny's Models. 1826. 


Corrected name. 



D'Orbigny's name. 



















































striata, D' 0. 

Miliola Seini- 
nulurn, Linn. 






Valvulina tri- 


Vertebralina striata, D'O... 

conico-articulata, Batsch. 

Biloculina ringens, Lam 

depressa, If 

aculeata, B 

Spiroloculiua planulata, Lam.. 
[Triloculina trigonula, Lam. ... 

tricarinata, D' O 

oblonga, Montagu 

Quinqueloculina secans, B O. . 

Lyra, BO 

Ferussacii, BO 

Saxorum, Lam 

Brongniartii, If O. (very 


Brongniartii, If O.(young) 

Fabularia ovata, Roissy 

Peneroplis pertusus, Forsk. . 

arietinus, Batsch 

Spirolina Lituus, Gmelirt 

Dendritina Arbuscula, B O. . 
Orbiculina adunca, F. §~ M. . . . 
Pavonia flabelliformis, _D' O. 
Alveolina sabulosa, Montf. 

Valvulina triangularis, D' O 

Clavulus, Lam 

Parisiensis, D' O 

Nodosaria Radicula, Linn. ... 

Lingulina carinata, D' O 

Hasta, D'O 

Glandulina Glans, i>' O 

Frondicularia rhomboidalis, 

Dentalina obliqua, D'O 

^ r aginulina elegans, D'O 

tricarinata, D'O 

Marginulina Rapbanus, Linn. , 

glabra, B" O 

Pvimulina glabra, BO 

Planularia Cymba, BO 

Cristellaria cultrata, Montf. ... 
virgata, BO 

— Italica, Defr 

r (young) 

— lasvigata, BO 

— Cassis, F. £• M. 


— costata, BO 












Vertebralina striata . . . 

Articulina nitida 

Biloculina bulloides ... 



Spiroloculiua depressa . 
Triloculina trigonula... 

— tricarinata 

— oblonga 

Quinqueloculina secans 




Adelosina striata 


striata (adult) . . . 

Fabularia Discolithes... 

Peneroplis planatus . . . 

, var 

Spirolina cylindracea... 

Dendritina Arbuscula .. 

Orbiculina numismalis. 

Pavonia flabelliformis... 

Alveolina Boscii 

Valvulina triangularis . 

Nodosaria Clavulus 

Clavulina Parisiensis... 

Nodosaria. Pa dicula 

Lingulina carinata . . 

Nodosaria Hasta 


Frondicularia rhomboi- 

Nodosaria obliqua 

Vaghiulina elegaus 

— tricarinata 

Marginulina Rapbanus 


Rimulina glabra 

Planularia Cymba 

Robulina cultrata 

— virgata 

Cristellaria Italica 

(young) ... 


— Cassis (adult) ... 


— costata 


Messrs. Parker, Jones, and Brady on the 


Corrected name. 


D'Orbigny's name. 

lactea, W. 4' J- 


(Type) { 



Textularia ag- 

Preslii, Bss. 


trochidifor- - 
mis, Lamk. 

farcta, F. $ - 

repancla, F. 

RotaHa Bec- 
carii, Linn. 


Spengleri, -j 

Ampbistegina f 
vulgaris,^ O. \ 

Nummulina f 
perforata, < 
Montfori. [ 

Polystomella J 
crispa. Linn. 1 


Polymorpliina lactea, W. § J- • 

Burdigalensis, BO 

Tbouini, BO 

Problema, BO 

Gutta, BO 

gibba, BO 

Dimorpbina tuberosa, BO. ... 

Uvigerina pygma?a, BO 

Globigerina bulloides, BO. ... 


Pullenia sphaeroides, BO. ... 
Sphsero'idina bulloides. BO.... 

Textularia pygmsea, BO 

gibbosa, BO 

Bigenerina digitata, BO 

Nodosaria, BO 

Grammostoruum Pennatula, 
Bulimina elegans, B 0. [Bat. 

— caudigera, BO 

Virgulina squamosa, BO 

Cassidulina laevigata, BO. ... 
Discorbina Turbo, BO 

— globularis, BO 

— Parisiensis, B 

— rosacea, BO 

— vesicnlaris, Lam 

— elegans, BO 

Planorbulina Mediterranensis, 


— nitida, BO 

Truncatulina refulgens, Montf. 

-lobatula, W.f J. 

Planorbulina Ariminensis, B 0. 

— rosea, BO 

Pulvinulina pulcbella, BO 

— Menardii, BO 

punctulata, BO 

Rotalia Beccarii, Linn. (Euro- 

[pcan form). 

— Beccarii, Linn. (West-In- 
[dian form) 

orbicularis, BO 

Soldanii, B 

Calcarina Spengleri, Linn. ... 

armata, BO 

bisaculeata, BO 

— laevigata, BO 

Ampbistegina vulgaris, BO... 

— Lcssoni, B 

Operculum complanata,i)e/! .. 

discoidalis, BO 

Nummulina planulata, Lam... 
Polystomella crispa, Linn. ... 
Nonionina incrassata, F. A' M. 
pompilioidcs, F. §• M. ... 

— Limba, BO 

Heterostegina depressa, BO. 










Polymorpbina commu 


Burdigalensis .. 





Dimorphina tuberosa. . 

Uvigerina pygmasa 

Globigerina bulloides.. 

—— — (young) 

SpliaToidimi bulloides 
Textularia pygmaea .. 


Bigenerina digitata 

■ Nodosaria 

Vulvulina Capreolus .. 

Bulimina elegans 


Virgulina squamosa .. 
Cassidulina lrevigata .. 

Rotalia Turbo , 


Rosalina Parisiensis .., 

■ rosacea 

Rotalia Gervillii 

Anomalina elegans 

Planorbulina Mediter- 


— nitida 

Truncatulina refulgens 

— tuberculata 

Planulina Ariminensis 

Rotalia rosea 



— punctulata 

— Beccarii 


Gyroidina orbicularis. . 

— Soldanii 

Calcarina Calcar 

Rotalia armata 

— bisaculeata 

Siderohna laevigata . . . 
Ampbistegina vulgaris , 


Operculina complanata, 


Nummulina planulata . 
Polystomella crispa ... 

Nonionina Lay* is 



Heterostegina depressa . 

Nomenclature of the Forarainifera. 37 


Reuss and Fritsch's Models of Foraminifera. 1861. 

Whilst speaking of Models of Foraminifera, it may not be 
amiss to notice a more recent series than that of D'Orbigny — 
namely, a set of one hundred plaster Models prepared at Prague, 
under the direction of Professor Reuss and Dr. Anton Fritsch*. 
These Models are 5 ccntim. in length, and are furnished with 
printed labels. The species have been selected with a view of 
supplying a perfect series, and at the same time completing 
D'Orbigny's suite of Models. Although the aim of the authors 
of this set of Models is to give delineations of a more extended 
series of types than were known to D'Orbigny, and though the 
workmanship expended upon them has the advantage in point 
of skill, it may be doubted whether the species chosen for illus- 
tration are altogether so apt, or the general result so instructive, 
as in the earlier series. Of the forms thus illustrated, some 
have been selected from species already known, and many have 
been described and figured in one or other of Professor Reuss' s 
numerous papers on Fossil Foraminifera. The needless multi- 
plication of genera appears in a striking light in reviewing the 
nomenclature of this catalogue. We propose, however, merely 
to give the list of these Models as arranged in the " Catalogue/' 
with the Number and Locality appended to each ; also a few 
remarks, when specially called for, and the type to which the 
form belongs. We leave the order and the classification as we 
find them, thinking that it may be of interest to some to com- 
pare the results with the somewhat similar, but less artificial, 
system which we are in the habit of using, based upon the 
principles laid down in Dr. Carpenter's "Introduction." 

We have to thank Mr. S. V. Wood, F.G.S., for lending us 
his set of D'Orbigny's Models during several years, whilst we 
have been engaged on this Memoir. 

* u . Verzeichniss von 100 Gypsmodellen von Foraniinifeivn, welche 
unter der Leitung des Prof. A. Keuss imd Dr. Anton Fritscli gearbeitet 
wurden. Ausgegeben you W. Fric, Naturalienhandler in Frag, Wasser- 
gasse Nro. 736-11. 

" Die Auswahl der Species ist so getroffen, dass die gegemviirtige Samm- 
lung ein vollstandiges Ganze bildet, und dabei die D'Orbigni'sche Suite 
kompletirt. Die Exeniplare sind 5 Centimetre gross und mit gedruckten 
Etiquetten versehen. 

" Der Preis (sanimt Emballage) 30 fi. 6. W. oder 24 Th. P. C." 

MM. Keuss and Fritscli have liberally given us a set] of these useful 


Messrs. Parker, Jones, and Brady on the 

Catalogue of the Models of Foraminifera prepared by Professor 
Dr. A. E. Reuss and Dr. Anton Fritsch. 1861. 

[Prof. Reuss's Classification is here followed.] 



A. With Sandy Siliceous Shells. 

I. Lituolidea (Reuss). 

No. Name. Type. 


1. Placopsilina irregularis, -D' 0. ... N 
{Lituola Cenomana, D'O.) 

(L. Scorpiurus, Montf.) 1 

3. Haplophragmium inflatum j 

(L. nautiloidea, Lam.) 

(L. irregularis, Roem.) , 

Lituola nautiloidea, Lam. ... ■ 

Upper Chalk. 
Upper Greensand. 
Upper Greensand. 

II. Uvellidea (Reuss). 

f>. Valvulina triangularis, D' 

7. Tritaxia tricarinata, D'O., sp. ... i- 

( Verneuilina tricarinata; old) J 

8, 9. Ataxophragmium variabile, D' 0. 

I Valvulina triangularis, D'O... 
Textularia agglutinans, D' 0. \ 

Bulimina Preslii, Rss 

Textularia agglutinans, D' 0. -1 

? Lituola nautiloidea, Lam. . . 
?Chrysalidina gradata, DO... 






Upper and Middle 

Recent. [Chalk. 



10. Clavulina communis, D'O ~| 

1 1 . Gaudryina pupoides, D ' > 

B. With Compact, Porcellanocs, Calcareous Shells. 

I. Sguamulinidea (Reuss). 

II. Miliolidea (Reuss). 

15. Comuspira involvens, Rss 

Miliola Seminalum, Linn. ...• 
Fnbnlnrin ovatn. 7?o?ss7/ 






(? Young of a striped Quin- 
17. Biloculina Lunula, D'O 

{B. dcprcssa, D'O.) 

18. Spiroloculina dilatata, D' [ 

(Sp. planulata, Lam.) 

19. Triloculina gibba, D'O 

( T. trigonula, Lam.) 

20. Quinqueloculina, sp., D'O. j 

2 1 . Fabularia discolithes, Dcfr 

Nomenclature of the Foraminifera. 






III. Peneroplidea (Reuss). 

22. Peneroplis pulchellus, If \ I 

23. planatus, Montf. I L, t , ^ 7 

24. Dendritinaarbuscula, iTO HPeneroplis pertusus, Forsk. . 

25. Spirolina Austriaca, D'O J 

26. Vertebralina mueronata, B'O Vertebralina striata, D' 

27. Hauerina compressa, B'O Miliola Seminuluni, Linn 

28. Pavonina flabelloides, B' i? Orbiculina adunca, F.§~M.. 

IV. Orbitolitidea (Reuss). 

29. Cyclolina cretacea, B'O [Patelliua concava, Lam 

30. Orbitolites niacropora, Lam j Orbitolites complanata, Lam. 



I Recent. 

Middle Tertiary. 



I Recent. 

Mastricht Chalk. 













A. With Hyaline, finely Porous Calcareous Shells. 

I. Spirillidea (Reuss). 

Spirillina punctata, _D" |? |Tertiary and recent, 

II. Ovulitidea (Reuss). 

Ovulites margaritacea, Lam.. ^ |Omlites margaritacea, Lam |Eocene. 

III. Rhabdoidea (Reuss). 

Lagena simplex, Ess "\ j ( 

— Tulgans, Will 

(L. hevis, Montagu.) 
Fissurina carinata, Rss 

(Z. marginata, Montagu.) 

Nodosaria tetragona, Rss , 

inflata, Rss 

(A short N. Raphantstnem.) 
lepida, Rss 

(A long N. Radicula.) 

Orthocerina quadrilatera, D' 

Dentalina acuminata, Rss 

Lorneiana, If 

Vaginulina Badensis, If 

tran.sversalis, Rss 

cristellaroides, Rss 

Rimulina glabra, D'O 

Froudicularia Lanceola, Rss. ... 
Goldfussii, Rss 

(Fr. complanata, Defr.) 

turgida, Rss 

Rhabdogonium acutangidum,i?AS. 

Martensi, Rss 

Amphimorphina Ifaneri, Xei<</el. 
Dentalinopsis semitriquetra, Rss. 

(A triangular Dentalina.) 
Flabellina oblonga, V. Miinst, ... 
cordata, Rss .- 

(Fl. oblonga, V. M.) 
Psecadium ellipticum, Rss 

(A globose or Glanduline 

Lingulina costata, If O 

Lingulinopsis Bohemica, Rss. ... 

(A Linguline Marginulina.) 
Pleurostomella fusiformis, Rss. (An 
extreme form of Virgulina.) 

Lagena sulcata, W. § J. 

Nodosarina Raphanus, Linn. \ 

Orthocerina Murcldsoni, Rss. 

Nodosarina Raphanus, Linn, i 

Orthocerina Murchisoni, Rss... 

y Nodosarina Raphanus, Linn. - 

Bidimina Preslii, Rss. 

Upper Chalk. 


Upper Chalk. 

Upper Greensand. 


Upper Chalk. 

Upper Chalk. 

Upper Tertiaries. 


Lower Greensand. 


Upper Greensand. 

Upper Greensand. 


Lower Greensand. 


Lower Greensand. 

Upper Chalk. 





On the Nomenclature of the Foraminifera. 



59. Marginulina Ensis, IX 0. ... 

60. bullata, liocm 

61. Cristcllaria Josephina, D'O. 

62. rotulata, Lam 

63. Robulina deformis, Ess. ... 

(First stage of C. rotulata.) ) 

IV. Cristellaridea (Reuss). 

► jNodosarina Raphanus, Linn. ■> 

V. Polymorphinidea (Rcuss). 

Bulimina Prcslii, Ess. .. 
TJvigerina pygmsea, D' 0. 

64. Bulimina pupoides, D'O. (/?.) .. 

65. Virgulina pertusa, Ess 

(V. squamosa, D'O.) 

66. TJvigerina pygmsea, D'O 

67. Polymorphina complanata, D' 

S" ST?v a Gutla \- D ' °£ n I [Polymorphic lacfea, W. §J. 

60. Globuhna aequahs, D O : J l 

70. Ghittulina Austriaca, D'O J | 

71. Sphseroidina Austriaca, D' Sphseroidina bulloides, D'O., 

(Sph. bulloides, D'O.) 

72. Dimorphina obliqua, D'O Nodosarina Raphanus, Linn. 

(A Dentaline Marginulina.') \ 

VI. Cryptostegia (Reuss). 

73. ChUostomella ovoidea, Ess "| I 

(A Biloculine Miliola?) L ,,-.,. , c , . , T . 

74. Allomorphina cretacea, Ess j ? Mlbola Semmulum, Linn. 

(AQuinqueloculine Miliola ?) J I 

VII. Textilaridea (lleuss). 

75. Textilaria Conulus, Ess 

(T. agglutinans, D'O.) 

76. Proroporus complanatus, Ess. ... )■ 

(Thefirststageof Bigenerina.) j 

77. Sagraina pulchella, D'O J 

78. Vulvulina Gramen, D'O 

79. Bolivina Beyrichi, Ess 

80. Scbizophora Neugeboreni, Ess 

(Bigenerine Vulvulina Pennatula.) 

Upper Chalk. 
Upper Chalk. 
Middle Tertiary. 

Tertiary and recent 




Upper Tertiary. 




Textularia agglutinans, D' O. 

Bulimina Preslii, Ess. ... 
Textularia agglutinans, D'O... 

VIII. Cassidulinidea (Rcuss). 

81. Cassidulina crassa, D' O } \ n .j .. , . . r,, r , f 

QO t-., , • , 7? MCassidulina IsBYieata, J) O. .. i 

82. Enrenbergma serrata, Ess J e > ^ 

(Cassidulina serrata, Ess.) 


Upper Greenland. 

Upper Chalk. 





I. Rotalidea (Rcuss). 

Pulvinulina rcpanda, F.<§- M. .iMiocene. 

Eotalia Beccarii, Linn Tertiary. 

Bulimina Preslii, Ess [Tertiary. 

Planorbulina farcta, F. $ M. ..Miocene.' 

83. Rotalia Brongniarti, D'O 

(Pulvinulina auricula, F.&M.) 

84. Girardana, Ess 

(Eotalia Soldanii, D'O.) 

85. bulimoides. Ess 

{Bulimina elegantissima,WSl.) 
86. Siphonina reticulata, Ess... 

(I'lanorbulina reticulata, Ess.) 

Mr. P. H. Gosse on JEgcon Alfordi. 


No. Name. 



87. Asterigerina Planorbis, D" 

(Discorbina rosacea, D'O.) 

88, 89. Siderolithes calcitrapoides, Lam. 
90. Planorbulina Mediterranea, D'O.... 

Discorbina Turbo. D' 0. 
Planorbulina farcta, F. 8c M. .. 


Chalk of Mastricht. 

Orbulina universa, D ' Tertiary and recent. 


omellidea (Reuss). 

Polystomella crispa, Linn iTertiary and recent. 

Nonionina asterizans, F. Sc M. . Tertiary. 

Pullenia sphseroides,-D' Tertiary and recent. 

Fusulina cylindrica, Fisch. ... Carboniferous Linie- 

mulitidea (Reuss). 

Amphisfcegina vulgaris, D' 0. . . . IRecent. 
Nummulina perforata, Monff. jRecent. 

Heterostegina depressa, D 0. ( &? ent 

I Miocene. 

C. With Calcareous Shei 

I. Pohjst 

(N. Scapha, F. & M.) 
95. bulloides, D' 

(Pullcnia sphsroides, D'O.) 
96. Fusulina cylindrica, Fisch 

II. Num 

98. Operculina, sp. (after Carpenter')... 

99. Heterostegina,8p.(afterCaype«^) 1 
100. costata, D'O J 

V. — On iEgeon Alfordi, a new British Sea- Anemone. 
By Philip Henry Gosse, F.R.S. 

[Plate VII.] 

Pan lily Antheadae. 

Genus .ZEgeon, mihi. 

Base adherent to rocks with a moderate tenacity ; broader than 
the medium diameter of the column. 

Column irregularly distensible, not mucous, somewhat versa- 
tile, but generally forming a tall, erect, thick pillar, the summit 
expanding ; the margin tentaculate ; the surface longitudinally 
fluted (as if composed of a multitude of slender vertical cylinders 
placed in contact side by side), each cylinder studded with a 
single vertical row of minute warts. No suckers or loopholes. 
Substance pulpy, membranous. 

Disk expanded, membranous, concave, revolute. 

Tentacles numerous, in several rows, long, lax, irregularly 
flexuous, scarcely retractile. 

Mouth not ordinarily set on a cone, but pouted after the re- 
ception of food ; lip thin. Gonidial tubercles prominent. 

Acontia wanting (?). 

42 Mr. P. II. Gosse on JEgeon Alfordi, 

JEgeon Alfordi, mihi. 

The only known species. Colours and dimensions as follows : — 

Basal disk brick-red. 

Column pea-green, suffused with a purplish hue, as if from 
within the skin, more marked towards the extremities than in 
the medial region ; the whole covered with red dots, so minute 
as to be distinguished only with the aid of a lens. The warts 
have each but one speck of crimson, which is central and 
much larger than the other dots. The red hue on the warts 
being thus limited to a single speck, the area of the warts 
appears of a brighter, clearer green than the rest of the body. 

Disk. Inner half purplish grey, abruptly divided from the outer 
half, which is of a most lustrous satiny green ; radii faint lines 
of grey. 

Tentacles lustrous satiny green throughout, each bearing a faint 
line of grey along its outer side. 

Mouth. Lip and throat grey. 

When fully expanded, it is sometimes 4 inches in height by 

1^ inch in diameter; at other times it will be 2 inches in each 

direction. Expanse of flower 6^ inches. 
Locality. The Scilly Islands. 

This very fine Anemone, which might well put in a claim to 
be considered pulcherrima, if we had but a Paris to judge, and 
which is by very far the noblest acquisition to our British marine 
zoology that I am aware of since the publication of my ' Actino- 
logia/ we owe to the researches of the liev. D. P. Alford, M.A., 
Chaplain of the Scilly Islands. On the 29th of March last, 
this gentleman observed "some very bright green tentacles 
reaching out from beneath a large stone," which, though he at 
first supposed them to indicate an Anthea cereus, proved to be- 
long to an unknown treasure. " Here was an Anemone with 
high-standing column like an Aiptasia, but with the surface 
warted, and with tentacles like the richest green velvet, throw- 
ing into the shade the brightest of Antheas. Moreover the 
tentacles were of the same colour to their very tips, without the 
least tinge of pink or purple." " I put into the same bottle," 
continues Mr. Alford, " a Nereis 4 inches long ; and by the time 
I got home (within a quarter of an hour), the poor worm had 
been seized in the middle by the lovely green tentacles, and only 
its head was to be seen protruding from the Anemone's mouth. 
With his good dinner, my friend became active, far more lively 
than I have ever found Aiptasia. He soon fastened firmly to 
the side of the basin ; but his tentacles and column were per- 
petually on the move. He shows himself off to most advantage 
when he curves his column upwards so as to present his full 

a new British Sea-Anemone. 43 

flower just beneath the surface of the water. After referring 
carefully to your ' History/ I found much resemblance in the 
column to the Bunodes Ballii, but far more likeness in all other 
respects to the Aiptasia. Its column has the crimson specks of 
the former; but it has the size and flexibility of the latter. It 
also resembles Aiptasia in the length of its tentacles, in the fact 
that these often become extremely attenuated, in never quite 
closing the disk, in its well-marked radii, and also in having the 
margin crenate ; for all the finer specimens of Aiptasia which I 
have observed have the margin crenate, not tentaculate."* " The 
green of the tentacles is very much that of the common Utva ; 
and, like that, it keeps its brilliant colour by lamp-light, when 
Anthea loses much of its beauty." 

Mr. Alford immediately submitted his prize to me for exami- 
nation. We had both thought that it might possibly prove to 
be Actinia pustulata of Dana ; but a reference to the figures and 
descriptions in that author's great work on ( Zoophytes ' at once 
set this suspicion at restf. I have no hesitation in pronouncing 
it hitherto unrecognized. With very obvious affinities to both 
Aiptasia and Anthea, the character of the column well distin- 
guishes it from either. The surface in Aiptasia is minutely cor- 
rugated, in Anthea cancellated by the intersection of furrows; 
in JEgeon there are frequently seen transverse wrinkles ; but 
the warts are very manifest when, from a peculiar curve of the 
body, these cross wrinkles are quite obliterated. It has much 
more of an erect column than Anthea. After very many pro- 
tracted watchings with a powerful lens, when the body was in 
the most favourable conditions for observation, I could never 
discern the slightest trace of cinclides ; nor has any amount of 
provocation educed the emission of acontia. 

The cylinders of which the skin of the column is built up are 
alternately larger and smaller : each of the former terminates in 
a short process (the marginal tentacles), the latter are truncate. 
This structure is seen to most advantage when the animal is 
greatly distended. 

With respect to its habits in captivity, several circumstances 
indicate that this charming' species is very eligible for the aqua- 

* I have considered these marginal processes as budding tentacles in 
both species. Perhaps I am wrong, but it may suffice to say that in this 
respect j&geon agrees with Aiptasia. They are the projecting summits of 
the cylinders or flutes, and alternate with the outermost row of tentacles 

t A. pustulata, A. veratra, A. clematis, and A. florida of Dana appear 
to constitute a genus of Actiniadce (as limited in Act. Brit. p. 1/1 ), agree- 
ing with Actinia in the possession of marginal spherules, and differing 
from it in having a warted column. M. Milne-Edwards (Corall. i. 274) 
has given the name of Phymactis to this genus. 

4 1 Mr. P. H. Gosse on JEgeon Alfordi. 

rium. In the first place, it possesses a wonderful tenacity of 
life, as the following facts will show. On the 4th of April, 
Mr. Alford enclosed the specimen in a small canister, and sent 
it to me by post. On the 12th, an ample missive under the 
great seal of the General Post Office informed me that a package 
addressed to me was detained by the postmaster at Plymouth, 
on account of the exudation of water, according to statute in 
that case made and provided. Hope pretty nearly died within 
me; but I wrote to a friend at Plymouth, who kindly obtained 
the offending package, gave the prisoner a twenty-four hours' 
bath, and then re-posted him on to me. On the evening of the 
17th I turned him out, and, before night, had the pleasure of 
seeing him adhering, and expanding in all his beauty, none the 
worse for his fortnight's captivity. 

From that day to this (June 10) he has luxuriated in a little 
cylindrical vase of sea-water, always displaying his full glories 
in the most ungrudging manner. He is always ready for dinner, 
and swallows large lumps of raw meat with a very vigorous 
appetite. The liveliness and versatility of his movements greatly 
augment the interest which attaches to him as a tenant of the 
tank. Mr. Alford' s first evening's impressions of his character 
— " I have had him close beside me all this evening, and he has 
never been alike in shape or size for two minutes together" — • 
have been justified by my more lengthened experience. 

At present the specimen remains unique; but my friend is on 
the qui vive *, and we may hope that more examples may soon 
be discovered among the sea-beaten rocks of those rocky outposts 
of England. 

As it devolved on me to give the illustrious stranger a pair of 
names, I have borrowed one from a hundred-armed hero of 
antiquity — 

"iEgeon qualis, centum cui brachia dicunt, 
Centenasque manus "f ; 

and the other from the fortunate discoverer. 


JEgeon Alfordi, of the natural size, in its ordinary state of distention. 

* I will add an interesting fact from a letter of Mr. Alford's : — " The 
great abundance of Aiptasia seems the most marked feature of these 
islands, as far as Anemones are concerned. Other species and varieties 
are well represented; but amongst the rocks in Porth Crassa Bay, at the 
back of my house, the Aiptasia are innumerable— far more common than 
Actinia mesembryanthemum." 

f Virg. ^Eneid. x. 565. 

Mr. A. Macalister on Secreting Organs in Neraatoitlca. 45 

VI. — On the Presence of certain Secreting Organs in Nema- 
toidea. By Alexander Macalister, F.R.C.S.I., Demon- 
strator of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons, Ireland. 

The existence of special secreting organs in the Nematoid 
Entozoa is by no means a discovery of very modern date ; for 
several of the earlier helminthologists have described various 
parts of the animals in this class as subservient to the function 
of secretion. Of late, however, our knowledge of these struc- 
tures has been much extended, mainly through the increasing 
perfection of the microscope, which has thrown light upon all 
branches of invertebrate anatomy, and has shown us greater 
complexities of structure in those creatures which had previously 
been regarded as of simpler organization. 

Four series of these glandular organs have been already de- 
scribed in different Nematoids ; and I think that the apparatus 
which I am about to notice is entitled to rank as a fifth kind of 
secreting organ, separate in function from any of those at pre- 
sent known. Those already recognized are — (1) The salivary 
cseca described by Owen in Gnathostoma spinigera, consisting of 
four small blind tubes communicating with the mouth : similar 
organs Siebold has noticed in Strongylus striatus; and although 
some have doubted the function assigned to them (Bagge, in 
Appendix to 'Thesis de Evolutione Strongyli auricularis,' 8cc), 
yet I think we are justified in adopting Owen's view as being- 
correct. (2) Cloquet, in his work on the anatomy of Ascaris 
lumbricoides, describes the thickened parietes of the oesophagus 
as being glandular, probably secreting a fluid to assist in the 
assimilation of the food. (3) There are in many species intes- 
tinal cseca with which Owen associates an hepatic function. 
Mehlis, in the f Isis ^ for 1831, figures and mentions several of 
these; and Siebold, in his 'Anatomy of the Invertebrata/ refers 
to their occurrence in several species, especially in Ascaris he- 
terura, A. semiteres, A. depressa, A. angulata, A. ensicaudata, 
A. mucronata, and A. osculata. Leidy, in the ' Smithsonian 
Contributions/ pt. 5. p. 49, pi. 7, figures and describes one of 
these organs in Thelastomum appendiculatum ; and Diesing no- 
tices another in a species of Ascaris infesting the Dugong. 
The 4th and last-described gland (leaving out of account the 
secreting parts of the reproductive apparatus) is the curious 
tubular organ described by Siebold (Bagge, loc. cit. supra) in 
the Strongylus auricularis and Ascaris brevicaudata, A. acuminata, 
A. paucipara, and A. dactylitis, which opens near the middle of 
the body on the ventral aspect, and which in the last-uamed 
species I have on several occasions traced with considerable 

46 Mr. A. Macalister on the Presence of certain 

To these four I think we may add another group of organs 
which seem as distinctly glandular as any of those above referred 
to. These are present in the Ascaris dactyluris, Rud., a small 
white Entozoon, which inhabits in enormous quantities the large 
intestine of Testudo graca. In the interior of these parasites, 
as I have elsewhere described*, the lowest part of the club- 
shaped intestine exhibits a small dilatation, immediately inferior 
to which it suddenly contracts into a narrow rectum, that passes 
downwards and forwards to the anus, forming an obtuse angle 
(re-entrant forwards) with the upper part of the alimentary canal. 
Surrounding the constriction which marks the origin of the 
rectum, are four small ovate or pyriform bodies, granular in 
appearance, usually seeming as though solid, in other subjects 
appearing slightly excavated. Their inner aspect is placed in 
very close apposition to the wall of the gut ■ so that at first it 
seemed to me as if they opened directly into the narrowed com- 
mencement of the rectum ; however, when carefully examined 
by reflected light, my friend Dr. Barker has shown to me that, 
at least in some specimens, such is but an apparent and not a 
real attachment, and that the true connexion between these oval 
bodies and the intestine is by means of long fine ducts, which 
open into that canal immediately above the anusf- Sometimes 
these tubes pass from the inner or intestinal side of the glands ; 
in other subjects the masses narrow into a somewhat flask-like 
shape, and have their attenuated necks continuous with the 
duct : in the former case the organs were globular, in the latter 
they seemed rather pyriform. In another specimen the sacs 
were calcarate, with their curved projecting spurs directed up- 
wards and outwards. No appearance of nerves or nerve-ganglia 
was visible in connexion with them ; and the lateral and antero- 
posterior tegumentary lines dipped inwards to come almost into 
contact with their outer coat. 

"Whether these bodies exist in other species of Nematoids or 
not, I cannot say ; but, as far as my observations have extended, 
I have not succeeded in finding either themselves or any notice of 
such an organization elsewhere. In the species under consider- 
ation, however, they are unmistakeably distinct and constantly 
present; for out of many specimens examined by Dr. Barker 
and myself, both separately and conjointly, we were able to de- 
tect their existence in every individual. 

It would be difficult, if not almost impossible, to predicate as 
to the exact nature of these bodies ; but I can only conceive of 

* " On the Anatomy of Ascaris dactyluris," read before the Dublin 
Natural History Society, June 1865. 

t This, however, does not seem to be the invariable mode of attachment; 
for 1 have tailed to find the duet-like processes in many individuals. 

Secreting Organs in Nematoidea. 47 

two tenable hypotheses regarding them. They have evidently 
nothing to do with the reproductive apparatus, as they are 
equally present in both males and females, and seem to have no 
connexion in either with the sexual organs. They might, how- 
ever, be either secreting glands or intestinal cseca. The latter 
hypothesis I should be inclined to regard as very improbable ; 
for though cseca are described and figured by Leidy, of Phila- 
delphia, and others, as I have before mentioned, yet in all those 
species in which they occur we find them placed much higher 
in the alimentary canal, often at the point where the stomach 
or intestine joins the oesophagus : they are usually single or un- 
symmetrical, always hollow; and though often communicating 
with the intestine by a narrow neck, yet rarely or never is that 
structure so suddenly attenuated and duct-like as is constantly 
the case in these secreting organs in Ascaris dactyluris. We 
are thus led to adopt the last hypothesis, that they are special 
glandular structures — an opinion which, I think, is supported by 
their numbers, by their thick, solid, granular walls, by their long 
ducts, when present, and by their invariably low position with re- 
gard to the alimentary canal. This latter point is also of much 
importance in relation to the function fulfilled by these bodies, if 
glandular; for as their secretion would be poured into the lowest 
portion of the rectum, it could not be to any extent excrementi- 
tious in its nature, but must be directly evacuated before absorp- 
tion could take place ; so we may regard these organs as a means 
of evolving effete matter from the system : mayhap they might be 
among the earliest examples of a renal apparatus in the animal 
kingdom; and if so, certainly they are the first examples of such 
having been found in the Entozoa. Indeed, as a general rule 
among the lower departments of animal life, the appearances of 
renal organs are more or less equivocal : even in the Insecta the 
Malpighian tubes (by far the most distinct urinary apparatus in 
the Articulata) were often mistaken for hepatic organs, until 
Brugnatelli and Wurtzer proved that these canals contained 
urate of ammonia in the Silkworm, as Meckel afterwards demon- 
strated in Melolontha (Aj-chiv fiir Physiologie, 1816, 1818, 1826). 
In Myriapoda the same tubular structure obtains with tolerable 
distinctness; and in Crustacea we have the urinary system re- 
presented by the tubes traced by Milne-Edwards in Maia, by 
Duvernoy in Portumnus, and by Meckel in Palcemon and others. 
Usually these are cseca, which open sometimes into the pylorus 
but occasionally into the rectum. No representative organ has 
been, to my knowledge, described in Annelida. In Echino- 
dermata Jager has referred to the slightly branching sinuous 
tubes of Ilolothuridse as being renal in their nature; but Muller, 
who describes these structures under the name of the Ouvierian 

48 Dr. A. G anther on a new Species 0/ Corvina. 

organs, seems rather doubtful as to their function. Below these 
in the scale of nature we meet with no distinct vestiges of urinary 
excreting organs; so if my hypothesis regarding the nature of 
these above-described bodies be accepted, they will rank as cither 
the first or the second early traces of such glands as yet found 
in the animal kingdom. 

VII. — Description of a new Species of Corvina from the Gambia. 
By Dr. Albert Gunther. 

Mr. Moore, Curator of the Liverpool Free Public Museum, 
has kindly sent for my inspection a Sciamoid Fish collected by 
J. Lewis Ingram, Esq., at Bathurst, on the River Gambia, which 
proves to be an undescribed species of the genus Corvina, for 
which I propose the name of 

Corvina Moorii. 
D. 8| 2 V A. f, L. lat. 64. L. transv. 7!x. 

This species is distinguished by its broad and obtuse head, 
similar to that of Collichthys. The eye is comparatively small, 
about one-ninth of the length of the head, and only one-half of 
the extent of the snout. Interorbital space very broad, convex, 
its width being one-third of the length of the head. Hind mar- 
gin of the prseoperculum obliquely descending backwards, with 
short spinous teeth at the angle and along the margins. Snout 
very obtuse; jaws with narrow bands of short cardiform teeth, 
those of the outer series being much larger and conical. Cleft 
of the mouth of moderate width, situated at the lower side of 
the snout, the maxillary extending to behind the hind margin 
of the orbit. 

The length of the head is more than the depth of the body, 
and one-fourth of the total length (without caudal). Scales of 
moderate size, irregularly arranged. Pectoral fin considerably 
longer than the ventral, as long as the post-orbital part of the 
head. Dorsal spines of moderate strength, not flexible ; the 
second is the longest, and rather more than half as long as the 
head ; the soft dorsal fin of moderate height. Caudal fin convex, 
slightly produced in the middle. The second anal spine strong, 
two-thirds as long as the first soft ray, and nearly one-third as 
long as the head. 

Uniform blackish brown, the centre of each scale being lighter ; 
fins black. 

The specimen is 20 inches long. 

Numerous species of Acanthopterygian fishes, especially from 
the west coast of Africa, show osseous tumours in some parts of 

Zoological Society. 49 

their skeleton. The seat of these tumours is chiefly the neural 
or haemal processes, more rarely the interneurals and inter- 
hsemals. In the typical specimen of Corvina Moorii a date-like 
osseous tumour is attached to the spine of the second dorsal fin ; 
and a second specimen which we have seen, from the same loca- 
lity, has, singularly enough, a perfectly similar tumour on the 
same spine. 

We have formerly (Fishes, ii. p. 296) expressed our opinion 
that these peculiar tumours are anomalous deposits of osseous 
matter, and that species founded on such a character (like Cor- 
vina clavigera, Cuv. & Val.), are extremely doubtful. Indeed 
we have now not the least doubt that this Corvina clavigera is 
identical with C. nigrita, of which we have seen an example, 
likewise belonging to the Liverpool Museum, which has the 
ventral and anal spines excessively thickened, in consequence of 
a similarly abnormal deposition of bony substance. 



Jan. 10, 18G5. — Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 

On the Anatomy and Habits of the Water-Ousel (Cinclus 
aquaticus). By Edwards Crisp, M.D., F.Z.S, etc. 

I have for a long time been occupied in preparing a work on the 
British Birds, more especially in reference to their structure, in con- 
nexion with their habits, the nature of their food, &c. ; and there is 
no bird that has puzzled me so much as the Water-Ousel, and it is 
on this account that I bring the subject before the Society, hoping 
that I may obtain some information from the members present. I 
need not go very minutely into the history of this bird ; but it will, I 
think, be interesting to compare some parts of its anatomy with those 
of the other Merulidce. The object of my paper will be to endeavour, 
first, to ascertain by what means this bird, so unlike all aquatic 
birds in form, is enabled to dive and remain some time under water 
and capture its prey ; secondly, to inquire respecting the nature of 
its food, and its supposed depredations on the ova and fry of fishes. 
I may premise that I have shot several of these birds in Scotland for 
the purpose of ascertaining the character of their food, and that I have 
had many opportunities of observing their habits. The three speci- 
mens on the table were sent to me recently (Nov. 30) by my friend 
Mr. Grierson, of Thornbill, Dumfriesshire ; and I have dissected and 
examined them, as I bad done on former occasions, in relation to the 
two questions above referred to. As the evidence of one inquirer -in 
reference to the habits of this or of any other bird is comparatively 
valueless, let me quote a few authorities upon the subject. 

Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. xvi. 4 

50 Zoological Society : — 

Montagu, in his Dictionary, says he " discovered 
the nest of this bird in consequence of the old bird flying, with a fish 
in its bill, to the young. These were nearly fledged, but incapable of 
flight ; and the moment the nest was disturbed, they fluttered out 
and dropped into the water, and, to our astonishment, instantly 
vanished, but in a little time made their appearance at some distance 
down the stream, and it was with difficulty two out of five were taken, 
as they dived on being approached. The motion under water," he 
says, " is effected by short jerks from the shoulder-joint, not, as in 
all other diving-birds, with extended wings." 

Yarrell dissected this bird, and found nothing in its structure to 
account for its diving and remaining on the ground without any 
muscular effort. 

Mr. Macgillivray (Naturalist, vol. i. p. 105) says, " I have seen the 
Dipper moving under water in situations where I could observe it 
with certainty, and I readily perceived that its actions were similar 
to those of the Divers, Mergansers, and Cormorants, which I have 
often watched from an eminence as they pursued the shoals of sand- 
eels along the sandy shores of the Hebrides. It in fact flew, not 
merely using the wing from the carpal joint, but extending it con- 
siderably, and employing its whole extent as if moving in the air. 
The general direction of the body is obliquely downwards ; and great 
force is evidently used to counteract the effects of gravity, the bird 
finding it difficult to keep at the bottom." 

Other observers have given similar testimony, some asserting that 
bubbles of air appeared on the surface after the bird was submerged : 
but these must have arisen from the disturbance of the earth at the 
bottom of the river ; for no diving-bird, I believe, emits air from its 
lungs when under water. The air is got rid of before the act of 
diving takes place. But let me now speak of some parts of the 
anatomy of this bird, before I attempt to answer the first question. 
The average weight of this bird is said to be 2\ oz. ; but in four that 

I have weighed the average weight has been about 2\ oz., the males 
being a little heavier than the females ; the length 7\ inches, and 

II inches from the tip of each wing. The brain weighed 10 grains, 
the eyes 12 grains, the skin and feathers 132 grains, the pectoral 
muscles 135 grains. The gizzard moderately thick, and lined with 
a tough cuticle. The length of the whole alimentary tube was 
1 G inches ; the oesophagus, as in the other Merulidce, not dilated 
into a crop. The trachea of nearly uniform calibre, and consisting 
of 36 rings ; the vocal muscles largely developed, as in the other 
members of this family. The tail-glands comparatively of large size. 

I have depicted all the above parts in the drawing before the 
Society ; but the parts of the anatomy of this bird to which I am 
anxious to direct attention are the shortness of the wing and the great 
development of the wing-muscles — features which I believe will iu 
a great measure account for the diving-powers of this bird and its 
progress under water. As might be expected, too, from the frequent 
motion of the tail, the caudal muscles are much developed. On 
comparing the visceral anatomy of this bird with that of the other 

Dr. E. Crisp on the Water-Ousel. 51 

British Merulidce, all of which I have dissected, with the exception of 
White's Thrush {Tardus Whitei), very little proportional difference is 
observed. The length of the intestinal tube in the Redwing (T. 
iliacus) is 14 inches; the brain weighs 16 grains, the pectoral 
muscles 1/0 grains, the weight of the body being about 2i oz. In 
the Fieldfare (T. pilaris), weighing -4| oz., the brain weighs 26 grains, 
and the intestinal tube measures 22 inches. In the Ring-Ousel 
(T. to?'quatus) , weight 3 oz. 180 grains, the alimentary canal is 
13^ inches in length, and the weight of the brain is 26 grains ; and 
these parts in the Missel-Thrush (T. viscivorus) . in the Blackbird 
(T. merula), and Song-Thrush (T. musicus) are of nearly the same 
proportionate length and weight. In the young Water-Ousel that 
I have dissected, I observed nothing remarkable in its anatomy. 
So that, as regards the visceral anatomy, there is no important 
difference between the Water-Ousel and the other members of this 
group, although among the British Merules this is the only bird 
that feeds exclusively on animal food ; but, to show how the habits 
of a bird may be altered in this respect, I have mentioned a young 
Water-Ousel that was reared under a Bantam, and fed on porridge 
(P. Z. S. 1859, p. 200). 

Some writers upon this bird have spoken of the claws as being well 
adapted for holding on to stones and other objects at the bottom of 
the water ; but on comparing the claws of the Water-Ousel with those 
of the other Merulidce, it will be seen that the bird has no advantage 
of this kind, although the comparatively blunted form of the claw 
would lead to the inference that it is used for the purpose mentioned. 

The bones of the Water-Ousel, like those of the other British mem- 
bers of this group, contain no air* ; and it is singular that the skele- 
ton of the Fieldfare, Redwing, and Missel-Thrush (birds of passage) 
should in this respect resemble that of the short-flighted Water-Ousel. 

As regards the food, I am afraid that we cannot entirely acquit this 
bird of occasionally destroying the fry of fish ; but I know of no reli- 
able evidence to prove that it takes the ova. In the three specimens 
before the Society, the gizzards of all contained Entomostraca, and 
one of them a Gordian (Gordius aqualicus). In others that I have 
dissected, I have discovered chiefly Entomostraca and the larvae of 
Phryganea ; indeed I have found that its food is very similar to that 
of the young Salmon (Salmo salar). 

Mr. Gould, in his present work ' The Birds of Great Britain ' 
(part 1 ), mentions that he examined five of these birds that were 
shot on the River Usk, in Nov. 1859, and that no trace of spawn was 
found in any of them ; their hard gizzards were entirely filled with 
the larvae of Phryganea and the Water-beetle (Hydrophilus). One 
had a small Bullhead (Coitus yohio), which the bird had doubtless 
taken from under a stone. Mr. Gould thinks that, by destroying 
insects and their larvae that may attack the ova and fry of fishes, 
these birds may do great service. 

* 1 need scarcely say that some of the cranial bones of birds, like those of 
mammals, contain air. 


52 Zoological Society : — 

Mr. Macgillivray found beetles and water shells (Lymnea and 
Ancylus) and the larvae of Ephemera, Phryganea, and other aquatic 

Sir W. Jardine, in his ' Birds of Great Britain,' says, " In one part 
of Scotland, sixpence per head is given for these birds. In another 
district, 548 were killed in three years." He adds, " The ova of any 
kind of fish we have never detected in the stomacb or intestines ; nor 
do we think that they habitually frequent the places where the 
spawn would be deposited ; and if they did, we would deem it almost 
impossible that they could reach it after it was covered in the 
spawning-bed," &c. 

So that I hope we may fairly acquit this interesting little bird of 
the depredations of which it has so often been accused ; but I hope 
that we shall ere long see the Water-Ousel, with the Little Grebe 
(Podiceps mino7'), in the Society's fish-house, where a better oppor- 
tunity will be afforded of learning its habits. 

As is well known, this bird has been variously classed by different 
writers. Mr. Gould, in the work before quoted, says he regards 
Cinclus as one of the isolated forms of ornithology, and that it has 
6ome remote alliance with the genera Troglodytes and Scytalopus 
and their allies. 

Description of a New Species of Entozoon from the 
Intestines of the Diamond-Snake of Australia (Mo- 
relia spilotes). By W. Baird, M.D., F.L.S. 

Bothridium (Solenophorus, Creplin) arcuatum, Baird. 

Length of the largest specimen (which, however, is not quite 
perfect at lower extremity) 10 inches. Breadth, about the middle of 
its length, 4 lines. Head, consisting of its two tubular bothria, about 7 
lines in length and 3 lines in breadth. Bothria smooth, cylindrical, 
arched outwardly, and connected together throughout their whole 
extent, and each of about the same diameter at the top as at the 
bottom. Upper openings circular and large ; lower openings very 
small and quite terminal. Neck none. Articulations at anterior 
extremity extremely small, appearing like mere rugse. Articulations 
of rest of body, in adult specimens, very numerous, narrow, much 
broader than long, and crowded together ; in smaller and apparently 
younger specimens (which, however, look as if perfect in length), the 
articulations near the posterior extremity are, comparatively speaking, 
much larger, longer than broad, and are more like those of B. laticeps 
or B. pythonis. The most distinguishing character is the size and 
shape of the head. 

Hab. Intestines of the Morelia spilotes, from Australia. (Mus. 

For the specimens of this species I am indebted to Dr. A. Giin- 
ther, who found them attached to the inner surface of the intestines 

Dr. G. Bennett on the Lyre-Bird of New Holland. 53 

of a specimen of an Australian Python, the Diamond-Snake, Morelia 

d QXEnnnrrnTrnriT 

Fig. a. Worm of natural size, attached to inner surface of intestine. 
Fig. b. Bothria. slightly enlarged, showing the upper openings. 
Fig. e. The surae, showing lower openings. 

Fig. d. Posterior extremity of a young specimen, showing the, comparatively 
speaking, larger articulations. 

Jan. 24, 1865.— E. W. H. Holdsworth, Esq., in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following extract from a letter addressed 
to him by Dr. Bennett, F.Z.S., dated Sydney, Nov. 18th, relating 
to a living specimen of the Lyre-bird of New Holland (Menura su~ 
perba), which the Acclimatization Society of that city were intending 
to transmit by the first favourable opportunity to this Society : — 

" After repeated trials of keeping this wild and restless bird in 
captivity, and having procured and lost in one year numerous living 
birds of all ages, from the young bird to the adult, we have so far 
succeeded as to preserve one alive and in excellent health, and feed- 
ing well, since the 23rd of August last ; to this day it continues 
in good health and condition. It is a young bird, at present in im- 

54 Zoological Society : — 

mature plumage, and the sex cannot yet be determined. It is placed 
in a large wire compartment with the Talegallas or Brush-Turkeys, 
and it appears to enjoy their society very much. Whether their com- 
pany reconciles it to confinement I cannot say ; but, at all events, it 
feeds well and thrives, and displays a great amount of activity for a 
great part of the day, running about the cage incessantly, scratching 
the ground. It feeds on the larva of the Tettigonia or " Locust " of 
the colonists, meat chopped very small, slugs, and worms. This 
bird was captured at Broughton's Pass, Illawarra district. Should 
we be fortunate enough to keep it alive till the time of the departure 
of the ' La Hogue,' it will be sent to the Zoological Society under 
Mr. Broughton's care, when it will have every chance of reaching 
Eno;land alive." 

February 14, 1865.— Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following letter, addressed by Dr. II. Bur- 
meister, of Buenos Ayres (Foreign Member), to Dr. J. E. Gray, con- 
taining the description of a new species of Whale, proposed to be 
called Balcenoptera patachonica, together with some particulars as 
to specimens of certain other Cetacea in the Museum of Buenos 

Dr. Gray stated, in reference to the new Whale, that it was of 
much interest as being the first well-described Fin-Whale from the 
southern hemisphere. Dr. Gray considered it evidently a typical 
species of the genus Physalus, distinguishable from all the northern 
species by the shortness of the lateral rings compared with the dia- 
meter of the bodies of the cervical vertebrae. 

" Buenos Ayres, 22nd December, 1864. 

" I now send you drawings of the Whale in the Buenos Ayres 
Museum, drawn by myself, and, as I believe, exact to nature. 

" Fig 1 . The skull. We have two specimens — one complete, the 
other consisting only of the hinder part, without the jaws. In the 
former the upper jaws are no longer in position, but separated from 
the cranium, and therefore little importance can be attached to the 
width of the opening between the intermaxillary bones in the ante- 
rior part of the cleft between them ; it may be somewhat exaggerated. 
All the other parts are entirely exact from nature, and well preserved. 

" Length of the intermaxillary, 7 feet 2 inches ; length of the max- 
illary, 7 feet ; length of the under jaw, 10 feet 2 inches. Breadth of 
the frontal bones between the orbits, 5 feet ; breadth of the vertex 
behind, 2 feet 8 inches. 

" The baleen is entirely black, without any other colour. We have 
two kinds in the Museum — one 5g feet and the other 1 foot 8 inches 
in length. This last only may be from the Balcenoptera ; the other 
perhaps from a Bahena, because it is much more slender and more 

" Comparing my drawing (fig. I) with that of Cuvier from the Cape 
Balcenoptera (Oss. Foss. pi. 26. fig. 2), you will find that the 

Dr. H. Burmeister on a new Whale. 


suture between the frontal bone and the parietal is situated much 
more towards the external part of the frontal bone, being in my skull 

Fig. 1. 

Skull seen from above. 

exactly in the angle where both bones are united, and therefore not 
seen from above in my drawing. Another difference of the species 

Fig. 2. 

First cervical vertebra 

is indicated by the longitudinal carina in the vertex of tbe Cape spe- 
cies, there being no trace of such carina in either of my specimens. 


Zooloyical Society : — 

" Unfortunately the tympanic bones are wanting in both, and I 
can tell you nothing of them. But the zygomatic bone is preserved, 
and is of the same form as that figured in Cuvier's work, figs. 1 
and 3, but somewhat smaller than the latter figure. 

" The seven cervical vertebrae are free, separate from each other, 
and the body of every one has the epiphyses on each side, the specimen 
being that of a young individual. But in the atlas and front side of the 
axis these epiphyses do not exist. I send vou drawings of the first 
(fig. 2), the second (fig. 3), the fourth (fig. 4), and the sixth (fig. 5) 

Fie. 3. 

Second cervical vertebra. 

vertebrae ; the third exactly resembles the fourth, and the fifth 
only differs in a small opening in the lateral arc, indicated in my 
drawing of the fourth, on the left side. The seventh has no inferior 

Fig. 4. 

Fourth cervical vertebra. 

Dr. H. Burmeister on a new Whale. 


process at all, but a much stronger superior one, of the same form. 
All the five vertebrae after the second are very thin, 2 inches in 

Fig. 5. 

Sixth cervical vertebra. 

diameter, the third being the thinnest of all, and the following ones 
somewhat thicker ; the seventh is 2\ inches in thickness. 

" Of costal or dorsal vertebrae we have fourteen, very well indicated 
by the flattened end of the transverse processes being united with the 
ribs. The first of these dorsal vertebrae is very thin, 3 inches in 
diameter ; and the second somewhat thicker, 3| inches ; after these 
the bodies are much stronger, from 6 to 8 inches in diameter. The 
three first dorsal vertebra? have transverse processes more rounded, 
and directed forward. After the third they are more flat and broad, 
and directed transversely to the sides. After these fourteen vertebrae 
follow twelve others with thinner transverse processes, rounded and 
sharp at the end, and with bodies of much larger diameter — from 
10 to 12 inches. Then follows a strong vertebra, the thirteenth, 
1 2 inches in diameter, with a smaller and shorter transverse process, 
which seems to me the first caudal ; but as the epiphysis is wanting, 
there is no attachment for the haemapophysis on its hinder end. In- 
deed its body is flattened on the under side, not carinated as the body 
of the antecedent ; which also seems to me to prove that it is the 
first caudal. Of haemapophyses we have four in the Museum, of un- 
equal size, the first 5 inches high, the largest 8 inches, and 3 to 
4 inches broad between the laminae. 

" The ribs are not perfect as regards number, but the first seven 
or eight are preserved. I send you drawings of the upper and lower 
extremities of the first four (figs. 6, 7, 8, 9). 

"The sternum is wanting, and of the os hyoideum we have only 


Zoological Society : — 

the corpus, of precisely the same form as that figured in Cuvier's 
Oss. Foss. pi. 25. f. 14. 

Fig. 6. 

Fig- 7. 

Fig. 8. 

Fie. 9. 

" Of the pectoral fin we have only the scapula, of which I send 
you a drawing (fig. 10); both processes are well developed and some- 
what compressed. 

Fig. 10. 


" The animal was found some leagues from Buenos Ayres, on the 
banks of the River Plata, where it came ashore some thirty years 
ago. It was brought to the gardens of Rosas, at Palermo, where the 
skeleton was exhibited a long time, till, after the fall of the tyrant, 
it was transferred to the Museum. The parts now deficient were 
then lost. 

" I suppose that the species might be the same as that you have 
indicated in your synopsis as Balcenoptera australis, Desmoulins 
(Voy. Ereb. and Terror, Mamm. p. 20) ; but as I have never seen 

Dr. A. Gunther on the British Salmonoids. 


that animal, I am unable to speak concerning its external appearance. 
Therefore I believe it is better to describe the species in question 
under a new name, and I propose to you, if you please to accept it, 
that of Balcenoptera patachonica. 

" Since I have received the excellent books you sent me, and for 
which I give you my best thanks, I have found in them figures of the 
two skulls of Dolphins in the Buenos Ayres Museum. The larger 
is your Delphinus Eurynome (p. 38, pi. 17), and the smaller your 
Delphinus microps (p. 72, pi. 25). Both are inhabitants of the 
Atlantic in our latitude. The new Phoccena is wanting in your 
list. I propose to give the name Phoccena spinipinnis to it, from the 
numerous spines on the dorsal fin. We have the entire animal, with 
the skull, which I will examine when it is taken from the dry skin 
in which it is enclosed. By the next French steamer I will send you 
an accurate drawing and complete description of it." 

" P.S. — I have told you nothing of the under jaw of Balcenoptera 
patachonica, because the surface of the bone is much destroyed by 
long exposure to the air, rain, and sun ; but the hinder part, with 
the coronoid process, is represented in fig. 11." 

Fig. 11. 

A letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by Prof. J. J. Bian- 
coni, of Bologna, stating that, in the course of researches upon the 
osteology of the extinct genus Mpyornis, he had come to the con- 
clusion that that form belonged to the Vulturidee, and not to the 
Struthious birds. 

Dr. A. Gunther gave an account of the present state of his re- 
searches into the British species of Salmonoid fishes, which he had 
undertaken whilst engaged in preparing the catalogue of the speci- 
mens of this family in the collection of the British Museum. Dr. 
Gunther stated that the genus Salmo was essentially an arctic group, 
inhabiting the northern portions of both hemispheres, and becoming 
more abundant in species upon receding from subtropical into tem- 
perate latitudes. Dr. Gunther was disposed to believe that the 
species of this genus to be found within British waters would be 
ultimately found to be much more numerous than had been hitherto 
suspected. From the materials at present at his command, he had 
already been able to distinguish what he believed would turn out to 
be four new species of the non-migratory group of true Salmo, be- 
sides identifying several others heretofore imperfectly distinguished. 

CO Zoological Society : — 

Dr. Giinther requested the assistance of the Fellows of the Society 
and their friends in furnishing him with scries of specimens of our 
native Salmons and Trouts from every part of the British islands, 
stating that in this difficult group of fishes no certain conclusions 
could be arrived at without a large number of specimens for com- 
parison. Dr. Giinther exhibited the subjoined table as giving a list 
of the British species of Sulmo with which he was acquainted : — 

Subgenus I. Charrs (Salvelini). 

1 . Willughbii Windermere, &c. 

2. Perisii Llanberris Lakes, N. Wales. 

3. alpinus Scotland. 

4. Grayii Lough Melvin, Ireland. 

Colli Lough Eske and Lough Dan, Ireland. 

Subgenus II. Salmons (Sabnones). 
a. Migratory S])ecies. 

1. salar True Salmon of British rivers. 

2. cambricus " Sewin " of South Wales. 

3. trutta "Sea Trout " of Scotland. 

b. Non-migratory Species. 

4. fario England. 

5. Gaimardi Scotland and N. W. England. 

6. nigripinnis, sp. nov. . .Mountain-lochs of Wales (and Scotland). 

7. levenensis Loch Leven, Scotland. 

8.ferov "Gt. Lake Trout" of Scotland and Wales. 

9. orcadensis, sp. nov Lakes of Orkneys. 

10. brachypoma, sp. nov. . .Firth of Forth. 

1 1. stomachicus, sp. nov. . . Ireland. 

Description of Two New Australian Birds. 
By John Gould, Esq., F.R.S., etc. 

1. Malurus leuconotus. 

The entire head, neck, under surface, rump, and tail deep blue ; 
back, shoulders, greater and lesser wing-coverts, and secondaries silky 
white ; primaries brown ; bill black ; feet brownish black. 

Total length &\ inches ; bill ^ ; wing 2 ; tail 3% ; tarsi ■£. 

Hab. Interior of Australia ; precise locality unknown. 

Remark. — In size this new species is very similar to M. Lamberti, 
while in its colouring it assimilates to M. leucopterus ; from both, 
however, it may be at once distinguished by the whiteness of its 
back, which has suggested the specific name I have assigned to it. 

2. Artamus melanops. 

Lores, face, rump, and under tail-coverts black ; stripe over the 
eye, ear-coverts, sides of the face, throat, and under surface delicate 
vinous grey ; two middle tail-feathers black, the remainder black 

Mr. A. Newton on some Bones of Didus. 61 

largely tipped with white ; upper surface of the wings grey, their 
under surface white ; bill leaden grey, darkest at the tip ; feet 
blackish brown. 

Total length 6| inches ; bill f ; wing 4-f ; tail, 3 ; tarsi f . 

Hah. Central Australia. 

Remark. — This large and fine species is unlike every other known 
member of the genus. It is most nearly allied to A. albiventris, but 
differs from that bird in the jet-black colouring of its under tail- 
coverts, and from A. cinereus in its smaller size and the greater 
extent of the black on the face. The specimen from which the 
above description was taken has been kindly sent to me by Mr. S. 
White, of the Reed-beds, near Adelaide, South Australia, who 
informs me that it was shot by him at St. Becket's Pool, lat. 
28° 30', on the 23rd of August, 1863, and who in the note accom- 
panying it says, " I have never seen this bird south. It collects at 
night, like A. sordidns, and utters the same kind of call. It seems 
to be plentiful all over the north country. I saw it at St. Becket's 
Pool, feeding on the ground, soaring high in the air, and clinging in 
bushes, like the others. The two sexes appeared to be very similar 
in outward appearance. The stomachs of those examined were 
fleshy, and contained the remains of small Coleoptera. 

On some recently discovered Bones of the largest 
known Species of Dodo (Didus nazarenus, Bartlett). 
By Alfred Newton, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

The three bones which I now have the pleasure of exhibiting 
have been recently received by me from my brother Mr. Edward 
Newton, a Corresponding Member of this Society, who himself found 
two of them in a cave on the south-west side of the island of Ro- 
driguez, which he visited on the 2nd of November last. The third 
was obtained on the same island, about the same time, by Captain 
Barkly, a son and aide-de-camp of the Governor of Mauritius. All 
three belong, without doubt, to the largest known species of Dodo, 
to which Mr. Bartlett (P. Z. S. 185 1, p. 284) applied the name Didus 
nazarenus, and which was so unaccountably overlooked by Messrs. 
Strickland and Melville in their excellent monograph of the curious 
group Didince. These authors, as Mr. Bartlett showed (he. cil.), did 
not distinguish between this very large bird and the smaller and more 
slender " Solitaire " (Pezophaps solitaria), which, if we are to trust 
the evidence before us, was, equally with Didus nazarenus and D. 
ineptus, an inhabitant of Rodriguez. 

The two bones found by my brother were picked up near the en- 
trance of a very dry cave, where little, if any, stalagmitic deposit was 
forming, at least at the time of his visit. One is a perfect left tarso- 
metatarsus, and the other a left humerus, wanting its extremities, as 
is so often the case in specimens of this bone found under circum- 
stances which lead to the belief that the bird to which it belonged 
had been eaten by men or dogs. 

The bone found by Captain Barkly is a right femur. Though 

62 Zoological Society: — 

nearly perfect, it seems to have been much exposed to the action of 
the weather, and, in consequence of its condition, it has sustained a 
little damage by the crumbling away of some part of its extremities. 
This has probably happened since its discovery ; but one advantage 
results from the circumstance — namely, that the cellular structure 
of the bone is thereby rendered plainly visible. 

I proceed to give the dimensions of these specimens, and, for con- 
venience of comparison, I shall, as far as possible, follow Dr. Mel- 
ville's plan of measurement (' The Dodo and its Kindred,' page 1 10"). 

Fragment of left Humerus. 

inches, lines. 

Transverse diameter of shaft 6 

Antero-posterior diameter of shaft 4f- 

Left Tarso-metatarsus. 

Length from middle trochlear groove to inter-condyloid \ z ,a 

tubercle J 

external trochlear to external condyloid fossa 6 4 

internal trochlear to internal condyloid fossa 6 7 

Breadth of upper extremity 1 6 

Antero-posterior diameter of the same ■ 1 3 

Breadth of lower extremity 1 7 

Projection of ento-calcaneal process 8 

Right Femur. 

Length from inter-condyloid notch to upper surface of neck 6 

upper edge of trochanter major to external \ c q 

condyle J 

Transverse diameter of shaft 10 

Antero-posterior 7\ 

Transverse diameter of upper extremity 2 Of 

Transverse diameter of lower extremity 1 10 

All these specimens, unlike those in the Paris Museum, are en- 
tirely free from incrustation. 

I believe there are no other examples of the humerus and femur 
of this species in this country. The specimen of the tarso-metatar- 
sus figured in illustration of Mr. Bartlett's paper, to which I before 
referred (P. Z. S. 1851, Aves, pi. xlv. fig. 1) is, as I learn from Mr. 
Gerrard, now in the British Museum, and there are other examples 
of it in the Andersonian Museum at Glasgow. 

I must here tender my thanks to Mr. W. K. Parker for the kind 
assistance he has rendered me in accurately measuring these bones. 

And now I wish to make one suggestion. It is well known that 
at Oxford there is an old picture of a Dodo, painted by one of the 
Saverys, which seems hitherto to have been referred without hesi- 
tation to Didus ineptus. Mr. Strickland, in speaking of it, says : — 
" A remarkable feature in it is its colossal scale, the Dodo standing 
about 3 feet G inches high, and being double the size which the 

Dr. J. E. Gray on a new Species of Bush-Goat. 63 

picture in the British Museum, the description of eye-witnesses, and 
the existing remains warrant us in attributing to the bird. It is 
difficult to assign a motive to the artist for thus magnifying an 
object already sufficiently uncouth in appearance " (' The Dodo/ 
&c. p. 31). Is it not possible that the artist may in this painting 
have taken a life-sized portrait of the large species (Didus nazarenus, 
Bartlett) to which these bones belong ? 

In conclusion, I have to state that I should be very glad if these 
remarks were the means of exciting further search for the remains 
of the Dodo and its allies. In Rodriguez the bones must be far 
from scarce, and, as the present instance shows, they may be found 
with little trouble. My brother picked up two of them, as I have 
said, in a cave during a very hasty visit. It is a matter of the 
greatest regret that a regularly organized search is not instituted by 
some resident in that island, or by some visitor to whom time is no 
object. We may depend upon it that a rich reward awaits the care- 
ful explorer of the Mascarene caverns and alluvial deposits. 

Notice of the Skull of a New Species of Bush-Goat 
(Cephalophus longiceps), sent from the Gaboon by 
M. Du Chaillu. By Dr. J. E. Gray. 

M. Du Chaillu has lately sent to the British Museum several skins 
and skeletons of the Gorilla (showing how abundant it must be at 
the Gaboon), the skin and skeleton of a Chimpanzee, three skeletons 
of the African Manatee, and the head of a Bush-Goat or Cephalo- 

The skull of the Cephalophus on examination proves quite distinct 
from any that has previously occurred to me ; and as it indicates the 
existence of a large species of the genus, I have sent a notice of it to 
the Society in hope that we may before very long have a complete 
specimen of the animal to describe. 

Section I. Horns decumbent. 
Cephalophus longiceps. 

The skull elongate ; face elongate, compressed in front of the 
eyes ; the nose in front of the eyes narrow, sides only very slightly 
tapering ; nasal bone very long, produced between the frontal be- 
hind, much longer than the medial suture of the frontal. The horns 
elongate, conical, diverging at the tips, decumbent, in a line with the 
forehead ; forehead convex between the orbits. 

Length of skull 10 inches 9 lines; width at zygoma 4 inches 
7 lines ; length of horn-cores 5 inches ; length of lower jaw 9 inches. 

The only species with which the animal can be compared, on ac- 
count of its size, is C. sylvicultrix ; but the skull of the latter is 
short and ventricose, and that of C. longiceps is elongate and slen- 
der. The face of C. sylvicultrix is short, and the nose between the 
impression for the suborbital glands broad and tapering ; the fore- 


Zoological Society : — 

head is much more convex and rounded. The following are the mea- 
surements of the skull of an adult male : — Length of skull 10 inches 
1 line ; width at zygoma 4 inches 7 lines ; length of lower jaw 
8 inches 9 lines. 

The skull of C. lonyiceps resembles in general form and some 
other particulars the figure of the skull of the male C. altifrons, 
figured by Dr. Peters (Reise n. Mossamb. t. 38. f. 1). But that skull 
is not above half the size of the one here described ; and the form 
of the core of the horns is different, the one being conical and elon- 
gate, and the other angular and converging at the tip. 

Skull of Cephalophus longiceps. 

The skulls of the larger species of Cephalophi may be divided into 
two groups, according to the position of the horns, as compared with 
the frontal line. 

In some the horns are decumbent and bent back, being nearly in 
a line with the forehead, as in Cephalophus coronatus, C. sylvicul- 
trix, C. Ogilbyi, C. natalensis (figured in Cat. Ungulata, B.M. t. x. 
f. 1), C. lonyiceps, and C. altifrons, Peters. In others the horns 
are ascending, placed at an obtuse angle with regard to the line of 
the forehead, as in Cephalophus Grimmius and C. ocularis of Peters 
(Reise nach Mossambicpie, Saugeth. t. 39, 40). 

The forehead in all the Cephalophi with decumbent horns is con- 
vex and rounded ; but in C. Ogilbyi it is very much rounded — more 
than in any other species I know ; it is much higher than the base 
of the horn. In the species which Dr. Peters has called C. altifrons it 
does not appear to be so high as usual in the genus. In C. Gri?nmius, 
with ascending horns, it is flat between the eyes. The following 
observation is founded on the comparison of a series of skulls of 
males: — The skulls differ in the length of the face, thus: — In C. 
natalensis the face is short ; the distance from the orbit to the upper 
end of the intermaxillary bone is shorter than the length of the in- 
termaxillary bone. In C. sylvicultrix, C. Ogilbyi, and C ocularis 
the distance above defined and the length of the intermaxillary are 
nearly equal. In C. Grimmius they are rather longer. In C. longi- 
ceps the distance from the front edge of the orbit to the tip of the 

Miscellaneous. 65 

intermaxillary is much longer than the length of the intermaxil- 

In some skulls the nasal bones are the same length as the upper 
suture of the frontal one, as in C. natalensis, C. sylvicultrix, and C. 
Oyilbyi. In C. altifrons, according to Dr. Peters's figure, they are 
shorter. In C. coronatus and C. rujilatus they are much shorter — 
only about two-thirds the length. In one skull of C. Grimmius they 
are longer, and in another skull shorter, and in C. lonyiceps much 

The above observations are made only on a few, sometimes only on 
one specimen of the species ; and when I have three or four speci- 
mens of the same species, as is the case with C. Grimmius, the skulls 
present some variations in the form of the nasal bones and in the 
length of the intermaxillaries as above noted. 

Dr. Peters figures as the skull of a young female of C. altifrons 
a skull of a very different form from that of the skull with the horns 
of the male above referred to. I have not observed such a difference 
in the skulls of the females of any of the species of Cephalophus that 
have occurred to me. I have some doubt if it does belong to the 
same species, as the figure of the young female animal is very like 
the skull of a female C. Grimmius, which is an animal that has ascend- 
ing; horns in the male. 


On the Potlen-yrains of Ranunculus arvensis. 
By George Gulliver, F.R.S. 

Finding, on reference to my note-book entries (of no less than five 
different examinations in the course of four years), that the pollen- 
grains of Ranunculus arvensis always appeared to differ remarkably 
from those of its British allies, I have recently examined the pollen 
of these plants again. The difference now to be described appears 
so constant and remarkable as to deserve a place in the descriptions 
of this species. 

The examinations include all the British yellow-flowered Ranun- 
culese with divided leaves, except R. parviflorus. This species I 
have not seen growing. All the others are as common about Eden- 
bridge as elsewhere. Even R. hirsutus, which Prof. Babington 
marks "Waste land and corn-fields, rare," grows abundantly in 
patches in some of our lanes or by-roads ; but happily the very 
noxious weed R. arvensis scarcely intrudes into pastures, though it 
is a sad pest in some of our stiff arable land, and too well known to 
our husbandmen under the name of the " hedgehog." 

The pollen of each species was repeatedly compared in the same 
stage of development — a necessary precaution, the neglect of which 
has too often led to perplexing discrepancies in botanical descriptions. 
In the following measurements the average sizes only are mentioned, 
as made from the pollen shaken out of the anthers on to a dry piece 
of glass, and viewed by transmitted light. 

Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol.xvi. 5 

66 Miscellaneous. 

Ranunculus auricomus : pollen-grains round and smooth, and 
-g-jLjyth of an inch in diameter. 

R. acris : pollen-grains round and smooth, and ^^th of an inch 
in diameter. 

R. rcpens : pollen-grains round and smooth, and -^^ th of an inch 
in diameter. 

R. bulbosus : pollen-grains round and smooth, and y^yth of an 
inch in diameter. 

R. hirsutus : pollen-grains smoothish, with three depressed scars, 
and y-»rt th of an inch in diameter. 

R. arvensis : pollen-grains round, rough, and so much larger than 
those of the other species as to measure q-f^th of an inch in diameter. 
The roughness remains when the pollen-grains are treated either with 
dilute acids or water. 

Hence the roughness and comparatively large size of the pollen- 
grains of R. arvensis are very evident, and this curious difference is 
certainly constant in our plants. It may be easily seen under a 
magnifying power of fifty diameters. When much more magnified, 
some inequalities may appear on the surface of the pollen-grains of 
the five preceding species. An examination of the pollen of R. parvi- 
fiorus would be interesting. 

On the Feathers of Dinornis robnstus, Owen. 
By W. S. Dallas, F.L.S., Keeper of York Museum. 

The acquisition by the Yorkshire Philosophical Society of a spe- 
cimen of Dinornis robustus, Owen, in so perfect a state of preserva- 
tion that it retains even portions of the muscular and integumentary 
svstems, enables me to describe at least a part of the structure of the 
feathery covering of this remarkable bird, and thus to throw some 
further light upon its affinities among birds with which we are ac- 
quainted in the living state. The general condition of the skeleton 
was described by Mr. Allis in a paper read before the Linnean Society 
in June last ; and Professor Owen has since made use of one or two 
portions of it for the completion of his description of the species, in a 
paper communicated to this Society ; but the fact of the occurrence 
of the feathers, however imperfect, of a bird which, as far as our in- 
formation goes, has long been extinct, seems to call for some special 

At first sight, indeed, it would seem that the fresh condition of 
many parts of this skeleton, and the preservation of traces of the soft 
parts, might warrant us in supposing that many years have not 
elapsed since the bird to which it belonged wandered over the hills 
of Otago ; but all possibility of drawing from these circumstances 
any conclusions as to the period of its death is set aside by the fact 
that other parts of the skeleton are in a state of decay which would 
apparently require a free exposure to the weather for many years for 
its production. 

The portion of skin which bears the remains of feathers covered 
the greater part of the flat, rhombic region of the pelvis immediately 
above the commencement of the tail, and extended, on the left side, 

Miscellaneous. 67 

beyond the ridge bounding this part of the pelvis, and for some dis- 
tance down the slope of its side, where it has beneath it the aponeu- 
rotic portion of some of the great muscles of the thigh. The feather- 
bearing portion forms a sort of broad, irregular, transverse band 
across this region of the pelvis, encroached upon anteriorly by a wide 
semicircular notch, and posteriorly, a little to the right of the centre, 
by an irregular worn space exhibiting numerous perforations, indica- 
ting the former positions of feathers which have disappeared. The 
skin itself is rather thick and coarse. The remains of feathers occur 
only on that part of the skin which covered the flat back of the pelvis, 
in which their insertions give rise to strongly marked papillae. The 
skin on the sloping left side of the pelvis bears no feathers, and pre- 
sents no traces of their insertion. It appears, however, to have lost 
some of its outer layers, and certainly does not furnish evidence suf- 
ficient to prove the existence of a featherless space at this part, which 
would be opposed to Nitzsch's description of the pterylography of 
the Struthionidce. 

The feathers are all very imperfect, consisting only of the basal 
portions of the shaft and accessory shaft, with here and there some 
traces of the barbs. The latter occur most abundantly towards the 
left side, and especially in the feathers situated upon the left ridge, 
from which the specimen here figured (fig. 1) was taken. The shafts 
are always evidently imperfect ; the longest fragment existing in the 
skin is only about 2 inches in length. The stem tapers gradually, 
the quill being the widest part and about Tr l 4 th of an inch in dia- 
meter. The quill is inserted about y^ths of an inch into the skin, 
and the webs appear generally to have commenced about jjth of an 
inch from the junction of the quill with the shaft. From these data 
it is of course impossible to form any opinion as to the original length 
of the feathers. 

The accessory shafts are considerably smaller than the main shafts, 
but still of sufficient size to constitute an important portion of the 
plumage. The longest accessory shaft that I have been able to find 
measures 1^ inch in length, and is imperfect; there is little doubt 
that the accessory shafts were both shorter and more slender than 
the true feathers. 

The shaft is somewhat convex above, and marked with a fine lon- 
gitudinal furrow beneath. It is of a brown colour beneath, but pale 
horn-colour above, probably from exposure to external influences. 
The accessory shaft is of a pale horn-colour, and appears to be nearly 

The structure of the web is somewhat different from that which 
occurs in the Emu and the Cassowary. Towards the base of the 
shaft the barbs spring in groups of four or five together from nearly 
the same spot, and thus this part of the web assumes a tufted aspect. 
As we advance towards the apex this arrangement speedily ceases ; 
the number of barbs springing from the shaft gradually diminishes, 
until each side bears only a single series of these appendages. The 
barbs consist of slender, flattened fibres, bearing long, silky, and very 
delicate barbules, without any trace of barbicels, but presenting a di- 




stinctly beaded appearance when examined by a simple lens. Under 
the microscope, with a moderate power, this beaded aspect is lost, 
and the barbule appears merely divided by faint transverse partitions 
into a series of cells, some of which, towards the apex, exhibit small 
tooth-like projections representing the rudiments of barbicels (fig. 3). 
All tbe barbs remaining on the feathers appear to be imperfect. 

Fig. 1. The basal portion of a feather detached from the skin, of the natural size : 
a. The accessory shaft. 

2. Part of a barb with the barbules ; magnified 15 diameters. 

3. Apical portion of a barbule ; magnified 150 diameters. 

The barbs of the accessory plume are of the same general struc- 
ture as those on the main shaft, but they appear to form a single 
series on each side from the base. 

The barbs nearest the base of the feather, both in the main web 
and the accessory plume, are destitute of barbules for some distance 
from their base ; but this distance gradually decreases until the barb 
is furnished with barbules throughout its whole length. 

It is evidently impossible to determine from these mere fragments 
of feathers what was the precise structure of those organs when per- 
fect ; we cannot even decide whether the basal barbs possessed the 

Miscellaneous. G9 

hair-like tips characteristic of those of the Emu and Cassowary, and 
still less whether the apical portion of the feather supported simple 
barbs such as occupy that position in those birds. The only fact of 
importance, indeed, that I can hope to make known by this paper is 
that the Dinornithes undoubtedly possessed a large accessory plume, 
thus adding another proof of their relationship to the green-egged 
Emus and Cassowaries existing in the Australian region, and of their 
difference from the white-egged group of Struthiones represented 
in Africa and South America. — Proc. Zool. Soc. March 14, 1865. 

On the Metamorphoses undergone by certain Fishes before acquiring 
the Adult Form. By Professor Agassiz. 

I have lately observed in Fishes metamorphoses as considerable as 
those known to take place in the Amphibia. Now that pisci- 
culture is followed with so much success and on so large a scale, 
it is surprising that this fact has not been long since observed ; but 
this may perhaps be attributed to the circumstance that these 
metamorphoses usually commence after the hatching of the young, 
at a period when they die rapidly, if kept in captivity. At this age, 
moreover, they are for the most part too small to be conveniently 
studied in their natural element. Nevertheless this is the most im- 
portant period of their growth, if we wish to study their natural 
affinities. I intend shortly to show how certain small Fishes, at first 
resembling Gadoids or Blennioids, pass gradually to the type of the 
Labroids and Lophioids. I shall also be able to show how certain 
embryos resembling the tadpoles of the Frog or Toad, gradually ac- 
cpiire the form of Cyprinodonts, — how certain Apodal Fishes become 
transformed into Jugular and Abdominal Fishes, and certain Mala- 
copterygians into Acanthopterygians, and, lastly, how we may found 
a natural classification of Fishes upon the correspondence existing 
between their embryonic development and the complication of their 
structure in the adult state. 

Quite recently I have discovered that the metamorphoses of certain 
members of the Scomberoid family are perhaps still more unexpected 
than any of those which I have previously observed. Every ichthyo- 
logist knows the characters of the Dory (Zeusfaber), and the pecu- 
liarities which connect this fish with the family of the Scomberoids. 
Another less-known but very curious fish, Argyropelecus hemigymnus 
(Cocco), which likewise inhabits the Mediterranean, has been gene- 
rally referred to the Salmon family, or placed with the Salmons as a 
subfamily. Systematic authors have generally regarded the Scom- 
beroids and the Salmons as very different fishes, the former being 
referred to the Acanthopterygii and the latter to the Malacopterygii. 
Nevertheless Argyropelecus hemigymnus is neither more nor less 
than the young state of Zeus faber. 

I expect that all ichthyologists will reject this assertion as erroneous. 
Nevertheless nothing can be more true ; and therefore, instead of 
seeking to prove it by long arguments, I shall, for the present, merely 
request my confreres to procure small specimens of the Dory (of 8 
to 10 centimetres in length), and to compare them with authentic 
speeimens of Argyropelecus, feeling certain that they will admit the 

70 Miscellaneous. 

identity of the two fishes as soon as they have made the compari- 
son. — Comptes Rendus, January 23, 1865, p. 152. 

Description of the Egg of Parra gallinacea. 
By John Gould, F.R.S. &c. 
The ground-colour of the egg of this species is of a dark shining 
raw-sienna tint, over which are traced in various directions a series 
of broad and tine hair-like contorted lines of brownish black, which, 
by occasionally uniting laterally and crossing each other, form here 
and there large blotches. Although these markings are of the same 
character on each egg, they are somewhat differently distributed : 
thus, on one of the two I possess, they are more numerous at the 
larger end, and absent at the smaller ; while on the other they are 
more abundant at the smaller, and less so at the larger extremity. 
The eggs are one inch and an eighth in length by seven eighths of an 
inch in breadth. They are, moreover, rendered remarkably conspi- 
cuous by the singularly pointed form of the smaller end, and by their 
small size as compared with that of the bird, but above all by the 
form and disposition of the markings, which are as if traced by the 
hand of a person who had amused himself by attempting to cover the 
surface with fantastic streaks, blotches, and contorted curves from 
end to end. — Proc. Zool. Soc. Dec. 13, 1864. 

On a neio Form of Brachiolaria. By M. Sars. 

M. Sars has discovered a new Echinodermatous larva belonging to 
the Brachiolarian type. It presents a greater affinity to the Bipin- 
narice than those observed by Johannes Muller. Its development is 
also very similar to that of the Bipinnariee, — the Starfish in course of 
formation presenting the same relations of position and union with 
the body of the larva. There are, however, some differences. In 
the Bipinnariee the rudiment of the ambulacral system makes its 
appearance very early, in the form of a rosette of five caeca ; in the 
Brachiolarke, on the contrary, these caeca are not brought together 
in a group, but distant from each other, and their circle is open on 
one side. This condition persists until after the formation of the 
perisoma, with its five arms and their spines. 

The Brachiolarice are really distinguished from the Bipinnariee 
only by the presence of their contractile arms at the anterior extremity. 
M. Sars has ascertained that these organs, whose function has hitherto 
been doubtful, act as an apparatus of attachment. They may be com- 
pared with the very similar organs of attachment of the larvae of 
Echinaster sanguinolentus and Aster acanthion Muller i. Thus these 
various types of larvae, so different in appearance, are united in an 
unexpected manner. — Videnskabsselskabets Forhandlingar, ISO'S ; 
Abstract in Bibl. Univ., May 1865, Bull. Sci., p. 62. 

Investigation of the Structure of the Encephalon of Fishes, and of the 
Homological Signification of its different Parts. By M. Hollard. 

The type of the encephalon in Fishes is inferior to that prevailing 
in Mammalia, not only in its general development, but also in the 
absence of several organs. This type is not only inferior, but it is 

Miscellaneous. 71 

also special, and susceptible of numerous modifications. The pecu- 
liarities presented by it have given rise to very various interpretations, 
often founded on deceptive analogies of form, aud most of them in- 
capable of demonstration. With the exception of some determina- 
tions which are evident at the first glance, most of them are still in 
the condition of simple hypotheses, or mere probabilities, or are 
completely erroneous. In order to arrive at results such as science 
can accept, we must (1) commence by referring the different parts of 
the encephalon of Fishes to the divisions which embryogeny furnishes 
for this brain as for those of other Vertebrata, and (2) ascertain with 
precision the organs composing each of these divisions, and distin- 
guish among these organs those which are fundamental and those 
which belong to the development of higher types. 

By proceeding in this manner, tracing the series of three ence- 
phalic regions which correspond successively to the three primitive 
cerebral vesicles of vertebrate animals (the epencephalic, mesen- 
cephalic, and prosencephalic), and ascertaining that the epencephalon 
is divided into two subregions, namely, that of the postcerebrum or 
calamus and that of the cerebellum, and that the prosencephalon is 
also divided, forming an anterior and an intermediate cerebrum, the 
author found no difficulty in determining, at first in a general wav, 
but afterwards in detail, the cerebral organs which are developed in 
each of these regions in Fishes. 

For the postcerebrum, or region of the calamus, we have here two 
pairs of small grey masses, superposed upon the roots of the fifth, 
eighth, and ninth pairs of encephalic nerves. These little lobules, 
commonly known as the posterior lobes or lobi vagi, correspond to 
the streaks of grey matter which border the fourth ventricle in the 
higher Vertebrata, and especially the posterior pyramids, forming 
what are called the valves of Tarin. 

The posterior brain, which usually forms a large single lobe sup- 
ported by two lateral peduncles and emitting two anterior processes, 
is a well-characterized cerebellum ; and by contrasting with that of the 
Batrachia and Reptiles, but more or less resembling that of Birds, 
it constitutes one of the features of the cerebral type of Fishes. 

The mesencephalon is concealed beneath the posterior part of the 
prosencephalon. It is composed of tuberculiform masses seated on 
a floor which covers a true aqueduct of Sylvius : it is here that the 
processes of the cerebellum terminate ; and we may easily recognize 
the tubercula geminata in the hollow grey masses which cover this 
small ventricular region. 

The greatest difficulty of determination is presented by the pros- 
encephalon, and especially by the posterior subregion or intermediate 
cerebrum. This region, more complex than the others in all Verte- 
brata, presents peculiar arrangements in Fishes ; and to decipher it 
we must recall the constitution of the intermediate cerebrum in the 
higher Vertebrata. It is at once the peduncular region, the region 
of the third ventricle, of the cerebral nucleus — or at least of the 
fundamental portion of that nucleus, which is composed of the pedun- 
cular fasciculi, the optic lobes, and the striated bodies. 

In Fishes we readily detect this peduncular region, composed 

72 Miscellaneous. 

inferiorly of two large pyramidal fasciculi, superiorly of the continua- 
tion of the other fasciculi of the medulla. Two pairs of lobes, one 
inferior, one superior, are attached to it. The superior lobe is com- 
posed of a semicircular nucleus, from which originate two superposed 
layers, the fibres of which cross, and which give to the lobe a great 
superficial development. The outer layer is the principal root of tbe 
optic nerve. These can ouly be regarded as the optic lobes. 

The inferior lobes are more problematical. The inferior pyramidal 
cords are divided between these and the preceding lobes ; this was 
already known. But the other medullary fibres, after traversing the 
optic lobes, also penetrate the inferior lobes, instead of passing 
directly, as has been supposed, to the anterior cerebrum. Another 
newly ascertained fact is, that it is from the inferior lobes that the 
medullary fasciculus originates which spreads in the anterior lobes of 
the cerebrum in Fishes ; so that the true serial position of the in- 
ferior lobes is that of a continuation of the optic lobes, and preceding 
the hemispheres. This position is occupied in the higher animals 
by the corpora striata, with which the inferior lobes of Fishes may 
therefore be identified. — Comptes Rendus, April 17, 1865, p. 768. 

Description of a new Species of Rock-Kangaroo (Pterogale longi- 
cauda)/?-om New South Wales. By Gerard Krefft. 
Hair remarkably soft and long (3 inches in length upon the back 
and sides), dark grey at the base, tipped with pale yellow and 
black, giving the fur a mottled appearance. Head and neck grey, 
a lighter patch extending from the base of the ears to the nostrils. 
Ears grey at the base, black at the tip ; sides slightly fringed with 
yellow. Shoulders and fore legs dark grey, grizzled with white, 
which colour extends to about the middle of the body. The hair of 
the back and haunches is of much longer growth, silky to the 
touch, of a mottled brownish-grey colour, and changing into rusty 
yellow near the base of the tail. The tail at its root is sandy-coloured, 
but soon changes into dark brown, the hair being very coarse and 
long, forming into a broad brush at the end. 


Length from tip of nose to root of tail 29£ 

Tail 27 

Face to base of ear 4£ 

Arms and hands G 

Tarsi and toes 7 

Ear 21 

Petrogale longicauda is easily distinguished from all other species by 
its remarkably long and bushy tail, which is about a foot longer than 
that of any other Rock-Wallaby. A single specimen of this inter- 
esting animal has been procured by Mr. George Masters, Assistant 
Curator of the Australian Museum, at Dabee Rylstone, 250 miles 
N.W. of Sydney. Mr. Masters informs me that this Wallaby is 
very quick and difficult to approach, and that, after watching for 
two nights, only one specimen could be secured. The skull was 
completely broken, so that no description could be given of it. — 
Proc. Zool. Soc. March 28, 1865. 




No. 92. AUGUST 1865. 

VIII. — On the Homology of the Buccal Parts of the Mollusca. 
By Dr. Otto A. L. Morch, of Copenhagen. 

[Plate VI.] 

The oral organs have, throughout the animal kingdom, furnished 
some of the most important systematic characters. Linnaeus first 
based the system of M amnialia, and Fabricius that of Insects, upon 
the structure of these parts. It was, however, not until 1847 that 
Prof. Loven* placed the natural classification of the Mollusca on 
a scientific base, chiefly founding it on the dentition of the tongue 
(radula). Another part of the oral organs, the mandibles, has 
been much neglected. Most authors understand by this name 
all hard bodies near the entrance of the mouth. I believe it is 
necessary to distinguish two (or perhaps three) different kinds 
of oral plates corresponding to the mandibles and maxillae of the 
Arthropoda. The maxilla is a median, unequal-sized, corneous 
plate attached to the bulbus pharyngeus over the oral aperture, 
and serving to divide the food into morsels. It is found in all 
Land Pulmonata (Phyllovora, Gray). According to its struc- 
ture, I have distinguished the following groups: — Oxygnatha, 
with a smooth maxilla; Aulacognatha, with a closely sulcated 
maxilla, crenulated at the edge ; Oaontognatha, with a strongly 
ribbed maxilla, forming projecting teeth on the edge; Gonio- 
gnatha, with the maxilla composed of oblique plates (genus 
Orthalicus)-f. Among the Land Pulmonata, the maxillae are 
wanting in the Agnatha (Vermivora, Gray), which swallow their 
prey entire and alive (genera Onchis, Testacella, Helicophanta, 
Caffra, Daudebardia, Streptaxis, Urucoptis, Glandina). Among 
the marine Mollusca, it is only found in jEgirus and, perhaps, 
Sip hono dent alium. 

* Ofversigt af Kgl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Forhamllingar, 1847. 
t Morch, Malacozoologische Blatter, 1859. 

Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol.xvi. 6 

74 Dr. Morch on the Homology of 

The maxilla of the aquatic Pulmonata is provided with a lateral, 
linear, moveable appendage on each side, the real homology of 
which is not yet quite ascertained, nor even whether it is a part 
of the maxilla or independent of it. 

The maxilla is divided into two* in the case of the young Limax 
before it leaves the egg. The two halves are afterwards united 
by an intermediate piece, which, in a more advanced period of 
growth, is indicated by a notch in the projecting middle tooth. 
I do not believe this circumstance shows that the maxilla is formed 
by a union of the lateral mandibles. 

A superior and inferior maxillse are only found in the Cephalo- 
poda, and perhaps in the larval state of some Pectinibranchiata ; 
but it is not placed beyond doubt that the beak of the Cephalopod 
is really homologous with the maxilla in the Pulmonata. The 
maxilla of ' Succinea is not unlike the upper maxilla in the Ce- 
phalopoda. Prof. Van Beneden's figure of the " machoire supe- 
rieure et iriferieure" of Amphipeplea glutinosa (Exercices Zooto- 
miques, f. 6-9) looks very like the beak of a Cephalopod ; but 
it may be erroneous, because the radula is represented (f. 7) as 
forming a part of the lower maxilla. A similar mistake was 
committed by Moquin-Tandon, who represented in Neritina as 
superior and inferior maxillae what, according to Claparede, are 
only the edges of a corneous membrane lining the oral cavity. 

Messrs. Alder and Hancock have shown, in Acanthodoris 
pilosa, a solitary inferior maxilla represented by a flat plate with 
a split in front protruding from the mouth ; but this part seems 
to me more likely to belong to the lingual cartilages. 

Perhaps the " anterior or lower lip, armed with teeth/' repre- 
sented by Macdonaldf in Clio caudata is the edge of an inferior 

The mandibulce are two lateral concave plates, not unlike a 
bivalve shell J, the free edge of which (masticatory edge § of 
Bergh) is either tuberculated or denticulated. From the position 
of the muscles and from the form of the pectinated edge in 
Phyllodesmium, Ehrb. (Bergh, 'Anatomic'), it appears that the 
mandibles cannot be used for mastication, but are only adapted 
for use as a pair of forceps to hold the food during the triturating 
action of the radula. By the umboncs of the mandibles (umbi- 
licus, Midd., Bergh) the two halves are united with muscular 
ligaments. This kind of lateral mandibles is found in the 
Pleurognatha Gymnobranchiata (A^olidue, Diphyllidue, &c). In 

* Ilevnemann, Malacozoologische Blatter, 1861, p. 143. The same is 
the case with Vitrina in its young state. 

t Trans. Royal Sue. Edrob. vol. xxiii. pt. 1?. p. IKS, t. 9. f. 3. 
X Descrihed as such by Brown in Binghamia parudoxa. 
§ Cutting edge (Alder and Hancock). 

the Buccal Parts of the Mollusca. 75 

Proctonotus mucroniferus Alder and Hancock have discovered a 
"corneous transverse arch or strap" uniting the two halves, and 
reminding us of the middle maxilla in the Pulmonata. The 
nature of the mandibles described by Troschel (Gebiss der 
Sehnecken, t. iii. f. 18) in Pneumodermon is, in my opinion, very 

The cheek-plates*, or immoveable mandibles, are two lateral 
plates, without cutting edges, composed of scaly or aciculary 
particles, which seem only of use to protect the inside of the 
mouth from injury by the spinous tongue. Sometimes the two 
plates are united above by a ligament. This kind of mandible is 
found in nearly all the Tcenioglossata, as well in those provided 
with a ?'ostrum (Ci/clostomus, Valvata, Rissoa, Jeffreysia, Crepi- 
dula, Vermetus, Trichotropis, &c.) as in those with an haustellum 
(Marsenia, Natica, Cijprcea, Cassis, Triton, Strombus, &c.) : vide 
Troschel, Gebiss derSchneckcn. These plates are apparently want- 
ing in all the Rhachiglossata [Murex, Fusus, Nassa, &c). The 
linear horny plates described in Buccinum undatum by Cuvier 
(Anat. des Mollusq. figs. 11, 12) and by Valenciennes (Archives 
du Museum, t. v. p. , t. 25. f. 6) are probably appendages of 
the tongue, and used as a handle in perforating the shells on 
which they prey. 

The prehensile collar (Hancock) is a circular band composed 
of conical, often forked, erectile spines. Sometimes it is entire, 
as in Ancula cristata and Goniodoris nodosa ; in others it is 
divided into two lateral parts, not unlike cheek-shields, as in 
Idalia pulchella and Acanthodoris pilosa. 

Evertile cheek-cushions ("lames laterales," Lacaze-DuthiersJ), 
two large evertile lateral sacs, covered with close-set lanceolate 
plates, like pavement, in Pleurobranchus. They seem to be an 
intermediate form between the prehensile collar and the evertile 
arms of the Gymnosomata and Cephalopoda. 

Cheek-hooks or cheek-crooks (harpagse §) ; mandibles, Eschricht, 
in Clione ; "les csecums de la bouche, avec un tube come dans 
Pinterieur" (Van Beneden||); "evertile tubes serving as pre- 
hensile organs" (Troschel^[) (this author has not detected these 
organs in Clione and Pneumodermon); " lateral or cheek-pouches" 
(Macdonald**. Eschricht ff first showed that these tentacle- 

* " Mandible-like parts, indumentum epitheliae, the horn sheaths of 
the inner lip " (Bergh). 

t In Thecosoinata {Hyalcca, &c.) they are composed of four or five 
band-like plates {vide Troschel, Gebiss). 

X Ann. des Sc. nat. ser. 4. vol. xi. t. 7- f. 4. 

§ I intentionally use this form of the word. 

|| Exercices zootoiniqucs. ^[ Gebiss d. Sehn. 

** hoc. cit. and Linn. Trans, xxii. 1858, p. 24S. 

ft Anatomiske Uudcrsogelsei- over Clione borealis, 1838. 


76 Dr. MSrch on the Homology of 

like organs, which are always provided with corneous hooks, 
are evertile; but this has been established by Eydoux and 
Souleyet* in the genera Pneumodermon and Clione. 

The long arms of the decapod Cephalopods seem to me with- 
out doubt the same organs as the cheek-hooks of Gymnosomata; 
thcv have the same latero-ventral position, and are retractile 
within a cavity or pouch inside the short arms, which may be 
considered as a single fissured veil, and perform the same func- 
tion in the animal. Prof. Loven considered the long arms of 
Decapoda homologous with the tentacula (vibracula) of the Gas- 
teropoda, and compared them specially with the rhinophores of 
Doris. I do not believe that this homology is natural, because 
the tentacula are always dorsal, and the " long arms " of Cephalo- 
poda always latero-ventral. It seems also very doubtful whether 
an organ of prehension can be homologous with an organ of 
smell. If the Cephalopoda have no tentacula at all, the " cretes 
auriculaires " (D'Orb.) or " paupieres inferieures" (D'Orb.) of 
the Myopsid Decapods may be considered as their homologue. 
The triangular filaments over the eyes of Octopi are perhaps, too, 
a form of tentacula. I believe they are provided with a nervous 
ganglion at their base, like those of Doris. 

The " organe en pioche," in Conus, of Quoy and Gaimard is 
a tubular sac, provided with arrow-like corneous hooks with a 
hollow channel, which are considered venomous. I have had an 
opportunity of confirming the exactness of the anatomy repre- 
sented in the ' Voyage de 1' Astrolabe/ As these hooks are not 
situated in the true oral tube, it is still very doubtful whether 
they really can be considered to belong to the radula. I 
suppose these arrow-like hooks are more allied to the cheek- 
hooks of Gymnosomata. As the hooks turn their points in 
opposite directions in the two arms of the pouch, it is probable 
they are evertile each in a different direction, but how and through 
what aperture is not yet discovered. 

On the Palpi and Lips. 

There are often in the Gasteropoda two different apertures in 
the same animal, called mouths. The true mouth is the anterior 
opening of the bulbus pharyngeus, frequently prolonged into an 
haustellum. This opening is only provided with the hard plates 
described above. The outer or false mouth is a simple slit in 
the skin, containing the lips or palpi, but never any mandibles; 
and it forms a passage for the protrusile haustellum, which, in 
a retracted state, is concealed in a cavity behind this slit. 

In the Acephala the palpi are represented by two pairs of 

* Voyage de la Bonite; Mrs. Gray's figures of Moll. t. 255. f. 3. 

the Buccal Paris of the Molhisca, 77 

foliaceous expansions, grooved (sulcated) inside, and destined to 
conduct the particles of food to the mouth, and they may thus 
be considered passive prehensile organs. 

In the Calyptrseidse the same organ is composed of a single 
pair, which is represented in all drawings of these mollusks as 
two intertentacular tubercles. In reality these tubercles are 
flat inside, grooved as in the Acephala, and probably used as a 
pair of forceps, as appears from their relative position in different 
specimens. In Cupulas the palpi form a long haustellum-like 
tube, with a narrow slit on the upper side. In Dentalium and 
Siphonodentalium they form a closed, flat tube. 

In the Doridce the palpi are situated near the outer oral aper- 
ture, and are sometimes of a linear form, with a longitudinal 
groove on the middle, sometimes foliaceous (Hexabranckus) or 
meeting together in a semicircle (Lamellidoris) , or they become 
the oral veil. 

In Conus, Terebra, and perhaps Pleurutoma this veil is de- 
veloped into a large infundibuliform sucking-cup, which dis- 
appears when the haustellum is protruded. This veil was for a 
long time regarded as the proboscis, until Dr. Gray* showed 
its real nature. In Conus tulipa and C. striatus the edge is 
divided into many digitations. (Voyage de PAstvolabe ; Mrs. 
Gray's figures, i. t. 10. f. 6, and 12. f. 2.) 

In the gymnosome Pteropoda the oral veil is divided into 
several conical " arms," provided with numerous suckers, and 
probably corresponding to the grooves in the labial palpi of 
Acephala and Calyptrreidse. 

In the Cephalopoda these "arms" are still more developed, 
and united by a membrane, which sometimes extends to the tips 
(Cirroteuthis, Eschricht). 

Under the name "velum," as employed by Loven, very dif- 
ferent organs are confounded. I believe three kinds may be 
distinguished : — 

1. The oral veil, formed by the palpi or lips, an organ 
for prehension or locomotion (Cephalopoda, larva of Opistho- 
branchia, e. g. Doris), or even partly available as a male organ 
(hectocotyl of the Cephalopoda), as in the Spiders. The "mem- 
brane orale" of D'Orbigny, found in the decapod Cephalopoda, 
seems to me a kind of suspensorium, like the " brids " of the 

2. The tentacular veil, situated further from the mouth. It is 
placed, in Pleurobranchus, above the mouth, and formed by the 
union of the anterior tentacula (vibracula in Aplysia). In 

* " On the Head of the genus Conus," Ann. Nat. Hist. Aug. 1853, p. 176. 

78 Dr. Morch on the Homology of 

Clione its two halves can cover the arms entirely, like a hood 
(see Eschricht's 'Anatomie'), and resemble the " cretes auricu- 
laires " and " paupieres inferieures " of D'Orbigny, above men- 

3. The post-tentacular veil is only found in the larval state of 
Rissoa, Loven (Ofversigt, 1847), and in the genera Chiropteron 
of Sars* and MacgiUivrayia of Macdonald. 

In analogy with the names of the foot given by Prof. Huxley, 
these three kinds of velum may be called Prohistion, Mesohistion, 
and Metahistion. 

That the short arms of Cephalopoda cannot be considered 
the homologue of the foot, is evident from the circumstance that 
the same kind of arms is found in the Pteropoda Gymnosomata 
simultaneously with an undoubted foot. Prof. Loven first 
showed that the funnel must be the foot of Gasteropoda, and he 
suggests that the interior valvula of most Decapods and of 
Nautilusf corresponds to the solea pedis of Gasteropoda — a 
proposition which, I believe, is correct. The funnel would thus 
correspond to the epipodium in the Gymnosomata; its dorsal 
wings, attached to the neck of nearly all Decapod Cephalopoda, 
are provided with three cartilages which may be compared to 
a tripartite operculum J, thus proving that the lobus operculi- 
gerus of Loven § is a part of the epipodial line (Huxley), and not 
of the true foot (solea) . 

Pedipes afra, as represented by Adanson (Hist. Nat. du Sene- 
gal, tab. 1) and by Lowe (Zool. Journ. vol. v. pi. 13. f. 8, 9), is 
the only example of a foot divided into the propodium, meso- 
podium, and metapodium of Prof. Huxley. 


Fig. I. Pneumodermon : intestinal channel, with the labial suckers, sali- 
vary glands, stomach, rectum, and anus. The cheek-pouches 
are united at their ends by a muscular band. 

Fig. 1 b. The oesophagus opened, to show the entrance of the cheek-pouches, 
with the prehensile hooks in the centre, on both sides of the 

* Chiropteron semilunare, Sars (Beskrivelser og Jagttagelser 1835, 1. 14. 
f. 38), is probably the larva of Aporrhais. 

f R. Owen, ' On the Pearly Nautilus,' t. 3. f. 2 e. 

X The middle cartilage is articulated to the inside of the front of the 
shield or dorsal plate, and the two lateral cartilages to similarly excavated 
plates in the inner margins of the mantle. 

§ The dorsal part of the metapodium (Iluxlev, "On the Morphology 
of Cephalous Mollusca," Phil. Traus. 1853, p. 29). 

the Buccal Parts of the Mollusca. 79 

Fig. \c. Pneumodermon, with everted prehensile hooks (harpagae). (Figs.l, 
1 b, and 1 c from 'Voyage de la Bonite.') 

Fig. 1 d. One of the sacs opened, to show the evertile hooks, with some 
detached corneous spines. (From Van Beneden's ' Exercices 

Fig. 2. Clione limacina, Phips. : the anterior part of the oesophagus. 
The harpaga of the right cheek-pouch is everted; the left re- 
tracted, and seen through an opening. 

Fig. 2 a. The harpaga, with from 24 to 32 corneous hooks. From Esch- 
richt's ' Undersogelse om Clione borealis.' 

Fig. 3. Onychoteuthis, from the ventral side, with protruded arms. It is 
douhtful whether the metacarpal suckers are really destined 
to act against each other, as represented by Ferussac and D'Or- 

Fig. 4. Conus tulipa : the oral veil expanded at the edge, and opened to 
show the haustellum. 

Fig. 4 a. The oral veil in a contracted state. 

Fig. 4 b. The intestinal channel and its glands, the two liver-lobes, and an 
intermediate small so-called "gland," perhaps the true stomach. 
Over the nervous ring is the " organe en pioche," attached to 
the oesophagus by muscular bands; but I have not been able, in 
a specimen of C. consors, to discover any communication with the 
interior of the oesophagus. It cannot, therefore, represent the 
papillae of the tongue, which in Littorina and Patella are of enor- 
mous length. At the insertion of the " organe en pioche," close 
to the base, is the long vermiform canal 'of the single " glande 
salivaire cucumiforme." The walls of this cylindrical organ are 
enormously thick and muscular; and it therefore seems tome 
not to be a salivary gland, but a suctorial stomach, like that of 
most haustellate insects. A similar unequal sac, in the same 
position, is found in the following Mollusca, all of which are 
provided with an haustellum : — 

Murex cichoreus, Voyage de l'Astrolabe, t. 36. f. 1, et Suppl. 
t. 2. f. 1 d, troisieme glande salivaire. 

Dolium olearium, ibid. t. 41. f. 4. 

Valuta fusus, Q. & G. ibid. t. 44. f. 9 h, " diverticulum ou caecum 
cesophagieu tres-eonside'rable ;" and f. 10 and 11. 

Ancillaria albisulcata, ibid. t. 49. f. 11 d, "diverticulum, 
espece de caecum." 

The petiolate cheek-pouch in Lamellidoris, described by Mr. 
Hancock, is perhaps, too, a kind of instrument destined to produce 
a vacuum, like the suckers of Cephalopoda. 

Fig. 4 c. The " organe en pioche" opened, to show the arrows turning the 

points in a different direction in each branch. 
Fig. 4 d. Different forms of the arrows, hollow inside. 

(Figs. 4-4 d from 'Voyage de l'Astrolabe,' t. 44.) 
Fig. 5. Pharynx of Pleurobranchus, showing the "lames laterales" t\a 

both sides of the tongue, a. The hard parts of the " lames 

laterales," strongly magnified. (From Lacaze-Duthier's 'Anato- 

mie du Pleurobranche orange,' /. c.) 

80 Mr. J. Blackwah on recently discovered Spiders 

IX. — Descriptions of recently discovered Spiders collected in the 
Cape de Verde Islands by John Gray, Esq. By John Black- 
wall, F.L.S. 

Tribe Octonoculina. 

Family Lycosid^;. 

Genus Lycosa, Latr. 

Lycosa helva. 

Length of the female ^ths of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax -£-§-, breadth -fa ; breadth of the abdomen J- ; length of 
a posterior leg ■£- ; length of a leg of the third pair -fa. 

The eyes, which are unequal in size, are disposed in front and 
on the sides of the anterior part of the cephalothorax ; four, 
much smaller than the rest, form a transverse row immediately 
above the frontal margin, the two lateral ones being rather 
smaller than the intermediate ones of the same row ; the other 
four describe a trapezoid, the two anterior eyes, which are the 
largest of the eight, forming its shortest side. The cephalo- 
thorax is long, convex, clothed with short adpressed hairs, com- 
pressed before, rounded in front and on the sides, which are 
marked with furrows converging towards a narrow, dark-brown 
indentation in the medial line of the posterior region ; it is of a 
dull yellow colour, with a broad brown band, mingled with yel- 
low, extending along each side, a short brown line directed 
backwards from each eye of the posterior pair, and a small dark 
brown streak on each angle of the frontal margin. The falces 
are powerful, conical, vertical, convex in front, and armed with 
teeth on the inner surface ; and the lip is somewhat quadrate, 
being rather broader at the base than at the apex. These organs 
have a very dark-brown hue, the lip being the paler. The 
maxilla? are straight and enlarged and rounded at the extremity; 
the sternum is oval, glossy, and thinly clothed with whitish 
hairs. The legs are robust, provided with hairs and sessile spines, 
and the metatarsi and tarsi have hair-like papilla? distributed on 
their inferior surface ; the fourth pair is the longest, then the 
first, and the third pair is the shortest ; each tarsus is terminated 
by three claws ; the two superior ones are curved and pectinated, 
and the inferior one is merely rudimentary ; the palpi have a 
curved, pectinated claw at their extremity. These parts are of a 
dull yellow colour. The abdomen is oviform, convex above, and 
projects over the base of the cephalothorax ; it is clothed with 
short hairs, and is of a pale yellow-red colour; at the anterior 
extremity of the upper part there is a brown angular mark, 
having its vertex directed downwards; and an obscure band of 
the same hue, which has a projecting point on each side, near 

collected in the Cape tie Verde Islands. 81 

its middle, and whose posterior extremity is bifid, extends from 
within the anterior angle along the middle ; between the termi- 
nation of this band and the spinners there are several faint, 
brown, angular lines, whose vertices are directed forwards, and 
numerous minute spots of a similar colour occur on the sides, 
the extremity of the spinners being of a darker brown ; the 
sexual organs are minute, and have a red-brown hue. 
Captured in the Island of St. Antonio. 

Genus Hersilia, Savigny. 
Hersilia versicolor. 

Length of the female (not including the spinners) -fV tns °f 
an inch ; length of the cephalothorax -^r, breadth T ^ ; breadth 
of the abdomen T ' T ; length of a leg of the second pair -^ ; 
length of a leg of the third pair ±. 

The cephalothorax is short, broad, slightly compressed and 
elevated before, rounded in front and on the sides, moderately 
convex, and has an indentation in the medial line ; it is of a 
dull brownish-yellow colour, with a brownish-black angular 
mark in the middle of its posterior half, whose vertex is directed 
forwards, and some large spots of the same hue on the lateral 
margins. The falces are conical, somewhat inclined towards the 
sternum, provided with long hairs, and are of a dark-brown co- 
lour, the extremity having a red-brown hue. The maxill?e are 
short, powerful, strongly inclined towards the lip, and obliquely 
truncated at the extremity, which is pointed on the inner side ; 
the lip is somewhat quadrate, being broader at the base than at 
the extremity ; the sternum is broad and reniform. These parts 
have a dull yellowish-white hue. The legs are long, provided 
with hairs, and of a dark-brown hue, with narrow whitish an- 
nuli; the second pair is longer than the first, and the third pair 
is the shortest ; the fourth pair was mutilated, but the femora 
were entire, and exactly corresponded in length with those of the 
second pair; the slender metatarsi and tarsi have each only one 
joint, the latter being terminated by three claws ; the two supe- 
rior ones are curved and pectinated, and the inferior one is in- 
flected near its base. The palpi, which are long and resemble 
the legs in colour, have a curved, pectinated claw at their extre- 
mity. The eyes are disposed on the anterior part of the cephalo- 
thorax in two transverse curved rows, having their convexity 
directed forwards; they are situated high above the frontal 
margin, the lateral eyes of the anterior row being very much 
the smallest, and the two intermediate ones of the same row, 
which are rather wider apart than those of the posterior row, 
much the largest of the eight. The abdomen is rather broader 

82 Mr. J. Blackwall on recently discovered Spiders 

in the middle than at the extremities, convex above, and projects 
over the base of the cephalothorax ; on the upper part and sides 
it is densely clothed with coarse, adpressed, reddish, yellowish, 
and whitish hairs intermixed, and has black and white bristles, 
more or less erect, distributed over the surface of those parts ; a 
brownish-black band extends from the anterior extremity of the 
upper part to its middle ; this band, which is enlarged about its 
middle, is bifid at its extremity, and from each diverging branch 
a row of spots of the same hue passes to the spinners ; the sides 
are marked with oblique brownish-black streaks, and the under 
part, which is downy, has a very pale dull yellowish hue ; the 
sexual organs are highly developed, prominent, and of a red- 
brown colour ; the superior spinners are long, triarticulate, and 
have the spinning -tubes disposed on the inferior surface of the 
elongated terminal joint, which tapers to a point ; this joint has 
a brownish-black hue on the upper and exterior surfaces of its 
base, the colour of the other parts of these spinners and of the 
intermediate and inferior pairs being pale dull yellow. 
Captured in the Island of St. Jago. 

Family Salticid/E. 

Genus Salticus, Latr. 

Salticus simplex. 

Length of the male -rg-ths of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax -j 1 ^, breadth -^ ; breadth of the abdomen -fa ; length of 
a posterior leg -fa ; length of a leg of the second pair -f . 

The legs are robust, especially those of the anterior pair, and 
are provided with hairs and a few spines ; the fourth pair is 
rather the longest, then the third, and the second pair is the 
shortest ; they are of a reddish-brown colour, the femora being 
the darkest, and the tarsi much the palest ; each tarsus is termi- 
nated by two curved claws, below which there is a small scopula. 
The palpi are short, and have a dark-brown hue ; the radial 
joint projects a pointed apophysis from its extremity, on the 
outer side ; the digital joint is oval, convex, and hairy externally, 
compact at the extremity, concave underneath, at the base, 
comprising the palpal organs, which are well developed, not 
very complex in structure, and of a red-brown colour. The 
minute intermediate eye of each lateral row is nearer to the an- 
terior than to the posterior eye of the same row. The cephalo- 
thorax is somewhat quadrilateral, sloping abruptly at the base, 
and very gradually to the front, which projects a little beyond 
the base of the falces ; it is of a dark-brown colour, and is clothed 
with reddish-brown hairs; a broad patch of yellowish-white or 
pale yellow hairs is situated below the lateral eyes ; a spot im- 

collected in the Cape de Verde Islands. 83 

mediately behind each posterior eye, and a short streak on the 
upper part of the posterior slope, are composed, of yellowish- 
white hairs; and. a narrow longitudinal band of white hairs 
occurs above each lateral margin. The falces are conical and. 
vertical ; the maxillae are straight, and enlarged and rounded at 
the extremity ; and. the lip and sternum are oval. These parts 
are of a dark-brown colour; the sternum, which is the darkest, 
is supplied with some long white hairs, and the extremity of 
the falces, maxillae, and lip is tinged with red. The abdomen is 
oviform, pointed at the spinners (which are prominent), convex 
above, and projects a little over the base of the cephalothorax ; 
it is of a very dark-brown colour, and is well clothed with hairs, 
those in the medial line of the upper part forming a broad, dull 
yellowish -brown band that tapers to the spinners ; a spot in the 
middle of the anterior extremity, and three spots disposed in a 
row on the upper part of each side, of which the anterior one is 
the largest, are composed of white hairs ; and the under part is 
abundantly supplied with hoary hairs. 
Captured in the Island of St. Nicholas. 

Salticus lepidus. 

Length of the male -^ths of an inch; length of the cephalo- 
thorax -i-, breadth -^ ; breadth of the abdomen -fa ; length of a 
posterior leg -i; length of a leg of the second pair J. 

The minute intermediate eye of each lateral row is nearly 
equidistant from those constituting its extremities. The cephalo- 
thorax is large, glossy, somewhat quadrilateral, sloping abruptly 
at the base, and very gradually to the front, which projects a 
little beyond the base of the falces; it is of a brownish-black 
colour, the cephalic region and narrow lateral margins being the 
darkest; the middle of the posterior half is tinged with red, 
and there is a spot composed of white hairs nearly intermediate 
between the posterior pair of eyes ; the front and a broad longi- 
tudinal band extending above each lateral margin are densely 
clothed with white hairs. The falces are short, conical, and 
vertical ; the maxillae are straight, and enlarged and rounded at 
the extremity, and the lip is oval. These parts are of a dark- 
brown colour, the extremity of the maxillae and the apex of the 
lip having a dull-yellow hue ; the sternum is oval and of a pale 
dull-yellowish colour. The legs are robust and provided with 
hairs and a few sessile spines ; the fourth pair is the longest, 
then the first, and the second pair is the shortest ; they are of a 
dull-yellow colour, with a dark-brown spot at the extremity of 
the joints, the tarsi having a slight tinge of red ; the anterior 
pair, which are the darkest, have a broad brownish-black band 
extending along the anterior surface of the femora, genua, and 

84 Mr. J . Blackwall on recently discovered Spiders 

tibiae, and the metatarsi are of the same hue; each tarsus is 
terminated by two curved claws, below which there is a small 
scopula. The palpi are short, and of a pale yellow colour, the 
axillary joint, the base of the humeral joint, and the outer sur- 
face of the radial joint having a brown-black hue ; the radial 
joint projects a curved, finely pointed, black apophysis from its 
extremity on the outer side, which is directed obliquely forward 
and outward ; the digital joint is oval, convex, and hairy exter- 
nally, concave within, comprising the palpal organs, which are 
moderately developed, with a black filiform spine curved from 
the outer side round the base and inner side, and have a pale 
brownish- red hue. The abdomen is oviform, pointed at the 
spinners (which are prominent), convex above, and projects a 
little over the base of the cephalothorax ; it is densely covered 
with adpressed hairs, and has a broad yellow-brown band in the 
medial line, which tapers to the spinners ; on each side of this 
band there is a longitudinal band composed of white hairs, which 
overlie and almost conceal a black band whose outline is some- 
what, irregular near its posterior extremity, on the inner side ; a 
narrower black band passes along the lower part of each side, 
and the space between these black bands has a yellow-brown 
hue; the under part is of a pale dull -yellowish colour, with a 
large oval soot-coloured spot in the middle, and the spinners 
have a dark-brown hue. 

Captured in the Island of St. Nicholas. 

Salticus sedulus. 

Length of an immature male \t\\ an inch ; length of the ce- 
phalothorax -i^, breadth -^ ; breadth of the abdomen -±r ; length 
of a posterior leg -^ ; length of a leg of the second pair -^ . 

The cephalothorax is glossy and somewhat quadrilateral, 
sloping abruptly at the base, and gradually to the front, which 
projects a little beyond the base of the fakes ; it is of a yellowish- 
brown colour, the cephalic region, the narrow lateral margins, 
and a fine parallel line situated immediately above them having 
a black hue ; there is a broad, longitudinal, brown band on each 
side of the medial line, and the frontal margin is densely clothed 
with long white hairs, which extend to the sides. The fakes 
are short, conical, and vertical ; the maxilla? are straight, and 
enlarged and rounded at the extremity ; and the lip and ster- 
num are oval. These parts have a yellowish-brown hue, the 
fakes, maxillae, and lip being the darkest at the base ; and the 
sternum, which is the palest, has brownish-black lateral margins. 
The legs are robust, provided with hairs and sessile spines, two 
parallel rows of the latter occurring on the inferior surface of 
the tibiae and metatarsi of the first and second pairs; the fourth 

collected in the Cape de Verde Islands. 85 

pair is the longest, then the third, and the second pair is the 
shortest; they are of a brownish-yellow hue, with some brownish- 
black spots and streaks, a longish one of the latter occurring on 
the anterior surface of the femora, with the exception of those 
of the fourth pair; each tarsus is terminated by two curved 
claws, below which there is a small scopula. The palpi are 
short, and paler than the legs ; the digital joints of the specimen 
described were very tumid, indicating that it had to undergo its 
final ecdysis before it arrived at maturity. The minute inter- 
mediate eye of each lateral row is rather nearer to the posterior 
than to the anterior eye of the same row. The abdomen is ovi- 
form, pointed at the spinners (which are prominent), convex 
above, and projects a little over the base of the cephalothorax ; 
it is of a yellowish-white colour, with a broad, dark-brown 
band, somewhat irregular in outline, extending from the anterior 
extremity of the upper part along each side of the medial line 
to the spinners ; and, parallel to these bands, a narrower one of 
the same hue passes along each side ; the spinners are of a dark- 
brown colour, and an obscure soot-coloured spot occurs at their 
base, on the under part. 

Captured in the Island of St. Nicholas. 

Family Thomisid^e. 

Genus Thomisus, Walck. 

Thomisus piger. 

Length of an immature female ^ T ths of an inch ; length of 
the cephalothorax T V, breadth -±r ; breadth of the abdomen -j- 1 ^ ; 
length of a leg of the second pair -}- ; length of a leg of the third 
pair \. 

The eyes are disposed on the anterior part of the cephalo- 
thorax in two transverse curved rows, forming a crescent whose 
convexity is directed forwards ; the eyes of each lateral pair, 
which are larger than the intermediate ones, are seated on a 
conspicuous tubercle, the anterior ones being the largest of the 
eight. The cephalothorax is convex, slightly compressed before, 
truncated in front, with a few bristles directed forwards from its 
anterior margin, rounded on the sides, and abruptly depressed 
at the base; the falces are subcorneal, vertical, and provided 
with a few bristles near the base in front ; the maxilla? are 
obliquely truncated at the extremity, on the outer side, and in- 
clined towards the lip, which is triangular; the sternum is 
heart-shaped; the legs are very unequal in length, and are pro- 
vided with hairs and spines, two parallel rows of the latter oc- 
curring on the inferior surface of the tibiae and metatarsi of the 
second pair, which is much longer and more robust than the 

86 Mr. J. Blackwall on recently discovered Spiders 

third and fourth pairs, the third pair being the shortest ; the 
lega of the rirst pair were missing, but, judging from the coxae, 
thev probably did not differ materially in dimensions from those 
of the first pair; each tarsus is terminated by two curved claws 
having one or two minute teeth at their base; the palpi are 
short, and have a small curved claw at their extremity. These 
parts are of a pale dull-yellow colour; numerous very minute, 
slightly raised, dark- brown spots occur on the cephalothorax ; a 
pale brown band passes from each lateral pair of eyes towards 
its base, and the tubercles on which those eyes are seated have 
a soiled white hue. The abdomen is sparingly clothed with 
short hairs, convex above, broader towards the posterior than at 
the anterior extremity, which has the appearance of having been 
cut in a direct line across, and projects over the base of the 
cephalothorax; it is of a pale dull yellowish colour, obscurely 
freckled with dull white; on each side of the upper part there 
is a curved scries of small soot-coloured spots, which are most 
conspicuous in the posterior region ; the two series converge 
towards their extremities, and describe a large oblong oval ; a 
soot-coloured band passes along the upper part of each side, 
nearly to the spinners, its posterior extremity being broken into 
irregular spots. 

Captured in the Island of St. Antonio. 

Family Drassid r. 
Genus Drassus, Walck. 
Drassus nigromaculatus. 

Length of the female (not including the spinners) -jMlis of an 
inch; length of the cephalothorax-,'-, breadth -^j breadth of 
the abdomen £; length of a posterior leg \; length of a leg of 
the third pair -^. 

The cephalothorax is compressed before, truncated in front, 
rounded on the sides, which are somewhat depressed, abruptly 
sloped at the base, and has a slight narrow indentation in the 
medial line of the posterior region ; it is of a pale reddish-brown 
colour, is clothed with yellowish-grey hairs, which are densest 
on the sides, and has some long black ones, more or less erect, 
distributed over its surface; three black spots form a row on 
each side, the anterior one being the largest and most irregular 
in form ; it has a large triangular brown-black mark at its base, 
and the narrow lateral margins are of the same hue. The eyes 
are disposed on the anterior part of the cephalothorax in two 
transverse, slightly curved rows ; the convexity of the anterior 
row is directed upwards, and the two intermediate eyes are the 

collected in the Cape de Verde Islands. 87 

largest and darkest of the eight ; the convexity of the posterior 
row is directed forwards, and the two intermediate eyes are 
rather nearer to each other than they are to the lateral eyes of 
the same row ; the lateral eyes of both rows are separated by a 
wide interval. The falces are powerful, conical, convex at the 
base, and vertical; the maxilla? are convex at the base, hollowed 
on the inner side, and strongly curved towards the lip, which is 
longer than broad and rounded at the apex. These parts are of 
a dark-brown colour tinged with red, the falces being the darkest, 
and the extremity of the maxillae having a yellowish-white hue. 
The sternum is short, oval, hairy, and of a yellowish-brown 
colour. The legs are robust, provided with hairs and spines, 
the latter being most numerous on the tibia? and metatarsi of 
the third and fourth pairs; they are of a yellow-brown colour, 
marked with a few obscure soot-coloured spots, the metatarsi 
and tarsi, which are the darkest, being tinged with red; the 
fourth pair is the longest, then the first, and the third pair is 
the shortest ; the tarsi are supplied with hair-like papillae on 
their inferior surface, and are terminated by two curved, pecti- 
nated claws. The palpi are short, and resemble the legs in co- 
lour; and the digital joint, which is provided with strong spines, 
has a curved, pectinated claw at its extremity. The abdomen is 
oviform, densely clothed with hairs, convex above, and projects 
a little over the base of the cephalothorax ; it is of a dull yellowish- 
grey colour, with a broad band of black hairs curved round its 
anterior extremity, and extended along each side in an irregular 
line more or less interrupted ; from the middle of the curved 
band an obscure, longitudinal, brown band extends, which tapers 
to its posterior extremity; and on each side of it there is a 
series of irregular black spots that become confluent as they 
approach the spinners, which are cylindrical, prominent, and of 
a pale red-brown colour, with a black line on the sides and under 
part of their base ; the sexual organs are moderately developed, 
and have a red-brown hue, that of the branchial opercula being 
yellowish brown. 

The male is smaller than the female, but it resembles her in 
colour. The radial joint of its palpi is rather smaller than the 
cubital joint, and projects a straight, pointed, dark-brown apo- 
physis from its extremity on the outer side ; the digital joint is 
oval, convex, and hairy externally, concave within, comprising 
the palpal organs, which are moderately developed, rather pro- 
minent, with a slender, curved spine on the outer side, and two 
processes at their extremity, the inner one of which is much 
the smaller ; their colour is red-brown. 

One male and four females of this species were taken in the 
Island of St. Jago, and three females in the Island of Fogo. It 

88 Mr. J. Blackwall on recently discovered Spiders 

belongs to Walckenaer's family Lithophila and first race Luci- 
fugce of the genus Drassus. 

Drassus assimilatus. 

Length of the male (not including the spinners) ^ths of an 
inch; length of the cephalothorax ^ T , breadth \; breadth of 
the abdomen J ; length of an anterior leg £ ; length of a leg of 
the third pair V. 

The legs are long, provided with hairs and sessile spines, and 
of a dull yellowish-white colour, the metatarsi and tarsi, which 
are strongly tinged with brown, having numerous hair-like pa- 
pilke on their inferior surface ; the first pair is the longest, then 
the fourth, and the third pair is the shortest ; each tarsus is 
terminated by two curved pectinated claws. The palpi resemble 
the legs in colour, and the radial, which is much longer than 
the cubital joint, has no apophysis at its extremity; the digital 
joint is of a narrow oblong-oval form ; it is convex and hairy 
externally, compact and somewhat pointed at the extremity, and 
has a shallow concavity near its base, on the under side, com- 
prising the palpal organs, which are small, little complicated in 
structure, with a fine, curved, black spine towards the inner 
side, and a shorter one at their extremity ; these organs have a 
pale red-brown hue. The eyes, which are seated on black spots, 
are disposed on the anterior part of the cephalothorax in two 
transverse, slightly curved, parallel rows ; the posterior row is 
the longer, and the two intermediate eyes, which are somewhat 
oval, and nearer to each other than they are to the lateral eyes 
of the same row, describe with the intermediate eyes of the an- 
terior row, which is situated immediately above the frontal mar- 
gin, an oblong-cpiadrangular figure; each lateral eye of the 
posterior row is seated on a minute tubercle, and the inter- 
mediate eyes of the anterior row are the largest and darkest- 
coloured of the eight. The cephalothorax is large, compressed 
before, truncated in front, rounded on the sides, thinly clothed 
with hairs, convex, glossy, with a narrow indentation in the 
medial line of the posterior region ; it is of a yellow-brown co- 
lour, the anterior part, which is the darkest, being faintly tinged 
with red, and the narrow lateral margins have a brown hue. 
The falces are subcorneal, rather prominent, and armed with a 
few teeth on the inner surface; the maxillae are convex at the 
base, enlarged at the extremity, which is obliquely truncated on 
the inner side, and slightly curved towards the lip, which is 
long, and truncated and hollowed at the apex. These parts are 
of a dark-brown colour, the maxilla? and lip, which are the palest, 
being tinged with yellow at the extremity. The sternum is 
oval, glossy, of a pale dull yellowish colour, and is supplied with 

collected in the Cape de Verde Islands. 89 

long hairs, which are densest on the narrow dark-brown lateral 
margins. The abdomen has an oblong subcylindrical figure, 
tapering a little to the spinners ; it is slightly convex above, 
projects but little over the base of the cephalothorax, and is 
clothed with hairs; the upper part is of a brown colour, obscurely 
intermixed with yellowish white, and has some long black hairs 
at its anterior extremity; the under part and the spinners, which 
are cylindrical and prominent, have a yellowish-white hue, the 
latter being tinged with brown. 

This spider, which was captured in the Island of St. Antonio, 
is very closely allied to Drassus lapidicolens, but differs from it 
not only in colour, but also in the relative length of its legs and 
in the structure of its palpi and fakes. 

Family Ciniflonid^e. 

Genus Orithyia, Blackw. 

Orithyia luteola. 

Length of the female 4-th of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax -y\, breadth -^ ; breadth of the abdomen -~j ; length of 
an anterior leg -fa ; length of a leg of the third pair ^ . 

The eyes, which are unequal in size and seated on brown 
spots, are. disposed on the anterior part of the cephalothorax in 
two transverse curved rows, whose convexity is directed forwards; 
the anterior row, which is the less curved, is situated immediately 
above the frontal margin, and the two intermediate eyes are 
seated on a protuberance ; the lateral eyes of both rows are 
placed on minute tubercles, and are wide apart, those of the 
anterior row being the smallest of the eight. The cephalothorax 
is short, broad, convex, somewhat oval, with two furrows on 
each side converging towards a shallow indentation in the medial 
line of the posterior region ; it is clothed with coarse, pale-yel- 
lowish hairs, and is of a yellowish-brown colour ; a dark-brown 
band passes from the eyes to its base, and a broad one of the 
same hue extends along each side. The falces are short, strong, 
subcorneal, and vertical ; the maxillre are nearly straight, power- 
ful, and greatly enlarged at the extremity, which is obliquely 
truncated and protuberant on the inner surface; the lip is tri- 
angular; and the sternum is oblong heart-shaped, hairy, and 
has eminences on the sides, opposite to the legs. These parts 
have a dull brownish-yellow hue. The legs are very unequal in 
length, the first pair being much the longest and most robust ; 
the fourth pair surpasses the second, and the third pair is the 
shortest ; they are provided with hairs, and the metatarsus of 
each posterior leg has a calamistrum situated in a curve at its 
superior surface ; the femora, genua, and tibiae of the anterior 

Ann. % Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. xvi. 7 

90 Mr. J. Blackwall on recently discovered Spiders 

legs are of a brownish-black hue, the inferior surface being 
much the palest ; a pale yellowish annulus occurs on the first, 
and is situated nearer to its extremity than to its base, which is 
the darkest-coloured ; the metatarsi and tarsi are disproportion- 
ally slender, and have a brownish-yellow hue ; the second, third, 
and fourth pairs of legs are of a pale brownish-yellow colour, 
marked with brownish-black annuli. The palpi are short, hairy, 
and of a pale brownish-yellow colour, the, extremity of the hu- 
meral joint, the cubital joint, and the base of the radial joint 
having a brown-black hue. The abdomen is oviform, pointed at 
the spinners, convex above, with a conical protuberance on each 
side of the upper part, near its anterior extremity, and projects 
over the base of the cephalothorax; the upper part is of a pale 
yellowish colour, a fine black line, which is rather the broadest 
near its anterior extremity, extending along the middle ; a space 
above the spinners, the sides, and under part are strongly tinged 
with brown, a spot of a darker hue occurring on each side of the 
latter nearly midway between the branchial opercula and the 
spinners ; the sexual organs are moderately developed, and have 
a brownish-yellow process directed backwards from their anterior 
margin : the spinners are eight in number ; those constituting 
the inferior pair, which are the shortest, consist of a single joint 
each, and are united throughout their entire length. 

Two adult females of this species were taken in the Island of 
St. Nicholas. 

Orithyia gnava. 

Length of the female -3-th of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax iV> breadth -^; breadth of the abdomen -j^; length of 
an anterior leg ■£? '> length of a leg of the third pair ■£. 

In the relative size and disposition of its eyes, also in the 
relative length and proportions of its legs, and in its general 
structure, this species is similar to Orithyia luteola. The ce- 
phalothorax has a black hue, a short longitudinal streak in the 
middle, and a triangular mark at the base, whose vertex is di- 
rected forwards, being of a yellowish-white colour. The falces, 
maxilke, and lip have a pale brownish -yellow hue, the base of 
the lip and maxilla?, the extremity of the falces, and the sternum 
being of a dark-brown colour. The femora, genua, and tibiae 
of the anterior legs have a black hue, and that of the slender 
metatarsi and tarsi is brownish yellow ; the colour of the second, 
third, and fourth pairs of legs is brownish black, with a few pale 
brownish-yellow annuli. The palpi are of a pale brownish-yellow 
colour, the extremity of the humeral joint, the cubital and radial 
joints, and the extremity of the digital joint having a brownish- 
black tint. The abdomen is soot-coloured, mingled with white, 
the sides being the darkest and the under part the lightest- 

collected in the Cape de Verde Islands. 91 

coloured ; the anterior extremity, contiguous to the cephalothorax, 
has a white hue, and comprises a vertical black bar, which is 
enlarged at its lower extremity, and is crossed at its upper 
extremity by a shorter one of the same hue. 

The collection contained two females ; but the abdomen of 
each was so corrugated that it was not possible to define with 
accuracy the design formed by the distribution of its colours ; 
the characters given above, however, are sufficient to distinguish 
this spider from other known species of the genus. Both speci- 
mens were captured in the Island of St. Nicholas. 

Family Theridiid^;. 

Genus Theridion, Walck. 

Theridion fallax. 

Length of the female -^rd of au inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax \, breadth -.y ; breadth of the abdomen -f ; length of an 
anterior leg £ ; length of a leg of the third pair -^-. 

The cephalothorax is convex, nearly oval, slightly compressed 
before, rounded on the sides, which are marked with furrows 
converging towards a large indentation in the medial line, and 
is thinly clothed with short, whitish hairs ; the falces are conical 
and vertical; the maxillae are obliquely truncated at the extre- 
mity, on the outer side, and are inclined towards the lip, which 
is semicircular ; and the sternum is heart-shaped. These parts 
have a very dark-brown hue; the extremity of the falces is 
tinged with red, particularly on the inner side, and the extremity 
of the maxillae, the apex of the lip, and a spot on the sternum 
opposite to the base of the lip have a yellowish-brown tint. 
The eyes are disposed on the anterior part of the cephalothorax 
in two transverse, nearly straight, parallel rows ; the four in- 
termediate ones form a square, the two anterior ones, which 
are seated on a protuberance, being the largest and darkest- 
coloured of the eight ; the eyes of each lateral pair are placed 
on small tubercles, and are separated by a considerable interval. 
The legs are long, robust, and provided with hairs, the meta- 
tarsi and tarsi being disproportioually slender; they are of a 
yellowish-brown colour, the metatarsi and tarsi, which are much 
the palest, having a slight tinge of red; and the extremity of 
the femora and tibia?, and the genua, have a brownish-black hue; 
the first pair is the longest, then the fourth, and the third pair 
is the shortest ; each tarsus is terminated by three claws ; the 
two superior ones arc curved and pectinated, and the inferior 
one is inflected near its base. The palpi are short, aud have a 
curved, pectinated claw at their extremity ; they resemble the 
legs in colour, but are without any brownish-black marks. The 


92 Mr. J. Blackball on recently discovered Spiders 

abdomen is short, broad, oviform, thinly clothed with hairs, 
very convex above, and projects greatly over the base of the 
cephalothorax ; it is of a dark-brown colour above, minutely 
spotted with white; in the medial line of the anterior part there 
are a few irregular white lines encompassing small dark-brown 
spaces ; several rather obscure, slightly curved, whitish, trans- 
verse lines occur above the spinners, and at the base of those 
organs, on each side, there are two minute spots of the same 
hue; the sides are of a pale dull yellowish-white colour, re- 
ticulated with brown, and are marked with long, oblique, 
whitish hands curved downwards and narrowly bordered 
with brownish black ; these bands, which taper to their lower 
extremity, comprise in their broader part a dark-brown space, 
and their superior extremity, which is abruptly contracted, is 
curved upwards ; the under part is paler than the sides, and 
has a large white mark in the middle, reticulated with pale and 
bordered with dark brown ; the anterior part of this mark is the 
broadest, and comprises an oblong-oval, brownish-black spot on 
each side of the medial line ; and the middle of its posterior 
extremity is produced in the form of a small semicircle; the 
branchial opercula have a brown hue, and that of the sexual 
organs, which are well developed and rather prominent, is dark 
red- brown. 

One female of this species, which is nearly allied to the spiders 
of the genus Latrodectus by the disposition of its eyes, was taken 
in the Island of St. Antonio. In consequence of its abdomen 
being much disfigured, it was not possible to describe with per- 
fect accuracy the design formed upon it by the distribution of 
its colours; however, from the characteristics given above, there 
can be no difficulty in identifying it. 

Theridion quinquenotatum. 

Length of the female rfVths of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax -jig-, breadth ■£-$; breadth of the abdomen T l . r ; length of 
a posterior leg ^-; length of a leg of the third pair -yV. 

The eyes are disposed on the anterior part of the cephalothorax 
in two transverse rows ; the four intermediate ones describe a 
square, the two anterior ones, which are rather the smallest and 
darkest-coloured of the eight, being seated on a slight protuber- 
ance ; the eyes of each lateral pair are placed obliquely on a 
tubercle, and are contiguous. The cephalothorax is oval, convex, 
glossy, with an indentation in the medial line of the posterior 
region, and slopes gradually from the anterior extremity to the 
base ; the falccs are conical, vertical, and armed with a few teeth 
at the extremity on the inner surface ; the maxillae are obliquely 
truncated at the extremity, on the outer side, and strongly in- 

collected in the Cope de Verde Islands. 93 

diced towards the lip, which is semicircular; and the sternum 
is heart-shaped. These parts have a red-brown hue, the lateral 
margins of the cephalothorax and sternum and the base of the 
lip being soot-coloured. The legs are slender, provided with 
hairs, and of a red-brown hue, with the exception of the femora, 
which are black, and the extremity of the tibiae of the first and 
fourth pairs, which are soot-coloured ; the fourth pair is the 
longest, then the first, and the third pair is the shortest; each 
tarsus is terminated by three claws ; the two superior ones are 
curved and pectinated, and the inferior one is inflected near its 
base. The palpi resemble the legs in colour, and have a curved 
pectinated claw at their extremity. The abdomen is oviform, 
thinly clothed with hairs, convex above, projecting over the base 
of the cephalothorax, and is of a brownish-black hue ; an oblique 
white spot is situated on each side of its anterior extremity, 
another near the middle of the upper part of each side, and an 
oblong one immediately above the spinners, in the medial line; 
the branchial opercula have a brownish-yellow hue, and that of 
the sexual organs, which are moderately developed, is dark red- 

Two females of this species were taken in the Island of 
St. Antonio. 

Theridion sagax. 

Length of an immature male fths of an inch ; length of the 
cephalothorax x ^, breadth -i; breadth of the abdomen J f ; length 
of an anterior leg f ; length of a leg of the third pair ±}. 

The cephalothorax is convex, glossy, and nearly oval, being 
slightly compressed before, and rounded on the sides, which are 
marked with furrows converging towards an indentation in the 
medial line; the falces are short, conical, and vertical; the 
maxillae are obliquely truncated at the extremity, on the outer 
side, and inclined towards the lip, which is semicircular; the 
sternum is heart-shaped ; the legs are long, and provided with 
hairs; the first pair is the longest, then the fourth, and the third 
pair is the shortest ; each tarsus is terminated by three claws ; 
the two superior ones are curved and pectinated, and the inferior 
one is inflected near its base ; the palpi are short ; the radial is 
larger than the cubital joint, and the tumid digital joint is some- 
what oviform ; but, as the palpal organs were not developed, it 
is evident that the spider was immature. These parts are of a 
yellowish-brown colour, the base of the lip and an oblique trans- 
verse bar near the extremity of the maxillse having a red-brown 
hue. The eyes are disposed on the anterior part of the cephalo- 
thorax in two transverse rows ; the four intermediate ones form 
a square, the two anterior ones, which are seated on a protu- 
berance, being rather the smallest and darkest-coloured of the. 

94 Mr. J. Black wall on recently discovered Spiders 

eight ; the eyes of each lateral pair are placed obliquely on a 
tubercle, and arc contiguous. The abdomen is large, glossy, 
sparingly clothed with hairs, somewhat oviform, convex above, 
and projects greatly over the base of the cephalothorax; it is of 
a black hue, and has a curved yellowish-white band at its ante- 
rior part, contiguous to the cephalothorax, which passes nearly 
to the middle of the upper part of each side, and whose enlarged 
extremities are directed upwards ; there is a triangular point in 
the middle of the interior of this curve; and a series of triangular 
yellowish-white spots, comprising a brown longitudinal streak, 
and diminishing in size as they approach the spinners,, extends 
along the middle ; a few obscure slightly curved lines of the 
same hue occur above the coccyx, and on each side, near the 
enlarged extremity of the anterior curved band, there is an ob- 
long yellowish-white spot ; the colour of the under part is yel- 
lowish white, irregularly marked with dark brown, and a brown 
quadrangular space in the middle has a yellowish-white border. 
Captured in the Island of St. Antonio. 

Family Epeirid^e. - 
Genus Epeira, Walck. 
Epe'ira mcesta. 

Length of the male -|-th of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax -iV, breadth -^; breadth of the abdomen -^-; length of 
an anterior leg ^ ; length of a leg of the third pair -^. 

The legs are slender, provided with hairs, and have a brown- 
black hue, with yellowish-brown annuli on the tibise, metatarsi, 
and tarsi; the first pair is the longest, then the second, and the 
third pair is the shortest ; each tarsus is terminated by claws of 
the usual number and structure. The palpi are short, and of a 
brown colour, the digital joint being much the darkest ; the 
radial joint is stronger than the cubital, and has a few long, fine, 
curved hairs at its extremity, in £ront ; the digital joint is of an 
oblong-oval form, with a process at its base curved outwards ; 
it is convex and hairy externally, concave within, and the palpal 
organs connected with it are highly developed, prominent, com- 
plex in structure, with a fine prominent spine near the base, a 
curved one on the under side, and a short bifid one near their 
extremity ; these organs have a yellow-brown hue ; and the 
convex sides of the digital joints are directed towards each other. 
The cephalothorax is oval, convex, glossy, with a large indenta- 
tion in the medial line of the posterior region ; it is sparingly 
supplied with short white hairs, and is of a brown-black colour, 
the anterior margin being the brownest. The eyes are disposed 
on the anterior part of the cephalothorax in two transverse rows 

collected in the Cape de Verde Islands. 95 

at a moderate elevation above the frontal margin ; the four in- 
termediate ones nearly form a square, the two anterior ones, 
which are placed on a protuberance, and are wider apart than 
the two posterior ones, being the largest of the eight; the eyes 
of each lateral pair are the smallest, and are seated obliquely on 
a minute tubercle near to each other, but are not in contact. 
The falces are conical, and inclined towards the sternum, which 
is heart-shaped, with small eminences on the sides, opposite to 
the legs ; the maxilla3 are short, powerful, and greatly enlarged 
at the extremity, which is produced on the inner side; the lip 
is semicircular, and prominent at the apex. These parts have a 
black hue tinged with brown, the sternum being the darkest, 
and the extremity of the maxill?e and apex of the lip the palest. 
The abdomen is somewhat oviform, with a small conical protu- 
berance on each side of its posterior extremity, which extends 
considerably beyond the spinners ; it is moderately convex above, 
projects over the base of the cephalothorax, and has a black hue; 
a small spot composed of short white hairs occurs at the extre- 
mity of each conical protuberance, and a third at the base of the 

Captured in the Island of St. Nicholas. 

Epe'ira blanda. 

Length of the male -^th of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax -pL-, breadth -yV ; breadth of the abdomen -^ ; length of 
an anterior leg f- ; length of a leg of the third pair 1 3 B -. 

The cephalothorax is compressed before, rounded on the sides, 
somewhat pointed in front, convex, glossy, and has a large in- 
dentation in the medial line of the posterior region ; it is of a 
brown colour, with a tinge of yellow in the middle and in the 
region of the eyes, and the narrow lateral margins are soot- 
coloured. The eyes are disposed on the anterior part of the 
cephalothorax in two transverse rows; the four intermediate 
ones nearly form a square, the two anterior ones, which are the 
largest and darkest-coloured of*the eight, and are rather wider 
apart than those of the posterior row, being situated imme- 
diately above the frontal margin ; the eyes of each lateral pair 
are seated obliquely on a minute tubercle, and are near to each 
other, but not in contact, the posterior ones being the smallest. 
The falces are subcorneal, slightly divergent at the extremity, 
and inclined towards the sternum ; they are of a brown colour, 
the inner surface and extremity having a pale-yellow hue. The 
maxillce are short, straight, powerful, and enlarged and rounded 
at the extremity; the lip is semicircular, but somewhat pointed 
at the apex; and the sternum is heart-shaped. These parts are 
of a yellow- white colour, the base of the maxillae and lip aud the 

96 Mr. J. Blackwall on recently discovered Spiders 

margins of the sternum having a dark-brown hue. The legs 
are long, and provided with hairs and spines, the tibial joint of 
the second pair having numerous short, black, pointed spines on 
its anterior surface ; the colour of the femora is pale yellow at 
the base and dark brown at the extremity, the dark-brown hue 
being most extensive on the anterior pair, and merely forming 
an annulus on the third pair ; the other joints of these limbs 
have a brownish-yellow hue, and are marked with dark-brown 
annuli ; the first pair is the longest, then the second, and the 
third pair is the shortest ; each tarsus is terminated by claws of 
the usual number and structure. The palpi are short, and of a 
pale-yellow colour, with the exception of the digital joint, which 
has a brown hue; the cubital joint projects two long curved 
hairs from its anterior extremity, in front; the radial is larger 
than the cubital joint, prominent on its external and internal 
surfaces, and supplied with long hairs ; the digital joint is oval, 
with a glossy process at its base curved outwards ; it is convex 
and hairy externally, concave within, and the palpal organs con- 
nected with it are highly developed, prominent, with several 
short, curved processes at their extremity, and are of a dark- 
brown colour mingled with yellow. The convex sides of the 
digital joints are directed downwards. The abdomen is oviform, 
convex above, projecting over the base of the cephalothorax, and 
is thinly clothed with long dark and light-coloured hairs ; on 
the upper part there is a large brownish-black, leaf-shaped mark, 
which gradually decreases in breadth to the spinners, and whose 
sinuous margins have an obscure, white, lateral border, forming 
at its anterior extremity a conspicuous spot on each side of the 
base of a triangular black spot situated at the anterior part of 
the abdomen and having its vertex directed forwards ; the leaf- 
shaped mark comprises in the middle of its anterior part a fusi- 
form mark faintly bordered with white ; the sides are of a 
brownish-black colour mingled with dull white, and the brownish- 
black under part has a curved yellowish-white line on each side, 
whose posterior extremity is the p*alcst and most conspicuous. 
Captured in the Island of St. Nicholas. 

Genus Nephila, Leach. 
Nephila Grayii. 
Length of the female 1 T V inch; length of the cephalo- 
thorax -i V, breadth -,V ; breadth of the abdomen ■£ ; length of 
an anterior leg 2 ; length of a leg of the third pair ■*-§-. 

The legs are long, provided with fine spines and hairs, a dense 
brush of the latter occurring on the inferior surface and sides of 
the tibia; of all the legs except those of the third pair; they are 

collected in the Cape de Verde Islands. 97 

of a yellow colour, with the exception of the extremity of the 
femora and tibia?, the genua, and the metatarsi and tarsi, which 
are of a black hue, the base of the metatarsi of the first and 
second pairs having a tinge of yellow; the first pair is the 
longest, then the second, and the third pair is the shortest ; the 
tarsi are terminated by claws of the usual number and structure. 
The palpi are short, and have a yellow hue, the digital joint, 
which has a slightly curved, pectinated claw at its extremity, 
being strongly tinged with brown. The eyes are disposed on 
the anterior part of the cephalothorax in two transverse rows ; 
the four intermediate ones nearly form a square, the two anterior 
ones, which are seated on a protuberance, and are rather nearer 
to each other than the two posterior ones, being the largest of 
the eight ; the eyes of each lateral pair arc placed obliquely on 
a prominent tubercle ; they are the smallest, and are separated 
by a considerable interval. The cephalothorax is long, rather 
convex above, truncated in front, compressed before, moderately 
rounded on the sides, which are marked with furrows converging 
towards a transverse pair of indentations in the medial line of the 
posterior region, and has two convex, glossy eminences situated 
transversely near its middle ; it is of a brownish-black colour, 
which is almost concealed by a covering of short, adpresscd, 
white hairs having a silvery lustre. The falces are powerful, 
conical, vertical, convex at the base, in front, and armed with 
teeth on the inner surface; the maxillfe are short, strong, and 
greatly enlarged and rounded at the extremity ; the lip is some- 
what oval. These parts are of a brownish-black colour, the 
falces being the darkest, and the extremity of the maxillre and 
the apex of the lip have a dull yellow hue. The sternum is ob- 
long heart-shaped, glossy, with eminences on the sides, opposite 
to the legs, and is of a yellow colour, with brownish-black lateral 
margins. The abdomen is oviform, glossy, sparingly clothed 
with short pale hairs, convex above, and projects over the base 
of the cephalothorax ; it is of a brown colour, tinged with olive, 
and has a large, crescent-shaped, yellow mark near the anterior 
extremity of its upper part, followed by four spots of the same 
hue in the medial line, which diminish in size as they approach 
the spinners ; an obscure, curved, yellowish band passes above 
each branchial operculum, and a dull spot of the same hue 
occurs on the upper part of each side ; four minute yellow spots 
on the under side form a transverse row immediately below the 
sexual organs, and a large, irregular, yellow spot is situated 
midway between those organs and the spinners; the sexual 
organs are moderately developed, and, with the branchial oper- 
cula and spinners, are of a dark-brown colour. Some speci- 
mens have the yellow spots in the medial line of the upper 

98 Mr. J. Blackwall on recently discovered Spiders 

part of the abdomen divided, which then form two longitudinal 

The name of John Gray, Esq., of Wheatfield House, near 
Bolton, is associated with this tine species of Nephila (which 
abounds in the Island of St. Antonio, and constructs its web 
among the branches of trees), in acknowledgement of the obliga- 
tion I am under to him for the interesting spiders described in 
this paper, and for numerous specimens of Araneidea collected 
in Algeria and Rio de Janeiro. 

Genus Argyopes, Saviguy. 

Argyopes Clarkii. 

Length of the female T 7 T ths of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax ±, breadth -^V ; breadth of the abdomen -^V ; length of an 
anterior leg 1-J- ; length of a leg of the third pair f . 

The cephalothorax is compressed before, rounded in front 
and on the sides, slightly convex, with a broad shallow indenta- 
tion in the medial line of the posterior region ; it is of a dark- 
brown colour, which is concealed by a thick covering of short, 
ad pressed, white hairs, which have a silvery lustre. The eyes 
are disposed on the anterior part of the cephalothorax in two 
transverse rows; the four intermediate ones are seated on a 
prominence and form a square, the two anterior ones being the 
largest of the eight ; the eyes of each lateral pair are placed 
obliquely on a tubercle, and are near to each other, but not in 
contact, the anterior ones being much the smallest. The falces 
are powerful, conical, vertical, and armed with teeth on the inner 
surface; the maxillae are short, strong, and greatly enlarged and 
rounded at the extremity ; the lip is semicircular, but pointed 
at the apex; and the sternum is heart-shaped, supplied with 
hoary hairs, and has eminences on the sides, opposite to the legs. 
These parts are of a dark-brown colour, the inuer surface and 
extremity of the falces, the extremity of the maxillae, the apex of 
the lip, a streak in the medial line of the anterior part of the 
sternum, and an oval spot at its extremity having a yellow hue. 
The legs are long, provided with hairs and spines, and have a 
very dark brown hue, the inferior surface of the coxa? being 
tinged with yellow ; the first pair is the longest, then the second, 
and the third pair is the shortest; the tarsi are terminated by 
claws of the usual number and structure. The palpi are rather 
paler than the legs, and have a curved, pectinated claw at their 
extremity. The abdomen, which is oviform, is more convex on 
the under than on the upper part; it projects over the base of 
the cephalothorax, and its posterior extremity extends beyond 
the spinners; the sides arc festooned, four somewhat conical 

collected in the Cape de Verde Islands. 99 

obtuse prominences occurring on each, and there is a smaller 
and more pointed one on each side of its anterior extremity; the 
upper part is densely clothed with adpressed silky hairs, and is 
of a pale-yellow colour, with small black spots, many of which 
are disposed in transverse rows ; there are two short, curved, 
black lines near the middle, whose concave sides are directed 
towards each other ; and along each side a strongly dentated 
black line extends; the anterior surface of the lateral promi- 
nences, the branchial opercula, spinners, and under part have a 
dark-brown hue ; and an irregular spot on each side of the last, 
a small one in front of the spinners, and a streak at their base, 
on each side, are of a pale yellow colour; the sexual organs, 
which are well developed, prominent, and of a very dark brown 
colour, have a strong process directed from their posterior 
margin obliquely forward and downward, whose extremity is 
enlarged, convex, and glossy. 

This distinctly marked species of Argyopes, which was cap- 
tured in the Island of Brava, is dedicated to the Rev. Hamlet 
Clark, who, in conjunction with Mr. Gray, has favoured me with 
many exotic spiders of great interest. 

Genus Tetragnatha, Latr. 
Tetragnatha maculata. 

Length of the female J-th of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax ^V, breadth -^ ; breadth of the abdomen -^ ; length of 
an anterior leg 4-j- ; length of a leg of the third pair 4-. 

The abdomen is short, broad, oviform, sparingly clothed with 
hairs, convex above, projects over the base of the cephalothorax, 
and is of a brownish-black colour marked with white ; the ante- 
rior extremity is white, and near it, on each side of the medial 
line of the upper part, there is a rectangular mark, to which 
succeed, six spots disposed in pairs, more or less contiguous, and 
diminishing in size as they approach the spinners ; two spots 
occur on the posterior half of each side, the anterior one of 
which is the larger, and somewhat triangular, and situated lower 
on the anterior half there is a slightly curved line ; four spots 
are disposed in a square on the under part, and there are two 
minute ones on each side of the spinners, at their base ; these 
marks and spots are white, more or less reticulated with brown, 
and reflect a silvery lustre : the sexual organs are moderately 
developed, and of a dark red-brown colour. The cephalothorax 
is compressed before, rounded in front and on the sides, convex, 
glossy, with an indentation in the medial line of the posterior 
region, and is of a pale brownish-yellow colour, with narrow, 
soot-coloured lateral margins. The eyes are seated on black 

100 Mr. J. Black wall on recently discovered Spiders. 

spots, and arc disposed on the anterior part of the cephalothorax 
in two transverse rows; the four intermediate ones nearly form 
a square ; the two anterior ones arc the largest of the eight, and 
are placed on a slight protuberance; the eyes of each lateral 
pair, which are the smallest, are seated on a minute tubercle, 
and are almost in contact. The falces are powerful, conical, 
vertical, and armed with teeth on the inner surface; the legs 
are long, slender, and provided with hairs ; the first pair is the 
longest, then the second, and the third pair is the shortest; the 
palpi are slender, and have a slightly curved claw at their ex- 
tremity. These parts have a pale brownish-yellow hue. The 
maxillre are slightly divergent, and increase in breadth from the 
base to the extremity, which is somewhat angular on the outer 
side; and the lip is semicircular and prominent at the apex. 
These organs are of a brown colour tinged with yellow, the base 
of the lip being the darkest. The sternum is heart-shaped, 
glossy, supplied with some long hairs, and has a black hue. 

The male is smaller than the female, but resembles her in 
colour. The cubital and radial joints of its palpi are short, the 
latter being rather the larger; the digital joint is oval, with a 
process at its base curved outwards; it has a yellowish-brown 
hue, is convex and hairy externally, and concave within, com- 
prising the palpal organs, which are well developed, not very 
complex in structure, convex, glossy, and terminate in a point 
that extends beyond the extremity of the joint : the colour of 
these organs is yellowish brown. The convex sides of the digital 
joints are directed towards each other. 

One male and three females of this Tetragnatha, which be- 
longs to Walckenaer's second family of the genus, the Coadunatce, 
were captured in the Island of St. Nicholas. 

Tribe Senoculina. 

Family Scytodidje. 

Genus Scytodes, Latr. 

Scytodes pallida. 

Length of an immature male J-th of an inch ; length of the 
cephalothorax T V, breadth T V; breadth of the abdomen T V; 
length of a leg of the second pair \ ; length of a leg of the third 

pair -,Ar. 

The eyes, which are small and disposed in pairs on the ante- 
rior part of the cephalothorax, arc seated on black spots; those 
of e. '.eh lateral pair are placed obliquely on a slight tubercle, and 
are almost in contact, the anterior ones being the largest of the 
six ; the eyes of the anterior pair are situated transversely, in 
advance of the lateral pairs, high above the prominent frontal 

Mr. II. W. Bates on Longieom Coleoptera. 101 

margin, and are contiguous or nearly so. The ceplialothorax is 
compressed before, rounded in front and on the sides, moderately- 
convex, glossy, and has an indentation in the medial line; the 
falces are conical, rather prominent, and are armed with a short 
curved fang, and a single pointed tooth on the inner side, near 
the extremity ; the maxillae are curved towards the lip, and 
touch at their extremity, which is truncated on the inner side ; 
the lip is large and somewhat triangular, but rounded at the 
apex ; the sternum is nearly circular, and glossy ; the legs are 
long, slender, provided with hairs, and each tarsus is termi- 
nated by two curved, pectinated claws ; the second pair is the 
longest, the fourth pair rather surpasses the first, and the third 
pair is the shortest ; the palpi are moderately long ; the radial 
joint is much longer than the cubital, and the digital joint, 
which has an oblong-oviform figure, is tumid, but compact, 
proving by its undeveloped state that the specimen had not 
arrived at maturity. These parts are of a pale dull yellowish 
colour, the falces and lip having a tinge of red, and the anterior 
part of the ceplialothorax a slight tinge of brown. The abdo- 
men is of an oblong-oviform figure; it is somewhat convex 
above, projects a little over the base of the ceplialothorax, and 
is clothed with pale soot-coloured hairs, particularly on the 
upper part ; it has a brownish-white hue, with a faint brownish 
band, which tapers to its posterior extremity, extending from 
the base of the upper part, contiguous to the ceplialothorax, a 
little beyond the middle. 

This spider, which was taken in the Island of St. Iago, belongs 
to Walckenaer's family Depress^ of the genus Scijtodes, and is 
very closely allied to the ticytodes enjthrocephala of Koch (Die 
Arachniden, Band v. p. 90, tab. 168. figs. 399, 400), but may 
readily be distinguished from it, even when immature, by marked 
differences in the structure of the palpi, and especially by the 
form of the digital joint. 

X. — Contributions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazons Valley. 
Coleoptera : Longicornes. By H. W. Bates, Esq. 

[Continued from vol. xv. p. 394.] 

29. Colobothea navigera, n. sp. 

C. modice elongata, postice regulariter attenuata, nigricans, sericea, 
vertice thoraceque supra lineis duabus, elytris maculis paucis 
discretis, cinereis ; his truncatis, angulis extemis spinosis. Long. 
4i-7-Hhi. d $• 

Head black, forehead with three ashy lines, cheeks with a 
spot of the same colour, and vertex marked with two ashy lines 

102 Mr. H. W. Bates on the Longicorn Coleoptera 

diverging on the occiput. Antennae greatly elongated and 
robust, black, sixth joint ringed with white, tenth joint with an 
exterior white line ( $ ), in the $ the eighth and eleventh joints 
also streaked with wdiite. Thorax blackish, clothed with an 
olivaceous silky pile, the upper surface with two tawny-ashy, 
slender, nearly parallel lines ; sides each with a single similar 
line, besides a broader streak above the coxae. Elytra broad at 
the base, with prominent and not markedly oblique shoul- 
ders, regularly attenuated thence to the apex, which is truncated 
and has the external angles produced into spines; the surface 
has a few line punctures surmounted by acute granulations to- 
wards the base, and beset with short black bristles ; the colour 
is blackish, clothed with silky olivaceous pile, and ornamented 
with a small number of scattered and distinct, rounded, tawny- 
ashy spots, the extreme apex having an ashy-white border de- 
creasing in width from the suture to the external angle. Body 
beneath black, thinly clothed with ashy tomentum ; the sides of 
the breast have a tawny-ashy streak in continuation of the one 
on the prothorax, and the sides of the abdomen are spotted with 
the same colour. The legs are blackish, ringed with grey. 

£ . Terminal ventral segment narrowed to the apex, trun- 
cated, with the angles produced into stout spines; dorsal seg- 
ment obtuse. Legs stout ; anterior tarsi moderately dilated and 
fringed. In the smaller males the legs are not perceptibly 
thicker than in the females. 

$ . Terminal abdominal segment projecting considerably be- 
yond the apex of the elytra, broad; dorsal segment notched, 
ventral truncated, angles not produced. 

A common insect at Ega and S. Paulo, Upper Amazons. 

30. Colobothea hicaria, n. sp. 

C. niodice elongata, nigra, vcrtice lineis duabus divergentibus, tho- 
race lineis tenuibus quatuor, elytris maculis paucis hie illic con- 
gregatis, griseis ; bis apice cauo marginatis, oblique truncatis, 
angulis externis spinosis. Long. 5 lin. S • 

Head black, forehead with three obscure grey lines, vertex 
with two divergent lines of similar colour, and the posterior part 
of the orbits also grey. Antennae black, base of fourth, eighth, 
and tenth joints grey on one side, sixth joint with a whitish 
ring. Thorax black, with a silky olivaceous gloss, upper surface 
with two slender parallel grey lines, each side also with a similar 
line visible in part when the insect is regarded from above ; 
there is also a grey line above the coxa?. Elytra prominent, and 
scarcely oblique at the shoulders, thence gradually attenuated 
to the apex, which is on each side obliquely truncated, i. e. the 
sutural portion is more advanced than the lateral angles, which 

of the Amazons Valley. 103 

are produced into spines ; the surface is finely punctate-granu- 
late, and of the same colour as the thorax ; the grey spots are 
nearly all of equal size and distinct ; but they are collected 
partly into groups, and here and there confluent ; the grey 
apical margin is of equal width from the sutural to the external 
angle. Body beneath thinly clothed with grey pile ; sides of 
breast not striped with thicker tomentum. Legs black, ringed 
with grey. 

<$ . Terminal ventral segment truncated, angles produced into 
short spines; dorsal segment rounded. Anterior tarsi mode- 
rately dilated and fringed. 

S. Paulo, Upper Amazons. Very closely related to C. navi- 
gera, differing only in the oblique truncature and somewhat 
different arrangement of spots of the elytra. 

31. Colobothea crassa, n. sp. 

C'. major, robusta, nigra, tomento olivaceo-griseo vestita, vertice tho- 
raceque dorso lineis duabus divergentibus, elytris maculis nu- 
merosis, minimis, discretis, fulvo-griseis, apice cano marginatis. 
Long. 8-10 lin. <$ $ . 

Differs from C. navigera in being of much larger size, in the 
spots of the elytra being very much smaller and more numerous, 
and in the dorsal lines of the thorax being posteriorly divergent. 
In shape and in colour the two species offer no tangible point 
of difference. As in C. navigera, there are only two thoracic 
lines visible from above, although there is a lateral line on each 
side and a broader streak above the coxa? (yellower in colour 
and extending to the abdomen) ; the form of the terminal abdo- 
minal segment in both sexes offers also no difference in the two 
species. C. crassa is still more closely allied to a Cayenne spe- 
cies, C. lineatocollis* (Dej. Cat.), which is similar to it in size 
and other respects, and differs chiefly in the multitudinous grey 

* Colobothea lineatocollis (Dej. Cat. sec. Dom. Chevrolat). Elongata, 
antice et postice attenuate, nigra, obscure olivaceo-grisea, sericea, 
griseo lineata et maculata. Caput nigrum, griseo lineatuin, vertice 
lineis griseis duabus postice divergentibus, genis griseo plagiatis. 
Antenna; validoe, nigra;, articulo sexto albo annulate Thorax lineis 
tenuibus duabus dOrsalibus subparallelis, alteris duabus lateralibus, 
vittaque utrinque supracoxali, griseis. Elytra postica modice at- 
tenuata, humeris paruui obliquis, apicibus truncatis, angulis extends 
dentiformibus, supra sparse punctata maculis minutis griseis con- 
fluentibus, reliquo spatio subapicali immaculato, ipso apice albo mar- 
ginato. Corpus subtus nigrum, griseo sparse tomentosum, abdomine 
maculato. Pedes nigri, griseo annulati. Maris segmento dorsali ter- 
minali truncato, angulis prominulis; ventrali profunde emarginato, 
angulis s])inosis. Fceminse segmento ultimo dorsali a])ice lato ; ven- 
trali profunde emarginato, angubs productis. Hab. in Cayenna. 

101 Mr. H. W. Bates on the Longicom Coleoptera 

specks of the elytra being confluent and forming irregular mar- 
bled lines. C. Osculatii of Guerin (Cat. des Ins. Col. recueillis 
par Gaetano Osculati, no. 2G1) appears to be another allied form 
similar in size and colours to C. crassa and C. lineatocollis ; but 
the description given of the thoracic markings (" quatre fines 
lignes longitudinales blanches") leaves us in doubt whether 
there are not four lines on the upper surface, which would re- 
move the species from the neighbourhood of the two mentioned; 
for, if the lateral lines are to be included, the description ought 
to mention six instead of four. The distinctive character of C. 
crassa is the minute and equal size, great number, and equidis- 
tant position of the grey specks of the elytra. 

Common in the neighbourhood of Para. C. Osculatii is pro- 
bably a native of the banks of the Napo, where M. Osculati 
formed his collection. 

32. Colobothea ordinuta, n. sp. 

C. elongata, postice attenuata, olivaceo-nigra, vertice postice bi- 
lineato ; thorace supra lineis quatuor crassiusculis vittaque lata 
supracoxali fulvo-cinereis ; elytris maculis numerosis subquadratis 
fulvo-cinereis in seriebus subordinatis ; thorace ante basin utrin- 
que breviter tuberculato. Long. 1\ lin. <S . 

Head black, forehead with three slender lines, vertex with 
two divergent lines, and cheeks with a broad streak, tawny 
ashy ; there is also a tawny-ashy streak behind each eye. An- 
tennae stout, black, sixth joint with a narrow white ring, the 
bases of the fourth, eighth, tenth, and eleventh joints with an ashy 
streak on one side ( £ ). Thorax slightly constricted at the base, 
and with a small tubercle on each side ; surface black, with four 
rather thick tawny-ashy lines ; there is also a broad tawny-ashy 
vitta above the coxa on each side. Elytra with prominent and 
rather acute shoulders, thence gradually attenuated to the apex, 
which latter is truncated, the external angles produced each into 
a longish spine ; surface olivaceous black, marked with a large 
number of well-separated and squarish tawny-ashy spots, mostly 
arranged in rows, and leaving a distinct belt beyond the middle and 
another near the apex unspotted; apex itself edged with whitish. 
Body beneath ochraceous ashy. Legs greyish, varied with 

<$ . Terminal ventral segment broadly truncated, angles pro- 
duced; dorsal segment obtuse, entire. 

Ega; rare. 

33. Colobothea suhtessellata, n. sp. 

C. elongata, postice attenuata, olivaceo-nigra, vertice postice bi- 
lincato, thorace lineis duabus dorsalibus crassiusculis alteraque 
laterali et vitta supracoxali cinereo-ochraceis ; elytris maculis nu- 

of the Amazons Valley. 105 

merosis cinereo-ochraceis in seriebus subordinatis, spatio lato api- 
cali immaculato ; thorace absque tuberculis. Long. 84- lin. $ . 

Head black ; forehead with three slender lines, vertex with 
two divergent lines, and cheeks with a broad streak tawny ashy. 
Antennae stout, black, sixth joint with a broad white ring, tenth 
joint with an ashy streak on one side ( <j> ). Thorax not con- 
stricted at the base, broadest at its basal angles, and free from 
tubercles; surface black, with two moderately thick tawny lines, 
sides each with a similar line, not visible from above, and a 
broad tawny vitta above the coxa. Elytra moderately broad at 
the shoulders, and narrowed thence to the apex, the latter trun- 
cated, with the outer angles spinose ; surface olivaceous black, 
marked with a large number of tawny spots, which are in some 
examples arranged in rows, and in others more or less confused ; 
there is a broad immaculate space at the apex, and the apex 
itself is broadly margined with white. Body beneath black, 
thinly clothed with ashy pile, and having a broad, distinct, 
ochreous lateral vitta. Legs blackish, ringed with grey. 

$ . Terminal abdominal segment elongated and tapering; 
dorsal plate broadly notched ; ventral truncated, angles acute. 
Banks of River Tapajos; rare. 

34. Colobothea octolineala, n. sp. 

C. valde elongata, postice attenuata, olivaceo-nigra, vertice linea 
unica, genis utrinque lineis duabus cinereis ; thorace lineis tenui- 
bus cinereis octo, quarum quatuor dorsalibus ; elytris humeris 
prominentibus, maculis cinereis discretis irregulariter dispersis. 
Long. 7|-11 lin. S $• 

Head black, forehead with two greyish lines, vertex with a 
single narrow line, and cheeks on each side with two oblique 
greyish lines. Antennae black, sixth joint thickened, with a ring 
of dense white hairs in both sexes. Thorax marked with eight 
slender, greyish or tawny lines, of which four are on the upper 
surface and two on each side, including the supracoxal streak, 
which in this species is slender, like the other lines. Elytra 
greatly elongated ; shoulders very prominent, thence gradually 
narrowing to the apex, the latter truncated, with outer angles 
spinose; surface olivaceous black, marked with a moderate num- 
of larger and smaller spots, widely separated from each other, 
but very irregularly dispersed; apex edged with whitish. Body 
beneath black, marked with ashy or tawny streaks and spots. 
Legs black, ringed with tawny and grey. 

$ . Terminal abdominal segment narrowed from the base ; 
apex of both dorsal and ventral plates emarginatc-truncate. 
Anterior tarsi very broady dilated and fringed. 

Ann. «f Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. xvi. 8 

106 Mr. H. W.Bates on the Longicorn Coleoptera 

? . Terminal abdominal segment elongate and tapering; apex 
of both dorsal and ventral plates emarginate-truncate. 
Para, also Ega, Upper Amazons ; common. 

35. Culobothea contaminata, Serville. 
Colobothea contaminata, Serv. Encycl. Meth. x. p. 337. 
C. valde elongata, angustata, postice vix attenuata, olivaceo-nigra, 
vertice linea unica cinereo-fulva, thorace lineis quatuor, quarum 
externa utrinque usque ad oculum extensa et vitta supracoxali 
supra genas continuata; elvtris maculis cinereo-fulvis passim 
confluentibus, vel cinereo-fulvis nigro irregulariter maculatis, fas- 
cia lata subapicali nigra ; antennis utroque sexu nigris, articulo 
sexto annulo incrassato albo. Segmento ultimo abdominali maris 
attenuato, apice emarginato ; fcemina3 angustato, lamina dorsali 
obtusa, ventrali angulis productis ; maris tarsis anticis valde dila- 
tatis. Long. 6±-10 lin. <$ $ . 

Generally distributed and common throughout the Amazons 
region ; also found at Cayenne. 

36. Colobothea geminata, n.sp. 

C. elongata, postice vix attenuata, olivaceo-nigra, vertice linea unica, 
thorace lineis duabus antice et postice conjunctis ; elytris maculis 
numerosis in lineis curvatis confluentibus fulvo-griseis. Long. 
7^-81 lin. J $ • 

Head black, forehead with three tawny-grey lines, and vertex 
with a single line ; cheeks with a tawny-ashy stripe. Antennae 
black, sixth joint with a broad white ring. Thorax black, sides 
each with two tawny-ashy stripes joined together near the front 
and posterior margins, and continuous with the cheek-stripe. 
Elytra elongated, of very nearly the same width from base to 
apex in both sexes; external angle of the truncature spinose; 
surface blackish olivaceous, sprinkled with a large number of 
tawny-ashy spots, which are mostly confluent, and tend to form 
a pattern consisting of three irregular pale rings, on each ely- 
tron, enclosing a blackish space : apex edged with tawny whitish. 
Body beneath ashy, but tawny towards the sides ; abdomen 
spotted with black. Legs ashy, ringed with black. 

$ . Terminal abdominal segment short ; ventral plate emar- 
ginate-truncate, angles produced ; dorsal plate obtuse and 
notched in the middle. Anterior tarsi not dilated. 

? . Terminal abdominal segment tapering; dorsal plate 
notched in the middle; ventral truncate, angles not produced. 

Guiana side of the Lower Amazons and banks of the Tapajos; 
also found at Cayenne. 

37. Colobothea concreta, n. sp. 

C. valde elongata, angustata, olivaceo-nigra, vertice linea unica, tho- 

of the Amazons Valley. 107 

race vittis quatuor (quarum duabus externis usque ad oculos ex- 
tensis) fulvo-cinereis ; elvtris basi tborace vix latioribus, apice 
truncatis, angulis externis spinosis, maculis cinereo-fulvis con- 
fluentibus dense vestitis, apice macula magna nigra. Long. 6-9 
lin. 3 2 • 

Head black, forehead streaked with tawny ashy, vertex with a 
single line ; occiput on each side with a short line continuous with 
the external thoracic stripe, cheeks with a transverse stripe con- 
tinuous with the supracoxal vitta. Antennre black, sixth joint with 
a broad white ring. Thorax black, surface with four rather thick 
tawny-ashy lines, sides having only the supracoxal vitta. Elytra 
elongated, scarcely tapering ; shoulders very oblique, and not at 
all prominent ; apex truncate, external angles spinose ; surface 
very thickly clothed with tawny or tawny-ashy spots, mostly 
confluent, but leaving a broad unspotted space at the apex, the 
latter margined with tawny white. Body beneath ashy, sides 
streaked with tawny ; abdomen spotted with black. Legs black, 
ringed with tawny and grey. 

<$ . Terminal abdominal segment narrowed from the base ; 
dorsal plate deeply notched ; ventral plate semicircularly emar- 
ginated, with angles much produced. Anterior tarsi widely 
dilated and fringed. 

$ . Terminal abdominal segment elongate and much nar- 
rowed ; dorsal plate very obtuse, ventral truncated, angles 
slightly prominent. 

Para, and banks of the Tapajos. 

38. Colobothea bilineata, n. sp. 

C. valde elongata, postice vix attemiata, nigra, vertice linea unica, 
thorace lineis duabus usque ad oculos extensis, griseis ; elytris 
a;riseis, nigro dense maculatis, apice macula magna nigra. Long. 
7-10^ lin. c?. 

Head black, forehead streaked with ashy, vertex with a single 
line, occiput on each side with a short line continuous with the 
thoracic stripe ; cheeks crossed by an ashy streak continuous 
with the supracoxal vitta. Antennse black, sixth joint with a 
broad white ring. Thorax black, surface with only two ashy 
stripes, each continuous to the hind margin of the eye. Elytra 
elongate and scarcely tapering, very little broader at the base 
than the thorax, but shoulders prominent and conical ; apex 
sinuate-truncate, the sutural angles being prominent and acute, 
the outer angles spinose ; surface grey, thickly spotted with 
black ; some of the spots confluent, and a large spot at the apex 
spotless ; apex itself edged with white. Body beneath thinly 
clothed with grey ; abdomen spotted with black. Legs black, 
ringed with grey. 


108 Mr. H. W. Bates on the Lohgicorn Coleoptera 

£ . Terminal abdominal segment with the ventral plate semi- 
circularly emarginated, augles acute ; dorsal plate triangularly 
emarginated. Anterior tarsi dilated and fringed. 

Ega and S. Paulo, Upper Amazons ; rare. 

39. Colobothea lunulata, Lucas. 

Colobothea lunulata, Lucas, Voyage de Casteluau, Entomologie, p. 190, 

pi. 13. f. 5 (1857). 
Fryi, Pascoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. vol. i. 41 (1861). 

C. elongato-elliptica, nigra ; vertice, thorace et elytris albo bivittatis, 
vittis longe ante apicem elytrorum convergentibus et annulo albo 
utrinque connexis. Long. 7h-§\ lin. 3 $ • 
This very distinct and handsome species was one of the com- 
monest of its genus at Ega, on the trunks of fallen trees in the 
forest. The shoulders are extremely oblique and scarcely pro- 
minent, so that the insect has the form of an elongated ellipse 
truncated at the elytral end. The terminal abdominal segment 
in the male has both the dorsal and ventral plates truncated ; 
in the female it is elongated, and the angles of the ventral plate 
are produced. The anterior male tarsi are widely dilated and 

* The following species of Colobothea have not yet been described : — 
Colobothea Hebraic a (Cbrevrolat, MS.). Modice eloiigata, postice at- 
tenuata, fusco-nigra, griseo maculata. Caput nigrum, fronte griseo 
trilineata, occipite maculis duabus, genis vitta lata, griseis. Antennae 
nigra?, articulis basi griseis. Thorax basi paulo angustatus, dorso 
linea abbreviata, disco utrinque maculis parvis, lateribus vitta latius- 
cula cinereo-griseis. Elytra apud humeros lata, deinde usque ad 
apices attenuata, truncaturac angulis externis spinosis, supra fusco- 
nigra maculis cinereo-griseis (partim subagglomeratis) adspersa, apice 
hand pallide marginato. Corpus subtus griseum, lateribus cinereis, 
nigro maculatis. Pedes nigri, cinereo annulati. Focminae segmentum 
ultimum abdominale attenuatum; lamina dorsali apice rotundata, ven- 
trali truncata, angulis productis. Long. 5-7 lin. £. Hab. in Mexico. 

Colobothea fasciata. Modice elongata, postice valde attenuata, tomento 
brunneo fulvo-maculato vestita; elytris fascia lata nigro-velutina. 
Caput nigrum, fulvo-brunneo vestitum, vertice linea unica fulva. 
Antennae breviores, nigral, breviter setosae, articulis basi griseis. 
Thorax fusco-uiger, dorso vittis duabus fulvo-bruuueis. Elytra apud 
humeros lata, deinde valde attenuata, apice sinuato-truncata, angulis 
externis longe spinosis, supra brunnea obscure fulvo maculata, pone 
medium fascia nigro-velutina apud dorsum dilatata, apices versus 
nigro liturata. Corpus subtus rufescens, medio nigricans. Pedes 
nigri. Maris segmentum ultimum ventrale subtumidum, apice obtuse 
truncatum ; tarsi antici baud dilatati. Foeminse segmentum ultimum 
paulo elongatum, valde attenuatum, lamina ventrah sinuato-truncata, 
baud spinosa. Long. 4-6. <? $ . Hab. in Rio Janeiro. 

Colobothea lateralis. Elongata, postice valde attenuata ; corpore supra 
cinereo-ochraceo, rufo variegato, lateribus nigris. Caput nigrum, 
fronte fulvescente, vertice et maculis quatuor oecipitalibus cinereis 

of the Amazons Valley . 109 

Subtribe Lamiit.e. 
Genus T/ENIotes, Serv. 
Serville, Ann. Soc. Enl. Fr. iv. 
This well-known and handsome genus is the only one belong- 
ing to the typical Lamiaires found in the Amazonian forests, 
the allied genus Ptychodes, common in other parts of Tropical 
America, being absent from the low-lying Equatorial region. 
The other Tropical American representants of this subtribe, so 
rich in forms in the Old World (namely, Plectodera, Hammo- 
derns, and Deliatliis), seem to be confined to the northern por- 
tion of the zone — Central America, Mexico, and thence extend- 
ing into the Southern States of North America. 

1. Taniotes decoratus, Castelnau. 

Teeniotes decoratus, Casteln., Animaux articules, ii. p. 479. 

T. m'gro-velutinus, capite fascia utrinque infra oculos, vitta laterali 
alteraque coronali per thoracem et scutellnm continuata, maculis- 
que rotundis elytrorum utrinque circa 13 leete flavis ; corpore sub- 
tus vitta flava laterali : maris pedibus anticis vix elongatis, tarsis 
baud pilosis. Long. 13 lin. S 2- 

I met with this fine species only in the neighbourhood of 
Para, on felled trees in broad roads through the forest. The 
terminal ventral segment in both sexes is broadly truncated, 
with a distinct spine at each angle. M. Guerin-Menevillc (Icon. 
Regne Animal, p. 243) believes this species to be the same as 
the T. subocellatus of Olivier (Ent. no. 67. pp. 69, 89, pi. 2. 
f. 12 a, b), and that the latter is founded on a worn or immature 

2. Teeniotes D' Orbignyi, Guerin. 
Teeniotes D'Orbignyi, Guerin-Meneville, Icon. Regne Animal, p. 444. 
T. nigro-velutinus, capite fascia utrinque infra oculos, vitta laterali, 
alteraque coronali per thoracem et scutellum continuata, vittaque 
elytrorum utrinque medio interrupta et maculiformi laete flavis ; 
corpore subtus vitta flava laterali : maris pedibus auticis vix 
elongatis, tarsis baud pilosis. Long. 8-13 lin. J $ • 

This species, originally discovered in the wooded plains of 

fulvo maculatis. Antennae grisca?, articulis apice nigris. Thorax an- 
tice angustatus, dorso cineieo-ocliracens, rufo maculatus, lateribus 
nigris. Elytra apud humeros lata, deinde attennata, apice truncata, 
angulis externis spinosis, supra cinerco-ochracea. rufo maculata, la- 
teribus irregulariter nigris, nigredine ramos tres dentatos in discum 
emittente, his rufo marginatis. Corpus subtus cinereum, medio 
nigrum, segmentis primo et ultimo abdominalibus nigris. Fceminae 
segmentum ultimum attenuatum, lamina ventrali truncata, dorsali 
medio emarginata. Long. 7a bn. $ . Hub, in Brasilia. 

110 Mr. II. W. Bates on the Longicorn Coleoptera 

Bolivia by M. D'Orbigny, was common on the Upper Amazons 
at Ega. The yellow (partially macular) stripe of the elytra 
varies a little in the degree in which it is broken up into spots; 
but it never forms a double row of distinct round spots from 
base to apex, as shown in T. decoratus, and can scarcely be con- 
sidered a local form of the same stock. 

3. Taniotes Amazonum, Thomson. 
Tceniotes Amazonum, Thorns. Archives Entomologiques, i. p. 172. 

T. niger, eapite linea curvata frontali, vitta utrinque latcrali, altera 
coronali per thoracem scutellum et elytros continuata (hie dentata) 
pallide flavis; thorace utrinque linea tenuissima grisea ; elytris 
maculis parvis munerosis, quarum duabus vel tribus discoidalibus 
maioribus, flavis ; corpore subtus vitta flava laterali : maris pedi- 
bus anticis valde elongatis, tibiis curvatis, tarsis baud pilosis. 
Long. 9-16 lin. tf $• 
A common insect in the forest at Ega, on the Upper Amazons. 

It is probably a local form of T. scalar is, Fabr., but differs much 

from the description given by that author. The terminal ventral 

plate is formed as in T. decoratus. 

4. Tceniotes farinosus, Linnaeus. 

Ceramhyx farinosus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 626. 24; Oliv. Ent. lxvii. p. 50, 

f. 46 a. 
pulverulentus, Oliv. Ent. lxvii. p. 50, f. 46 b. 

T. niger, griseo vestitus ; eapite tboraceque lineis tenuibus tribus, 
elytris maculis munerosis parvis, flavo-griseis, bis apice acutis ; 
corpore subtus flavo maculato : maris pedibus anticis valde elon- 
gatis, tibiis curvatis, tarsis hirsutis. Long. 13 lin. 3 . 

This species was a rare one in the Amazons region, and found 
only in the dry forests of the Tapajos. The spines of the ter- 
minal ventral segment are more elongated than in the other 

Subtribe Oncidehit^:. 

Group Onciderina. 

Genus Hypselomus, Perty. 

Perty, Delectus Anim. Articul. Brasil. p. 95 (1830-34). 

Syn. Hypsioma, Serv. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. p. 38 (1835). 
This genus is distinguished from its allies by its short sub- 
trigonal form of body, with projecting and often acute shoulders 
of the elytra. The claw-joint of the tarsi is not so much elon- 
gated as in Oncideres, or even Clytemnestra. It is very closely 
allied to the latter genus, but is distinguishable at once by the 
abrupt clavate form of the basal joint of the antennae and the 

of the Amazons Valley. Ill 

curved shape of the third. The males of most species have a 
short, slender, curved joint at the tip of the eleventh joint of 
the antenme, which is sometimes visible (but much smaller) in 
the female. 

1. Hypselomus basalis, Thomson. 

Hypsioma basalis, Thomson, Classif. ties Cerambyc. p. 117. 

//. modice elongatus, brunneus ; capite, tborace et elytrorum parte 
antica rufescenti-ochraceis ; sum ma fronte acute bituberculata ; 
antennis nigris, basi rufescenti-ochraceis, articulis ceeteris basi 
rufescentibus ; elytris basi utrinque vix elevatis, nigro tuberculatis 
humeris, apice nigris ; abdomine lateribus rufo vittatis ; pedibus 
nigricantibus, tibiis compressis, posticis( tf ) apice dilatatis. Long. 
6-9 lin. <5 2 . 

A common insect throughout the Amazons region, being 
found, like the rest of the species, on dead branches, closely 
adhering to them, and gnawing the bark and wood all round, 
until the bough is sometimes severed. The face and parts 
of the mouth are much elongated and directed a little back- 
wards between the anterior haunches, so that when the legs are 
extended, grasping a branch, the jaws are in a good position to 
gnaw effectually. The supplementary joint of the antennae is 
very conspicuous in the males of this species. 

2. Hypselomus picticornis, n. sp. 

H. suboblongus, bruuneus, elytris fascia obliqua indistincta palli- 
diore ; antennis brunneis, articulo 2 d0 toto et cseteris basi rufes- 
centibus ; elytris basi haud tuberculatis, humeris oblique conicis 
modice productis. Long. 7 lin. $ . 

Head brown, forehead near base of antennas with two very 
small conical tubercles. Antennas about the length of the body, 
setose beneath ; basal joint strongly and abruptly clavate, third 
much bent, dark brown ; second joint, basal half of third, and 
bases of each remaining joint pallid-reddish. Thorax scarcely 
uneven on the surface, uniform dingy brown. Elytra oblong 
trigonal; shoulders moderately prominent, and thence gradually 
narrowed to the apex, which is broadly rounded ; surface con- 
vex ; centrobasal ridges not at all prominent, and quite destitute 
of tubercles, the basal half of the elytra being simply punctured. 
Body beneath rufescent tawny, centre of abdomen black ; legs 
brown, claw-joints of tarsi with their basal halves pale reddish. 

Ega; rare. 

3. Hypselomus Amazonicus, Thomson. 
Hypsioma Amazonica, Thomson, Classif. des Ceramb. p. 119. 
H. convexus, brunneus ; elytris humeris conicis, subuncinatis, pone 
medium fascia irregulari pallidiore, deinde ad apices pallide mar- 

112 Mr. II. W. Bates on Longicom Coleoptera. 

moratis ; antcmiis articulis basi rufescentibus : maris tibiis posticis 
apice valde dilatato-compressis. Long. 9 lin. S $ • 

Closely allied to H. picticornis, but larger and darker, with 
the elytra behind the middle much more variegated with pale 
ashy brown, and the conical protuberances of the shoulders 
strongly curved anteriorly. The antenna? are coloured as in H. 
picticornis, the second and basal half of the third, with bases of 
the remaining joints being pale reddish. The underside of the 
body is tawny brown, with the centre of the abdomen black. 
The elytra are smoothly and strongly convex from base to apex, 
without any trace of centrobasal ridge or tubercles. 

Ega, Upper Amazons. 

4. Hypselomus dimidiatus, n. sp. 

H. modice convexus, fuscus, fulvo irroratus ; elytris apud medium 
ochraceo fasciatis, deinde usque ad apices pallide ochraceo-brun- 
neis fusco striatis et maculatis ; tborace supra quinquetuberculato, 
lateribus acute tuberculatis. Long. 6-7 lin. cf 5 . 

Head dingy brown. Antenna? dull brown, base of each joint, 
from the third, pallid-reddish. Thorax uneven, disk on each 
side with two prominent tubercles, and dorsal line elevated be- 
hind into a ridge, sides each with an acute tubercle; dingy 
brown. Elytra with very prominent shoulders, the anterior side 
of the subcorneal projection oblique ; centrobasal ridges slightly 
elevated, but not tuberculated ; dark brown, sprinkled with ful- 
vous; behind the middle a pale oblique belt or broad triangular 
spot darker in the middle, thence to the apex light brown with 
darker lines and spots. Body beneath tawny brown, middle of 
abdomen black. Legs black, apex of thighs fulvous, claw -joint 
red, apex black. Posterior tibia? in the male dilated at the apex; 
supplementary antennal joint in the same sex very short or 

Ega. Rather variable in the colour of the posterior part of 
the elytra, the pale belt being sometimes extended into a large 
triangular patch, and sometimes blended with the pale-brown 
shade of the apical half of the wing-cases. The species seems 
to be very closely allied to H. snbfasciata, Thomson (Classif. des 
Ceramb. p. 118). 

5. Hypselomus rodens, n. sp. 

H. oblongus, m'gro-mscus, carneo-fulvo strigatus ; tborace supra haud 
tuberculato ; elytris humeris apice truncatis, postice uncinatis, 
pone medium fascia obliqua pallida. Long. 6 lin. 5 . 

Head dingy black, crown sprinkled with reddish tawny. An- 
tenna? black, sprinkled with tawny ; base of each joint, from the 
fourth, pale. Thorax convex above, and free from tubercles, 

Occurrence of recent Shells in the fossil state near Melbourne. 113 

sides with an inconspicuous tubercle. Elytra oblong, shoulders 
prominent, but the apex of the cone largely truncated, with the 
posterior edge of the truncature projecting; surface coarsely 
punctured, blackish, streaked with reddish tawny, behind the 
middle tawny streaked with black, the tawny part separated 
from the anterior darker portion by a pale-ochreous fascia. 
Body beneath tawny, middle of abdomen black. Legs tawny, 
sprinkled with black, base of claw-joint reddish. 

[To be continued.] 

XI. — On the Occurrence of Limopsis Belcheri, Corbula sulcata, 
and some other recent Shells in the fossil state in Miocene 
Tertiary Beds near Melbourne. By Frederick M'Coy, Pro- 
fessor of Natural Science in the University of Melbourne, and 
Director of the Melbourne National Museum, &c. 

Having occupied myself lately, in my capacity of Palaeontologist 
to the Geological Survey of Victoria, Avith the investigation of 
the Tertiary fossils collected by the Survey Staff from the strata 
of Bird-Rock Bluff, near the mouth of Spring Creek, about 
fifteen miles south of Geelong, I was much struck with the 
geographical distribution of the very few recent species found 
associated with the large majority of extinct species in a rich 
fossil fauna unmistakeably of the Lower Miocene age. The 
whole facies of the fossil contents of these beds resembles closely 
that of the Lower Miocene beds of Doberg (near Biinde, West- 
phalia), Malta, and some other European beds of the same age, 
as well as the so-called Upper Eocene North-American beds 
near Vicksburg on the Mississippi ; and many of the genera, as 
well as the great majority of the species, are extinct. Amongst 
the extinct genera of shells, Aturia amongst the Nautili may be 
mentioned as conspicuous; and amongst Fishes, Carcharodon 
may be mentioned as an abundant Upper Eocene and Miocene 
genus of Sharks, not more than one species of which is found 
in our present seas, represented by the two best-known and 
most widely distributed Eocene and Miocene species found 
abundantly in such strata in England, Germany, and other parts 
of continental Europe, and in North America, namely, the 
Carcharodon megalodon (Ag.), specimens of which occur in our 
Spring-Creek beds (though not very commonly) perfectly iden- 
tical with those from Malta or England, or the supposed Eocene 
beds of South Carolina, or the Miocene beds of Virginia and 
Maryland, — and the Carcharodon angustidens (Ag.), which occurs 
abundantly in our Australian beds so perfectly identical with 
specimens from the Lower Miocene of Doberg near Biinde, that, 

1 14 Occurrence of recent Shells in, the fossil state near Melbourne. 

when compared side by side, it is impossible to distinguish them 
by the slightest difference ; and as this species, according to 
Prof. Agassiz's recently published opinion, includes the Sheppey 
London-Clay C. Toliapicus amongst other varieties, I need only 
say that the best-marked Eocene and Miocene varieties found in 
Europe and America are perfectly represented, on comparison 
of specimens, by the different varieties in our Bird-Rock Bluff 

It is, I think, a very curious result of the careful comparison 
I have made between the fossil species of the Bird- Rock Bluff 
Mollusca and their nearest allies, that I can with certainty an- 
nounce one of the commonest of them to be specifically identical 
with the Limopsis Belcheri of Adams and Reeve, of which the 
few known specimens were brought up alive from a prodigious 
depth by Admiral Belcher, off the Cape of Good Hope. The 
identification, I should say, does not rest on an examination of 
the published figure and description, which would not have been 
sufficient for the purpose, but, having been fortunate enough to 
procure a living specimen for the National Museum which I 
take a pleasure in forming during my residence in Melbourne, 
I have perfectly satisfied myself of the complete identity of our 
Miocene Tertiary abundant shell with the hitherto very rare 
recent one by direct comparison. 

The Limopsis aurita (Sassi), perfectly identical with specimens 
which I have used for comparison from the Coralline Crag 
of Suffolk and many Miocene localities in Germany (which 
Mr. Jeffreys has lately dredged from 85 fathoms off Unst, in 
Shetland), is also common, though not so abundant in the 
Australian beds as the L. Belcheri. 

The third living species of the Arcidce in these beds is the 
Pectunculus laticostatus (Quoy & Gaimard) of New Zealand, 
occurring just as abundantly as the others. 

The last bivalve I shall mention in this communication is an 
extremely abundant Corbula, which I can safely pronounce 
identical with the C. sulcata now living on the west coast of 
Africa. Lest it might be supposed that, judging from figures 
or descriptions, I had mistaken the North-east Australian Cor- 
bula tunicata or other allied forms for the C. sulcata, I should 
state that this is not so, but that, in working out the palaeonto- 
logy of our Australian deposits, I have thought it my duty to 
science to take the precaution of procuring every recent species 
I refer to for comparison before assuming an identity. 

The commonest Dentalium in these beds I believe to be a 
mere variety of the Upper Eocene D. Mississippiensis (Conrad) 
from Vicksburg. 

Melbourne, May 25, 1865. 

Prof. G. Gulliver on Raphides and other Crystals in Plants. 115 

XII. — Observations on Raphides and other Crystals in Plants. 
By George Gulliver, F.R.S. 

[Continued from vol. xv. p. 458.] 

The object of this paper being to show how the order Vitacese 
differs, in the possession of the character of raphis-bearing, from 
its allies, they will here follow as enumerated by Prof. Lindley. 

Droseracece. — Dried specimens of Drosera rotundifolia and D. 
anglica : no raphides. 

Fumariacece. — Of these were examined fresh plants of Fumaria 
officinalis and another English species, Dielytra spectabilis, and 
Corydalis, sp., in none of which could raphides be detected. 

Berberidacece. — Leaves and fruit of Berberis vulgaris, B. Japo- 
nica, B. Darwinii, B. dulcis, B. aquifolia, and leaves and ovaries 
of Epimedium alpinum, E. macranthum : no raphides in any of 
them ; a few sphaeraphides in the fruit of Berberis vulgaris. 

Vitacem. — Raphides and other crystals in the Grape-vine 
have been long known (Edwin Quekett, Lindley's ' Introduction 
to Botany'); and I have already indicated that the character may 
pervade the whole order (' Annals/ Dec. 1863 and Jan. 1865). 
Lately I have repeated my former observations, and extended them 
to more species of this order and its allies. The Vitaceae exa- 
mined are Cissies discolor, Vitis vinifera, V. odoratissima, V. apii- 
folia, Ampelopsis hederacea and two other species, and two species 
of Leea. Every one of these plants afforded raphides and sphae- 
raphides in more or less abundance. The Leea, though merely 
old dried fragments of leaves and flowers, exhibited the raphides 
and sphaeraphides in abundance, the raphides often in bundles, 
and still more frequently swimming separately in the water on 
the object-plate. All the other Vitaceae were fresh and healthy 
plants. In Cissus, the sprigs, tendrils, young leaves, and stipules 
all abound in raphides, some within short oval-shaped cells; 
there were also other cells, longer, much tougher, and narrower 
than the former, pointed or nipple-shaped at the ends, and con- 
taining raphis-like objects. Whether these be true raphides 
requires further examination to determine ; for they are very 
fine and fragile, and (unlike the obvious raphides of this plant) 
difficult to separate from each other and from their cells. 
They are common, with the regular raphidian cells, in the leaves, 
and especially plentiful in the thick base of the stipules. 

Pittosporacea. — Fresh leaves and twigs of Pittosporum andu- 
laium and P. tobira : some sphaeraphides in the leaves and meso- 
phlceum, but no raphides. Dried fragments of leaves and flowers 
of Bursaria spinosa, Marianthus candidus, M. sp., and Cheiran- 
thera linearis : a few sphaeraphides in each of these plants, but 
no raphides. Fresh leaves of Sollya heterophylla : no raphides, 

116 Prof. G. Gulliver on Rap/tides and other Crystals in Plants. 

but many sphscraphides. In short, these Pittosporacese afford 
sphscraphides, but are quite devoid of raphides. 

Olacacccc. — Dried leaves of Olax scandens, 0. stricta, Liri- 
osma, sp., Heisteria cyanocarpa, Ximenia americana, Icacina sene- 
galensis, Aphodytes, sp., Gomphandra axillaris, Pogopetalum acu- 
leatum, and Cansjera scandens : all these Olacacese and Icaci- 
nacese devoid of raphides. 

Araliacece and Rhamnaccce. — Of these orders the following 
plants were examined, and none of them afforded any raphides : 
Aralia leptophylla, A. nudicaulis, Hedera Helix, Rhamnus Ala- 
ternus, Ceanothus azureus, and C. divaricatus. Some of them 
abound in sphseraphides, as may be well seen in Aralia ('Annals/ 
April 1861) and Rhamnus. In the last plant they form a beau- 
tiful sphseraphid tissue, of which there is a plate from Lythrum 
in the 'Annals' for September 1863, pi. IV. fig. 13. This 
tissue occurs in the leaves, liber, and between the medullary 
rays and alburnum of Rhamnus. 

On the present occasion negative results of searches for ra- 
phides are detailed more particularly than has been usual in 
these papers, in order that botanists may estimate the observa- 
tions on Vitacese at their true value, and more especially as 
Mr. W. H. Baxter has kindly afforded me the means of making 
comparative examinations of all the above-named Leere, Pitto- 
sporacese, and Olacacese. 

Excepting the little order Cyrillacese, of which I have yet seen 
no member, the first six orders in this paper form the whole of 
Prof. Lindley's Berberal Alliance, in which the order Vitacese 
occupies the central place lineally. The affinities of this order 
he thus indicates : — 


Berbericlacese. — Vitacese. — Pittosporacese. 


The result of the present observations is remarkable. No 
plant of the central order examined without finding raphides ; 
while, on the contrary, these were never found at all in any 
examination of its allies and surrounding orders. Thus Vitacese 
must surely be entitled to the character of a raphis-bearing 
order. But whether this character will always certainly prove 
diagnostic, as now seems probable, can only be decided after a 
complete examination of all the orders in question. So novel is 
this subject of raphides as natural characters in systematic 

Balsaminaccce, Galiacece, Onagracece, Phytolaccacece, and Nyc- 
faginacea. — And the same remark applies to these raphis-bearing 
Exogens, although my observations in the' Annals ' for July 

Dr. 0. A. L. Morch on the Operculum and its Mantle, 117 

1864, and many since made, have convinced me that, so far as 
regards the British flora, the raphidian diagnosis is not only 
quite true, but very natural. Yet, as formerly noticed, this 
character might more easily escape attention in Galiaceee than 
in the other orders. 

Finally, the propriety of retaining Leea under Vitacese ha3 
been disputed ; and the present observations will tend to support 
the conclusion of those botanists who, with Adrien de Jussieu 
and Lindley, persist that this genus ought not to be separated 
from Vitacese. 

Edenbridge, July 17, 1865. 

[To be continued.] 

XIII. — On the Operculum and its Mantle (lobus operculigerus, 
pomatochlamys). By Dr. 0. A. L. Morch. 

Adanson* regarded the operculum of univalve shells as an- 
swering to the second valve of the bivalves — an opinion main- 
tained by Oken and lately by Dr. Grayf and Prof. MacdonaldJ. 
In this point of view the lobus operculigerus (Loven), or <c the 
opercular mantle/' would correspond with one moiety of the 
mantle of bivalves. 

Prof. Loven regards the bivalve shell as produced by a cloven 
or bipartite mantle, and the operculum as homologous with the 

Prof. Keferstein§ supports Loven's opinion, considering the 
slit in Emarginula and Tenagodus as a trace of division. The 
porous slit of Haliotis, Tenagodus, &c, corresponds with the 
notch or channel in canaliferous shells (Entostomata, Blv.). 
There is, however, a more important trace of division in many 
univalves — for instance, the dentated furrow in Monoceros, 
Pseudoliva, Ancillaria, and some species of Murex {Cerastes), but 
chiefly in Carinaria. In this last genus the keel is formed by 
the two sides of the shell, which are pressed against each other 
in such manner that a piece of paper can be introduced into 
the middle of the keel as far as the foetal shell. In Onustus 
(Humphr.) the two sides are cemented together, but the union 
can be clearly seen. Akera bullata shows something similar in 

* Hist. Naturelle du Sene'gal. 

f J. E. Gray " On the Operculum of Gasteropodous Mollusca, and an 
attempt to prove that it is homologous or identical with the second valve 
of Conchifera" (Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist. ser. 2. v. p. 4JG; and 
Phil. Trans. 1833). 

X " On the Homologies of the so-called univalve shell and its Opercu- 
lum" (Proc. Linn. Soc. v. 1860). 

§ lironn u. Keferstein, Die Klasseu u. Ordnungcn des Thierreichs. 

118 Dr. 0. A. L. Morch on the Operculum and its ManV.e. 

the line of suture. The shell of the young Dentalium is also 
split throughout its whole length. The best proof of analogy 
would perhaps be the carapace of Limnadia and Estheria, among 
Crustacea, which is bivalve, while that of closely allied genera, 
as Nebalia and Apus, is univalve. 

Pinna saccata, L., has both valves united in the adult state ; 
but it has never been observed that the two valves have their 
origin in the division of a single shell : on the contrary, the 
division is manifest in the larval shell. 

Nearly all organs are double in the Acephala : there are thus 
two ovaria with distinct external orifices, two kidneys (organs 
of Bojanus) with distinct external orifices, two pairs of labial 
palpi, two pairs of gills. It seems to me therefore probable that 
the Acephala also have two shells originating in the same way 
as the other organs above mentioned. This duplicity of the or- 
gans is very indistinct among the univalves, as in Dentalium and 
Chiton, and it becomes rarer and rarer among the higher 

The larva (Glochidium) of Anodonta has in each shell a distinct 
byssus-bundle ("cordons ombilicaux," Quatrefages*), and a dis- 
tinct intestinal channel with distinct oral orifices j-; in other 
words, it is a true Diplozoon in the larval state. This curious 
fact is perhaps not quite solitary among Mollusca. Thus, ac- 
cording to Koren and Danielssen %, several eggs (from 1 to 100) 
are, in Buccinum undatum, united to form a single embryo. The 
difference is chiefly that in the much lower mollusk, Anodonta, 
the amalgamation takes place in a more advanced state of the 
embryos, so that some organs, the intestinal channel and the 
byssus, are united into one, and the other organs are kept in 
their original condition. The animal would then be composed of 
two "zonites," reminding us of the "egg- producing process " 
of Hydra, regarded by Prof. Huxley as a reduced individual, 
or an organ homologous with an individual §. An Acephalous 
mollusk must therefore be considered an individual in the same 
sense as a plant or flower composed of individuals (leaves) reduced 
to organs. The question is, Does the opercular lobe with its 
operculum represent one lobe of the mantle and its shell in the 
bivalves, or is it something different ? 

The epipodial line of Huxley (" manteau inferieur," Lacaze- 

* Ann. des Sc. Nat. torn. iv. (1835) p. 283, and torn. v. (1836) p. 321, 

f Von Siebold, Vergleichende Anatomic, Wirbellose Thiere, p. 294. 

X Bidrag til Pectinibranchiernes Udviklingshistorie ; " On the Develop- 
ment of Buccinum undatum" (Athenaeum, 1852, p. 1066). 

§ Lecture upon Animal Individuality, Royal Institution (Ann. Nat. 
Hist. ser. 2. vol. ix. p. 505). 

Dr. 0. A. L. Morch on the Operculum and its Mantle. 1 19 

Duthiers*) often produces posteriorly a shell {operculum) analo- 
gous to the shell of the true mantle ; laterally it can be deve- 
loped into fins, as in Aplysia and Gymnosomata (Pneumoder/non, 
&c), analogous to the pallial fins of the Cephalopoda; it can 
form a fimbriated or undulated edge, as in Haliotis, Trochidee, 
Elysiidce, and Philinef; it can form a siphon, as in Cephalopoda 
or in the American Ampullarice, analogous to the mantle-siphon 
of Buccinidce ; perhaps it forms anteriorly the tentacula, ommato- 
phores J, and intertentacular lobes of Trochidee, corresponding to 
the mantle-edge of Peciines, Solenes, Galeomma, &c. The epi- 
podium is attached to the foot ; but it is not quite clear that it 
is a part of it. One author considers the foot homologous with 
the adductor muscle of the Acephala ; but it must be remembered 
that the foot of the Acephala is homologous with that of the 
Gasteropoda. Dr. Gray regards the muscles which connect the 
columella and the operculum as homologous with the adductor 
muscles of bivalves. 

Prof. Loven considers the operculum homologous with the 
byssus ; but, as this organ is found in several univalves, even in 
those with an operculum, this opinion cannot be adopted, as was 
pointed out by Prof. Macdonald. It must also be remembered that 
it is not known how the byssus of univalves is formed. Swain- 
son (Treatise, p. 186, f. 29) represents Cyclostoma suspensum, 
Gould, and A. Adams (Voyage of Samarang, p. 44, 1. 13. f. 3), 
Cerithidea obtusa, Lam., as attached to a branch by a byssus 
during the aestivation. According to Macdonald, Planaxis, and 
to Gray, Rissoa parva, spin a byssus. It is possible, from its re- 
semblance to that of Mytilus, that the deep posterior groove in 
the footsole of Cerithiopsis tubercularis (Forb. & Hani. Brit. 
Moll.) produces the byssus. The nature of the slimy thread of 
Litiopa, too, is very doubtful ; perhaps it only corresponds to the 
thread of Limax filans, Hoy. The "float" of Ianthina, which 
attaches the animal to the surface of the water, is probably ho- 
mologous with the byssus §, judging from its ventral position ||. 

* " Memoire sur le Systeme nerveux de YHaliotide " (Ann. des Sc. Nat. 
Zoolog. 1858, ser. 4. vol. xii. p. 226). 

t Morch, Journal de Conchyliologie, 1863, p. 39. 

X The double-eyed monstrosities of Emaryinula and Patella vulgata, 
the latter of which, with a double tentacle, described by Fischer, are not 
without importance for this comparison (Journal de Conchyliol. torn. v. 
p. 230, torn. xii. p. 89). Lacaze-Duthiers, "Sur les Monstres doubles de 
la Bullaa aperta " (Compt. Rend. Acad. Sc. tome xii. 1855, pp. 124/- 

§ Morch, Journal de Conchyliologie, 1860, Juillet. 

Macdonald, '"On the Homologies, &c." (Proc. Linn. Soc. vol. v. 
Nov. 14, 1860, p. 209). 

|| In the young Cyclas the byssus has, however, a posterior position. 

120 Mr. J. Hogg on some Amphibians. 

It has a remarkable analogy to the singular vesicular develop- 
ment of the cement-tissue of the peduncle of Lepas (Dosima) 
fascicularis, Sol. & Ellis*. 

The byssus in the Acephala is generally corneous ; but in 
Anomia it forms a calcareous plate (the plug), possibly corre- 
sponding with the opercular valve in Hipponyso and Lithedaphus, 
which may be considered a calcareous secretion of the ventral 
face of the foot. The epiphragm of the Helices would also 
be homologous, if this plate be really a secretion of the foot, 
as M. P. Fischer states; but it is probably secreted by the 
mantle, like the septa of Vermeti, Runcina decollata, &c. To this 
category belong probably the tubes of Teredo, Gastrochcena, 
Clavagella, &c, and the accessorial valves of Pholades. The two 
pallets in Teredo, which have a striking analogy to the opercula 
of some Serpula (Hijdroidcs norvegica, Gunn.), might perhaps be 
compared with the posterior supplementary shells of Talona. 

The shell of Argonauta, considered by Mr. Adams to be homo- 
logous with the egg-cases of Murex, agrees with Nautilus in its 
position and the black colour of the carina; but it seems to be 
formed by the arms only. Its homology is therefore uncertain. 
It appears that all parts of the skin in Mollusca can secrete a 
shell. There are likewise found calcareous spicula or grains in 
all parts of the body, in the clypeus in Gymnobranchia, the 
tentacula of Pleitrobranchus, and even in the intestinal channel. 
Iu the Bullida and some Pellibranchiata there are thick calca- 
reous plates in the stomach. 

Note. The ligament is a thickening of the epidermis, which 
is part of the skin of the animal, but not specially of the shell. 
This seems evident to me from examining, for instance, a specimen 
of Mi/a truncata in spirit. The connexion of the two valves by 
the ligament proves, therefore, not that the valves were originally 
one only, but that the bivalve shell is formed in the same manner 
as the two lateral mandibles of the jEolidce. 

XIV. — Notes on some Amphibians. 
By John Hogg, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

Dr. J. E. Gray, in his paper "On the Clawed Toads {Dactyle- 
thra) of Africa," published in the ' Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History' (vol. xv. p. 334), well observes, that this 
kind has " large webbed hinder feet, some of the toes of which 
are armed with very distinct horny black claws — a peculiarity 
of structure that is quite an exception amongst the Batrachian 

* Darwin's ' Cirripeds,' p. 96. 

Mr. J. Hogg on some Amphibians. 121 

Cuvier, in the second edition of his ' Regno Animal ' (1829), 
bestowed the generic name of Dactylethra on the only one then 
known, which had been discovered in South Africa, and which 
is now called D. capensis. 

The Greek appellation of the genus, haKTv\j)6pa, properly 
means a " case " or " sheath for the finger," i. e. a thimble ; and 
it is clearly a very correct one for the sort of horny case which 
covers three of the five toes of this curious animal. Dr. Gray 
describes it as a " black horny claw, which covers the last joint 
of the three outer toes and the spur of the hind foot." 

The same zoologist further describes this Toad as having its 
skin " scattered with small white lines disposed in a symmetrical 
manner, which, when examined by a magnifier of rather high 
power, display linear series of close minute perforations or 
glandular openings." 

These small perforations or pores are probably of use in 
exuding, under a dry and hot atmosphere, a fluid that is service- 
able in moistening the naked skin, which, in several species of 
Frog, is known to perform the function of breathing. This 
cutaneous respiration possessed by some of the Amphibians was, 
I believe, first made known by Dr. Edwards, in Paris, more than 
a quarter of a century ago; but how far that function may 
assist, or be employed in lieu of, pulmonary respiration I have 
not been able to learn. 

When I wrote my first paper on the " Classifications of the 
Amphibia," which was published in the ' Magazine of Natural 
History' (n. s. vol. iii. p. 265, 1839), 1 kept the genus Dactylethra 
apart from the genus Pipa, and took the D. capensis as the type 
of a distinct family, which I termed Dactylethridae. For so 
doing, more than twenty-seven years since, several zoologists, 
whose classifications were not in accordance with mine, censured 
me; but I am now very happy to find that Dr. Gray has 
adopted (p. 340) the family "Dactylethridae" as an established 
one. Although this distinguished naturalist does not assign the 
author to this family, yet by consulting Prof. Agassiz's ' Nomen- 
clator Zoologicus,' it will be seen that I was the originator of it. 

The entries in that useful work are as follow : — 

In the 'Index Universalis' (p. 115), " Dactylethridae, Hogy, 
Rept. Ad. 1838." 

Again, in the 'Addenda' to 'Reptilia' (p. 3), "Dactyle- 
thridae, Hogg, Ann. Nat. Hist. i. 1838. Dactylethra. Pipce." 

And should the animal named by Dr. Gray Silurana prove a 
distinct genus, and not the larval or tadpole-state of a species 
of Dactylethra, it will constitute another interesting genus in 
the family Dactylethridae. 

Ann. fy Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol.xv'u 9 

122 Mr. J. Hogg on some Amphibians. 

I will now make a few remarks on the Axolotl of Mexico — 
named by Cuvier Axolotus Mexicanus, and by myself Siredon 
pisciformis ( 1 838) . 

Dr. Gray, in bis very useful ' Catalogue of the Specimens of 
Amphibia in the British Museum/ part 2, printed in 1850 
(wherein he has done my labours justice), places this remarkable 
Amphibian in his suborder II. Gradientia, and family III. Ple- 
thodontida; and he says at p. 49, that it "has only been observed 
in its larva state." He also there cites this passage from Baird 
(Journ. A. N. S. Phil. 1849, p. 292) :— "It {Siredon) so much 
resembles the larva of Ambystuma punctata in both external form 
and internal structure, that I cannot but believe it to be the 
larva of some gigantic species of this genus. It differs from all 
known Perennibranchiates (the Aliment ihranchians, mihi) in 
possessing the larval character of the gular or opercular Hap, 
this being unattached to the subjacent integuments, and free to 
the extremity of the chin. The non-discovery of the adult is 
no argument against its existence." 

Also Charles Bonaparte, Prince of Musignano, in the same 
year (1850), in his Classification of the Amphibia, considered the 
Siredon as the mere tadpole of a Salamandra or Batrachian. 

Although Dr. Gray, with his usual accuracy, has referred to 
" Home, Phil. Trans. 1824," yet he seems not to have fully 
examined that memoir, and to have overlooked the following 
passage which I wrote in 1838 respecting it : — 

" Latreille places the Axolotl (Siredon pisciformis) amongst 
the Caducibranchious Amphibia; but it had been previously 
discovered that its branchi(e are persistent ; the details of which 
may be learnt from a paper by Sir Everard Home, published in 
the 'Philosophical Transactions' for the year 1824, p. 419. 
One of the accompanying plates accurately represents the ex- 
ternal gills as still remaining on a female Axolotl when in the 
state of possessing fully developed ovaria, and just before the 
ova are shed ; thereby proving her to be a perfect animal. Con- 
sequently Latreille should have stationed the Axolotl next to 
the Proteus in his second order." This fact has been fully con- 
firmed ; and the permanency of the external gills throughout 
the life of the animal is now well determined. It is frequent in 
the lake near the city of Mexico ; and the common people con- 
sidering it ajisli (as indeed some naturalists are inclined to do), 
sell it as such; and, as Hernandez says, " salubre et gratum 
praebet alimentum." There seem to me to be three or four 
species which are not yet correctly known or distinguished. 

M. Dumeril has very recently given an account of the hatch- 
ing of the young from the ova of the Mexican species (Siredon 
pisciformis) in the menagerie of the Museum of Natural History 

Mr. J. Hogg on some Amphibians. 123 

in Paris. The ovum, is like that of all the Batrachians. The 
gills in the tadpole of this species consist of three short appen- 
dages, which are cylindric and only slightly ramified. 

For a full description of the interesting development of the 
tadpole from the egg of this Amphibian, see the last April 
Number (16) of the ' Comptes llendus/ tome lx. p. 765. 

I may, however, note that it appears that the time required 
for the hatching of the tadpole of the Axolotl is about one month 
— the same as that, in our ordinary springs, for the birth of the 
common tadpole. 

This genus was placed, in my modified Branchial Classifica- 
tion, in 1841, thus : — 


Subclass II. Diplopneumena. 



Family II. Proteidse. 

Genus Siredon. 

And I do not think it necessary for me to alter its position, even 
after a period of twenty-four years. 

But, before I conclude, I must point out two errors in Prof. 
Agassiz's valuable f Index Universalis.' 

The first is in attributing to me the word Cadnabranchia, 
which I have never used. The entry at p. 56 stands thus : — 

"Cadnabranchia, Hogg, Rept. Ad. 1838" (which he corrects 
to " Caducibranchia)." And he then inserts the following : — 

" Caducibranchia, Bonop. Rept. 1831 " (which he corrects to 
" V. cadnabranchia "). 

The word Cadnabranchia is, I conclude, only a misprint. 

And the second error occurs at p. 310, as follows : — 

"Proteidea, Hogg, Rept. Ad. 1841" (which he corrects to 
" Proteoidce"). 

Now the term " Proteidea," which is seen at p. 355, Ann. & 
Mag. Nat. Hist.' (No. 45, July 1841), is not my own, but it is 
that of Prof. J. Miiller: the original is published in Oken's 
'Isis' (p. 710) for the year 1831; and a translation from the 
German, made by myself, is there inserted. 

Norton House, Stockton-on-Tees. 
July 11, 1865. 


124 Prof.W. King on the Histology of 

XV. — Remarks on the Histology of two /S^mwercso/Rhynchopora 
Geinitziana, De Verneuil, from near the River Oukhta, Pro- 
vince of Archangel, and belonging to the Collection of the Corps 
des Mines of St. Petersburg. By Professor William King. 

The specimens which are treated of in the present communica- 
tion have been recently noticed by Dr. Carpenter* in connexion 
with a dispute which occurred between us in 1856. They were 
kindly submitted to our individual examination, at the time, by 
Mr. Davidson, who, on account of the light they seemed to 
throw on the histology of the Rhynchonellida, spared no labour 
in procuring the loan of them for the purpose stated. 

Palaeontologists will remember that, in a paper of mine, entitled 
" Notes on Permian Fossils," which appeared in the ' Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History ' for March and April 1856, 
I asserted that the species to which the specimens belong is " as 
distinctly and regularly perforated" as any of the family Tere- 
bratulidce ; and that, on the contrary, Dr. Carpenter, in a letter 
published nearly twelve months afterwards, maintained that it 
has " only pits upon the inner surface of the shell" f. 

Before proceeding further, I wish it to be understood that I 
have no desire to enter on a controversy with Dr. Carpenter in 
your pages : my object is solely to place on record, in a scientific 
journal like the 'Annals,' the observations which I made on the 
specimens in question J. Dr. Carpenter, I am fully aware, will 
also publish his observations on the same specimens — a proceed- 
ing which I shall be perfectly satisfied with, provided he confine 
himself to the main point at issue between us§. Should this 
be the case, it may be reasonably expected that the discussion 
will stimulate others, who have sufficiently favourable opportu- 
nities, to endeavour to determine which of us is right. 

One of the specimens has a considerable portion of the urn- 
bone of the large valve broken off: the other is nearly perfect. 

* See ' Reader ' for July 8, p. 45. 

f See 'Annals and Magazine of Natural History,' ser. 2. vol. xix. p. 214. 
Dr. Carpenter, however, had previously admitted, in a paper published in 
the ' Annals,' vol. xvii. p. 504, that ray statement, as regards some German 
specimens, was correct, " so far as can be judged by the external appear- 
ance" of two which he had examined. 

J My observations would have been published at the time they were 
made but for certain reasons, which it would be a waste of your valuable 
space to be occupied with : they will be stated, however, I expect, in an 
immediate number of the ' Reader.' 

§ Dr. Carpenter will have ample opportunity of adding any other 
matters in the ' Reader,' in which he has already introduced a " personal 

two Specimens of Rhynchopora Geinitziana. 125 

Neither specimen exhibits any portions of an impression of the 
inner surface of the valves. 

1. The specimen with the umbone of the large valve broken off. — 
The outer or original surface of this specimen seems to have 
disappeared, while in some places it is obscured with foreign 
matter. In the former condition, the remaining test displays 
numerous black dots*. In a few places the specimen has been 
a little filed or cut down. The test that remains is, in several 
places, of considerable thickness, which is well exhibited on the 
fractured portion, where the umbone is broken off". At this part 
the black dots are seen (as represented in the surface-figure and 
longitudinal section, figs. 1 and 2) not only on the surfaces a 
and c, but also on the intermediate por- 
tion b. A broken part on the small 
valve, between the umbone and the an- 
tenor margin, also shows the test to be 
of considerable thickness ; and in certain a T.i. 
lights some of the black dots appeared as 
if they formed the terminations of fine 
hair-like lines passing down through its Yis. 2. 

thickness. In no instance could I con- o, 

vince myself that they were " mere acci- q l \ I 

dental results of infiltration," as main- \ y" ') 

tained by Dr. Carpenter in one of his ^^ ' 

letters to me : their regularity completely forbids the idea. 
Black dots are nearly everywhere exhibited on the abraded 
surface of this valve : the exceptional cases will be noticed here- 

The observations stated completely prove, in my opinion, that 
the black dots are not simply " pits upon the internal surface of 
the shell;" or they ought not to be seen on the surface of every 
layer of tissue exposed : the whole of the layers, be it understood, 
form a series of considerable thickness. On the contrary, seen 
under the circumstances named, they cannot but represent 
broken transverse sections of tubular perforations, similar to 
those characteristic of the Terebratulidce, and passing through 
the entire thickness of their shell-substance. I am disposed to 
regard their dark colour as due to the carbonaceous residuum 
of the membrane with which the perforations were originally 
occupied. The perforations of fossil Terebratulidce. are often 
filled with a similarly coloured matter : this is remarkably the 
case with some specimens before me of Waldheimia ornitho- 
cephala, which in this respect offer so striking an analogy to 
what is seen in the Permian species under consideration as to 

* My observations, made with a Stanhope lens, were most successful 
when made in subdued sunlight. 


Prof. W. King on the Histology of 

Fig. 3. 

render it a matter of surprise how its perforated character can 
be doubted. 

From the surface of the large valve, a little in front, and on 
the left of the part where the umbone is broken, some shreds 
have been removed, apparently for microscopic examination. 
This portion of the specimen appears to be so much altered by 
mineralization as to render it, in my opinion, of little or no ser- 
vice in settling the question at issue. On those parts from which 
the shreds have been removed the black dots are distinctly 
visible; and the remaining test on which they are seen is of 
such a thickness as to completely preclude the idea of their being 
" only pits upon the internal surface of the shell." 

2. The nearly perfect specimen. — This specimen is exceedingly 
valuable, inasmuch as it decisively exhibits, on the left side and on 
the umbone of the large valve, the original or outer surface of the 
shell. All the other parts are 
either obscured with foreign 
matter, or they show that por- 
tions of the shell-substance 
have been accidentally worn 
down or otherwise removed. 
The black dots are distinctly 
seen where the abrasion oc- 
curs ; and in two or three 
places on the umbonal region 
of the small valve they are 
visible on at least three dif- 
ferent layers, a, b, c, as repre- 
sented in fig. 3. The parts 
marked with an asterisk con- 
sist of a mere crust of mineral 
matter, which appears to have 
replaced the original surface- 
layer. A portion of the right 
half of the anterior region of 
the shell, where the margins of 
the valves join, also exhibits 
black dots very distinctly, as 

the test is 

represented in fig. 4 
evidently of considerable thickness at this part. 

With respect to the umbone of the large valve, it does not, to 
me, show any black dots, either on the original surface or in 
the tissue beneath it. Whether this absence is due to the shell- 
substance of the umbone having undergone a molecular change 
or metamorphism, or has been produced by any other cause, 
are points on which I cannot offer any decided opinion*. I am 
* To show the effects of fossilization, I may mention that the type 

two Specimens of Rhynchopora Geinitziana. 127 

unwilling, however, to admit that the test is here in its original 
condition, because the surface-layer on the left side of the valve, 
passing on to its margin, displays a few faint black dots*; while 
the markings are distinctly visible on the third rib, where a 
small film-like portion of the original surface has been removed. 
Figure 5 is a representation of what has just been described, — 
a being the original surface, with a few Yis. 5. 

faintly-marked black dots ; and b, the y~\ 

abraded part, with others distinctly vi- BiC^V^. 

sible. This absence of what may now P^E^^X 

be termed tube-apertures on the um- „ fbi-^rs. 
bone is paralleled in many specimens Ij^^So -•■ 

I have examined of Terebratulidce be- %fc^ Xn^V 

longing to the Carboniferous and Per- ^^*%t \ \ \ 

mian systems. I have also observed it in 

Jurassic specimens. In all these cases, mineralization was pro- 
bably the obliterating agent. Furthermore the test at the 
umbonal portion of the small valve of the first- described speci- 
men does not exhibit the black dots so well as the anterior 
region : their paucity on an old part of the shell is possibly due 
to senility. 

On the whole, I cannot but regard these two specimens as 
completely confirming the view I took of the histology of the 
German fossils noticed under the head of Rhynchonella Gei- 
nitziaua, in my paper already alluded to. The German speci- 
mens, however, exhibit the tubular perforations more decidedly 
than those from Russia, which is in favour of the latter having 
undergone a greater amount of metamorphism. I have nothing 
more to add to my description of the German examples : their 
perforated structure, which is correctly represented in the plate 
appended to my paper, is identical with that of a species of 
Silurian Retzia, specimens of which are now before me. In the 
latter the perforations are indicated by black dots, similar to 
those in the German specimens. 

I therefore repeat, in conclusion, that the species under con- 
specimen of the species, belonging to my friend M. de Verneuil, who 
kindly lent it me for examination, shows no black dots, nor any appearance 
of perforations ; but its test has undoubtedly undergone a remarkable 
change, which has developed a concentric structure like that of Beekite, and 
which, in my opinion, has obliterated all indications of perforations. Another 
specimen, collected at Rbpsen, near Gera, which I procured from Mr. Damon 
of Weymouth, differs remarkably, in the apparent absence of perforations, 
from some, procured at the same place, which I had noticed in the " Notes " 
already cited as published iu the 'Annals.' 

* I exclude some accidental superficial black specks, which might be 
confounded with the " black dots ;" but the latter rather appear to be in 
the outer layer of tissue than ore it. 

128 Royal Society : — 

sideration has both valves " as distinctly and regularly perforated 
as those of any Terebratulida" Either Dr. Carpenter or I must 
be labouring under some serious mistake. If the mistake be 
mine, I shall readily bow to correction; but I may be excused 
maintaining my view until the appearances on which it is 
founded are shown to support a contrary conclusion. 
Belmont, near Galway, July 14, 1865. 



June 15, 18G5. — Major-General Sabine, President, in the Chair. 

" A Description of some Fossil Plants, showing Structure, found 
in the Lower Coal-seams of Lancashire and Yorkshire." By E. W. 
Binney, F.R.S. 

The author stated that, although great attention has been devoted 
to the collection of the fossil remains of plants with which our coal- 
fields abound, the specimens are generally in very fragmentary and 
distorted conditions as they occur imbedded in the rocks in which 
they are entombed ; but when they have been removed, cut into 
shape, and trimmed, and are seen in cabinets, they are in a far worse 
condition. This is as to their external forms and characters. When 
we come to examine their internal structure, and ascertain their true 
nature, we find still greater difficulties, from the rarity of specimens 
displaying both the external form and the internal structure of the 
original plant. It is often very difficult to decide which is the out- 
side, different parts of the stein dividing and exposing varied sur- 
faces which have been described as distinct genera of plants. 

The specimens described were collected by the autbor himself, 
and taken out of the seams of coal, just as they occurred in the matrix 
in which they were found imbedded, by bis own hands. This has 
enabled him to speak with certainty as to the condition and locality 
in which they were met with. 

By the ingenuity of the late Mr. Nicol of Edinburgh, we were fur- 
nished with a beautiful method of slicing specimens of fossil wood so 
as to examine their internal structure. The late Mr. Witharn, as- 
sisted by Mr. Nicol, first applied this successfully, and his work on 
the internal structure of fossil vegetables was published in 1833. In 
describing his specimens, he notices one which he designated Ana- 
hut lira pulcherrima. This did not do much more than afford evi- 
dence of the internal vascular cylinder arranged in radiating series, 
somewhat similar to that described by Messrs. Lindley and Hutton 
as occurring in Stigmaria ficoides, in the third volume of the 'Fossil 

In 1839 M- Adolphe Brongniart published his truly valuable 
memoir, " Observations sur la structure interieure du Siyiltaria ele- 

On Fossil Plants from the Coal of Lancashire, tyc. 129 

gans comparee a celle des Lepidodendron et des Stigmaria et a celle 
des vegetaux vivants," in the Archives du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle. His specimen of Sigillaria elegans was in very perfect 
preservation, and showed its external characters and internal struc- 
ture in every portion except the pith and a hroad part of the plant 
intervening betwixt the internal and external radiating cylinders. 
Up to this time nothing had been seen at all to be compared to 
M. Brongniart's specimen, and no person could have been better 
selected to describe and illustrate it. His memoir will always be 
considered one of the most valuable ever contributed on the fossil 
flora of the Carboniferous period. 

In 1849, August Joseph Corda published his ' Beitrage zur Flora 
der Vorwelt,' a work of great labour and research. Amongst his 
numerous specimens, he describes and illustrates one of Diploxylon 
cycadeoideum, which, although not to be compared to M. Bron- 
gniart's specimen, still affords us valuable information, confirming 
some of that author's views rather than affording much more original 
information. All these last three specimens M. Brongniart, in his 
' Tableau de vegetaux fossiles consideres sous le point de vue de leur 
classification botanique et de leur distribution geologique' (published 
in 1847), classes as Dicotyledones gymnospermes, under the family 
of Sigillurees — amongst other plants his Sigillaria elegans, Mr. 
Witham's Anabathra, and Corda's Diploxylon. 

In 1862 the author published, in the 'Quarterly Journal of the 
Geological Society ' of that year, an account of specimens which 
confirmed the views of the three learned authors above named as 
to Sigillaria and Diploxylon being allied plants ; but showed that 
their supposed pith or central axis was not composed of cellular 
tissue, but of different-sized vessels arranged without order, having 
their sides barred by transverse striae like the internal vascular 
cylinders of Sigillaria and Lepidodendron. These specimens were 
in very perfect preservation, and showed the external as well as the 
internal characters of the plants. 

All the above specimens were of comparatively small size, with 
the exception of that described by M. Corda, which, although it 
showed the external characters in a decorticated state, did not 
exhibit any outward resemblance to a plant allied to Sigillaria with 
large ribs and deep furrows so commonly met with in our coal-fields, 
but rather to plants allied to Sigillaria elegans and Lepidodendron. 

In the present communication the author has described some speci- 
mens of larger size than those previously alluded to, and endeavoured 
to show that the Sigillaria vascularis with rhomboidal scars gradu- 
ally passes as it grows older into a ribbed and furrowed Sigillaria, and 
that this singular plant not only possesses two woody cylinders 
arranged i u radiating series, an internal and an external one divided 
by a zone of cellular tissue, both increasing on their outsidcs at the 
same time, but likewise has a central axis composed of hexagonal 
vessels, arranged without order, having all their sides marked with 
transverse strise. Evidence is also adduced to show that Sigillaria 
dichotomizes in its branches something like Lepidodendron, and that, 

130 Royal Society : — 

like the latter plant, it has a Lepidostrobus for its fructification. The 
outer cylinder in large Sigillarue is composed of thick-walled quadran- 
gular tubes or utricles arranged in radiating series, and exhibiting 
every appearance of the tree having been as hard- wooded as Pinites, 
but as yet no disks or striae have been observed on the walls of the 
tubes. Stigmaria is now so generally considered to be the root of 
Sigillaria, that it is scarcely necessary to bring any further proof of 
this proposition ; but specimens are described which prove by simi- 
larity of structure that the former is the root of the latter. 

The chief specimens described in the memoir are eight in number, 
and were found in the lower divisions of the Lancashire and York- 
shire coal-measures, imbedded in calcareous nodules occurring in 
seams of coal. 

No. 1, Diphxylon cycadoideum, was from the first-named district, 
and the same locality as the Triyonocarpon, described by Dr. J. D. 
Hooker, F.R.S., and the author, in a memoir on the structure of 
certain limestone nodules enclosed in seams of bituminous coal, with 
a description of some Triyonocargons contained therein*; and the 
other seven {Sigillaria vascularis) were from the same seam of coal 
in the lower coal-measures in which the specimens described in a paper 
entitled *' On some Fossil Plants showing Structure from the Lower 
Coal-measures of Lancashire " f, were met with, but from a different 
locality in Yorkshire. 

"On the Fossil Mammals of Australia. — Part II. Description of 
an almost entire Skull of Thylacoleo carnifex, Ow." By Professor 
Owen, F.R.S. &c. 

In this Part the author gives additional cranial and dental charac- 
ters of the extinct marsupial carnivore, Thylacoleo, deduced from 
examination of better-preserved fossils, obtained from freshwater 
deposits in Darling Downs, Queensland, Australia. 

The fore part of the skull, wanting in the first-described specimen 
from similar deposits in the province of Victoria, is preserved in 
the present specimen, showing the premaxillary bones, which are 
relatively larger than in placental felines. Each bone. has three 
teeth, of which the foremost is developed into a tusk, the second 
and third being very small. There is no canine, or no tooth de- 
veloped as a laniary in the maxillary bone. In the short extent 
of the alveolar border of this bone between the great carnassial 
molar and the maxillo-premaxillary suture, there are two approximate 
small round sockets, which lodged either one double-rooted tooth or 
two small single-rooted teeth. But dental development has mainly 
expended itself upon the perfection of a pair of laniary incisor tusks, 
in both upper and lower jaws, for piercing, tearing, and holding, and 
a pair of carnassials in both jaws for flesh-cutting. These, in the 
present specimen, closely agreed with those described in the former 
one, but were more worn : they are the largest examples of these 

* Philosophical Transactions, 1855, p. 149. 

t Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London for May 1862. 

Prof. Owen on the Skull 0/ Thylacoleo carnifex. 131 

peculiarly modified shear-blade teeth in the mammalian class. Al- 
though the tusks are incisors — not, as in placental carnivora, canines 
— they possess, through the singular shortness of the facial part of 
the skull in Thylacoleo, the same mechanical advantage, in their 
proximity to the biting-power of the enormously developed temporal 
muscles, as in Felis. In the lower jaw there is, anterior to the car- 
nassial, either a socket for a small double-rooted premolar, or two 
approximate sockets for as many single-rooted ones ; and, as in the 
upper jaw, these cavities do not range in the same longitudinal line 
with the carnassial, but extend obliquely inward and forward, from 
the inner side of its fore part. There is no other alveolus in the 
lower jaw between the premolar one and that of the large lower 
tusk. The small 'tubercular' molar on the inner side of the hind 
end of the upper carnassial, and the two ' tuberculars ' behind the 
lower carnassial, are indicated by their sockets in the present speci- 
men. The author sums up, from acquired data, the dental formula 
of Thylacoleo as follows : — Incisors ~ x , Canines ^, Premolars ^ 

or ^—# Carnassials -^r, Tuberculars ~ 2 - Of the incisors, the fore- 
most above are long and large tusks, like the pair below : of the 
other teeth, the carnassials, of unusually large size, are functioned as 
flesh-cutters, and the small tuberculars would serve for pounding 
gristle or tendon, as in Felis : the premolars indicated by sockets, 
and the small upper incisors, represent a remnant of the dental 
family type under its extreme adaptive modifications in Thylacoleo. 

In the rest of the skull of the subject of the present Part, many 
particulars are yielded in addition to those deduced from the frag- 
mentary fossils which indicate the genus. They confirm the deduc- 
tions of the marsupial nature of the large extinct Australian carnivore, 
determine the alternative expressed in the author's first communica- 
tion as to the homologies of the inferior tusks, and show that the 
genus Thylacoleo ranges, not with the series now including Didel- 
phys, Dasyurus, and Thylacynus, but with the Diprotodont group, 
more eminently characteristic of the Australian continent, and which 
is at present represented by, or reduced to, the genera Phascolarctos, 
Phalangista with its subgenera, Macropus with its subgenera, and 
Phascolomys. The carnassial of Thylacoleo, in its large propor- 
tional size, absence of the tubercular part, and indications of subver- 
tical groovings of the enamel, most closely resembles that tooth of 
the more ancient marsupial carnivore Playiaulax, and is associated, 
in the lower jaw, as in that genus, with two small posterior tuber- 
culars, one or two small premolars, and one large incisive tusk, simi- 
larly directed obliquely upward and forward. Few facts in mamma- 
lian palaeontology are more interesting and suggestive than the 
occurrence in our hemisphere, during secondary geological periods, of 
Marsupial forms, which find their nearest representatives in existing 
or tertiary extinct Marsupialia of the continent of our Antipodes. 

The present Part of the author's series of Papers on Extinct Aus- 
tralian Mammals is illustrated with drawings of the entire skull of 
the Thylacoleo carnifex. 



Feb. 28, 18G5.— Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 

Description of a new Species of Porpoise in the Museum 
of Buenos Ayres. By Dr. H. Burmeister, F.M.Z.S. 

Phocena spinipinnis, sp. nov. 

The animal has the general figure of the common European spe- 
cies, but differs entirely in the position of the dorsal fin, which is 
placed further backwards, and has spines on the upper edge. 

The whole body is black, without any other colour, and the sur- 
face of the skin is transversely striated with fine excavated lines, like 
the inside of the human hand. The upper lip is somewhat shorter 
than the under, and the figure of the mouth, on both sides, rather 
curved behind ; the length of the opening is 8^ centim. on each 
side. From the hinder corner of the mouth the eye is distant 
7 centim., and from the eye to the beginning of the pectoral fin is 
16 centim. The opening of the nose has the form of a broad trans- 
verse ridge, somewhat curved forwards; it is 3 centim. broad, and 
16 centim. distant from the top of the upper lip. The figure of the 
whole body is fusiform, but much more elongated behind than be- 
fore ; it measures from the top of the upper lip to the notch of the 
tail-fin 162 centim., and the circumference of the thickest part of the 
body, at the middle, is 102 centim. 

Fig. 1. 

Fis. 2. 

The distance from the nasal aperture to the beginning of the dor- 
sal fin is 84 centim. ; but the elevation of this fin is so gradual, that 
it is difficult to say exactly where it begins. The figure of the whole 
fin is triangular, somewhat curved forwards near the end, and its 
height 14 centim. (see fig. 1). This curving forwards is a peculiar 
and very distinguishing character of the species, as is also the 
clothing of the anterior margin of the fin with small spines. These 
spines are not different from the skin, but elevations of the skin itself, 
like small angles, of an elongated-oval form. I have figured part of 
the middle (where the spines are most elevated) as seen from above 
(see fig. 2), to show that every spine is surrounded by a ridge of the 
skin, and that from the sides of the lateral spines other ridges begin. 
Some small spines begin in the middle of the back, at the distance 

Dr. H. Burmeister on a new Porpoise. 


of 25 centim. in front of the fin, as a single line of moderate spines ; 
but soon another line begins on each side, so that in the beginning 
of the fin there are already three lines of spines. These three lines 
are continued over the whole rounded anterior margin of the fin, 
and are augmented on both sides by other small spines irregularly 
scattered, so that the whole number of spine-lines in the middle of 
the fin is five. Towards the end of the fin they become smaller, 
and on the rounded tip of the fin there are no spines at all. 

From the hinder margin of the dorsal fin to the notch of the 
tail-fin is 54 centim. The tail-fin is 39 centim. broad, and each 
fluke 20 centim. long on the anterior margin. This margin is some- 
what curved backwards, and the hinder margin sinuated. 

The underside of the body is somewhat more curved and extended 
than the upper side, and the tail more descending. 

The anus is situated under the beginning of the dorsal fin, 70 centim. 
distant from the notch of the tail-fin. 

The individual seems to be a very young one, because all vestiges 
of genital organs are wanting in the exterior. The anus has a dozen 
radial folds, of which the largest, 6 centim. long, runs forwards; all 
are very deep, and transversely ridged. 

The pectoral fin is falcated, 26 centim. long and 10 broad. At 
its proximal end there are many fine ridges in the skin, and in the 
middle part are ridges indicating the finger-bones beneath. 

The skull proves that the animal is a very young one, and that it 
has come perhaps only to half its natural size; because all the bones are 
very weak, not perfectly ossified, and the vomer entirely cartilaginous. 
It has the general figure of the skull of the European Phoccena, dif- 
fering principally in the form of the hinder part of the intermaxil- 
lary bones, which is more abruptly elevated in this new species than 
in the European (see figs. 4 & 5). 

Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 

Side view of the skull of Phoccena spinipinnis, reduced one-third. 


Zoological Society : — 

The upper jaw has sixteen small teeth, and the lower jaw seventeen, 
on each side, there being no vestige of an alveolar ridge behind them 
in either jaw. The first teeth are smaller and conical, the hinder 
broader and truncated, as seen in figures 3 & 4. This is another cha- 
racter distinguishing it from the European species ; the skull of a 
young individual of the latter, which I examined, had twenty-four 
teeth in the upper jaw, and twenty-five in the lower, in both extending 
more towards the hinder part of the jaw than in the new species. 

The specimen of P. spinipinnis which is preserved in the public 
Museum of Buenos Ayres, was captured in the mouth of the River 

Fig. 5. 

Skull of Phoccena spinipinnis, seen from above, reduced one-third. 

Plata, and was afterwards exhibited in Buenos Ayres to the public, 
some years before I came to this country. 

Length of the whole skull, 29 centim. 

Breadth between the orbits, 1 7 centim. 

Length of the external margin of the upper jaw, 12 centim. ; of 
the lower jaw, 22 centim. 

Note. — The tympanic bone is lost ; the figure is therefore defective 
in this part. 

On the Osteology of Microglossa Alecto. 
By W. K. Parker, F.Z.S. 

Having been busy of late with the study of the skull and its 
development in the Ostrich tribe, I am the more sensitive to the 
peculiar ornithic excellences of the Parrot family. Indeed, but for 
their liver]/, it could hardly have been supposed that these opposite 

Mr. W. K. Parker on the Osteology of Microglossa Alecto. 135 

creatures belonged to one house : they are the most perfectly anti- 
thetical of all the feathered tribes. 

Judged by the mere power of flight, the Parrots would not be 
accounted worthy to stand in so high a position ; but this is only 
one, among many, of the talents possessed by birds of noble degree. 

Like all those who glory in " high degree," the Parrots have a 
poor relation or two to abate their pride. The Owl-billed Parrot 
(Strigops habroptilus) of New Zealand is as lowly as " the younger 
son of a younger brother." If birds were to be classified by the 
sternum only, then the Strigops should be put near the Apteryx, 
and the Tinamou attached to the train of the Peacock. 

If birds be ranked according to the degree of their intelligence, 
then, without controversy, the familiar Crows and Starlings, Finches, 
and Singing-birds may take the highest room ; but if power of flight, 
mere brute strength, and savage audacity shall be considered most 
decent and becoming to a bird, then let the Eagles and Falcons sit 
on the throne of the feathered kingdom. But there are qualities, 
dear to the morphologist, in which the Parrots have the preemi- 
nence, and stand higher, as Birds, than all other birds ; and although, 
all things considered, the Crow is the best type and model with 
which to compare the whole plumy brotherhood, yet in many things 
the Parrot is a bird of birds ; he is an ultra-type, and sets bounds to 
the class to which he belongs. 

But this bird, with the wise and solemn face of an Elephant, has, 
like us, its chief and best qualities resident in its head ; and if the 
skull of an Ostrich be compared with that of the most psittacine of 
the Parrots, the difference will appear almost as great as exists be- 
tween a larva and an imago. 

The type under consideration is one in which the characters of 
the Parrot, and indeed the characters of a Bird, as such, are carried 
to their highest pitch. I have long been familiar with this highest 
kind of Psittacine skull in the genera Plyctolophus and Calypto- 
rhynchus (see Cat. Mus. Coll. Surg. vol. i. pp. 277, 278, nos. 1440 
& 144o), and have recently discovered it in the Grass-Parakeet 
(Melopsittacus undulatus) ; but the genus Microglossa carries it 
to the fullest degree. 

The teleologist might write a fair volume on the fitnesses dis- 
played in the skull of this bird ; but the adaptive conditions are of 
secondary importance to him who would trace the clue of morpho- 
logical unity through the mazes of nature's unutterable variety. 

The first thing that strikes the eye of the observer is the cleaving 
of a great transverse cleft through the whole face, in front of the 
eyes, leaving the enormously developed intermaxillary apparatus, en- 
closing the vestibular parts of the olfactory organs, on one hand, 
and the skull, maxillary apparatus, and true olfactory region, on the 
other. Then we see that not only is the eye bounded beneath by a 
blending of the lachrymal with the postfrontal, but the latter is an- 
chylosed to the squamosal also ; and thus, with the true zygomatic 
arch below, we have three pairs of facial bridges. But the deep, 
steep-sided, beautifully arched intermaxillaries, the fair, broad fore- 

136 Zoological Society: — 

head, the well-roofed eyebrows, the perfectly bony orbit, and a man- 
dible such as the eye searches for in vain elsewhere — all these are 
outstanding characters in the highest type of Parrots, and, above all, 
in the genus Microglossa. 

The huge, mobile face is but one bone in the adult, and yet it is 
composed of a great variety of parts that have become blended into 
one thick mass, perfectly void of sutures. The nasals, intermaxil- 
laries, prevomers (the vomer is not developed in the Psittacida;), the 
nasal septum, the inferior turbinals, and the alse nasi, all these go 
to form this large compound bone. There are, therefore, six splint 
bones ; and the axial bones are four for the septum, two (at least) 
for the inferior turbinals, and two for the alse nasi, thus making 
eight more, or fourteen bones in all. The highly complex skull 
also is completely fused into one bone, and it has in it the separate 
parts that form the auditory and olfactory sense-capsules. But the 
original attachment of the pieces of the arrested palato-pterygoid 
arch is loosened so as to let the ascending (proximal or orbital) pro- 
cess of the palatine lie half an inch below its proper foundation, viz. 
the pars plana or antorbital. Anteriorly, the palatine is thick and 
transversely expanded, and its convex elliptical end fits in a glenoid 
cavity in the end of the prevomer of the same side. Further back, 
at its proximal plate, it is two- thirds of an inch high, it scarcely 
becomes less than half an inch ; and its emarginate hinder end reaches 
to behind the " membrana tympani," full a quarter of an inch be- 
hind the somewhat slender rod-like pterygoids. The latter bones, 
although an inch in length, are thus completely overlapped by the 
palatines. The small, late-appearing mesopterygoids have early coa- 
lesced with each other, and they have united also with the front corner 
of the basicranial edge of the left palatine. The malar bone articu- 
lates, like its axis, the palatine, with the prevomer. The epiptery- 
goid process of the pterygoid is obsolete ; the metapterygoid pro- 
cess of the quadrate bone is small, conical, and anteriorly placed, as 
in its autogenous counterpart in the non-venomous Serpents. The 
hinge-convexity of the quadrate bone is semicircular ; the cupped 
process for the jugal is large and projecting ; and a well-developed, 
outstanding, oval condyle is received by the cup at the end of the 
pterygoid. The heads of the os quadratum — answering to the crura of 
our anvil-bone ("incus") — are well developed, but do not stand as in 
other birds ; for that which is related to the sympletic cartilage of 
the stapes is directly inside the outer or prootic head. In birds 
generally, this incus-head projects far backwards, overlapping the 
opisthotic, and overshadowing the auditory " fenestras," to articu- 
late with the exoccipital. The splints of the lower jaw, ten in 
number, have all become one piece, as unlike as possible to the 
simple Meckelian rod on which they were modelled. The sym- 
physis is an inch in extent, and the bone is transversely flattened 
below, so as to be an inch wide at what should be the intermandi- 
bular angle ; this is, there, a gently concave transverse margin 
having a rounded edge. The greatest height of the mandible is 
1| inch; the angular process passes further back than the exocci- 

Mr. W. K. Parker on the Osteology of Microglossa Alecto. 137 

pital. The occipital condyle is an extremely neat hemisphere. The 
scooped occipital plane forms a very obtuse angle with the basis 
cranii, which latter region is very small, triangular, and protected by 
sharp ridges that meet at the fore angle of the coalesced basitem- 
porals, below the small, closely placed Eustachian openings. At first 
the "rostrum" of the basisphenoid is sharply carinate, then it 
becomes thick, rounded, and covered with articular cartilage, under 
which the palatines and anterior ends of the pterygoids glide. The 
height of the skull is so great that, although the hemispheres of the 
brain lie down between the eyes more than in most birds, yet the 
compressed rostrum of the basisphenoid and the lower edge of the 
perpendicular ethmoid do, together, make a great keel, larger than 
the' sternal keel of the Love-bird (Agapornis pull aria). The ante- 
rior pterygoid processes are thrown out of relation to the pterygoids, 
which grow no spur to answer to them ; they are dull forthstanding 
prickles. The exoccipitals are not nearly so much scooped to make 
a drum-cavity as in tlie smaller Parrots; the tympanies, like the 
columellas, are lost. The main piece is large in some of the smaller 
kinds. In front of the great cranio-facial hinge, the nasals and 
nasal processes of the intermaxillanes are converted into the merest 
swollen sponge ; behind the hinge, on each side, the lachrymals are 
also swollen ; but the frontals dip to form a valley between the or- 
bits. Then there is a pair of frontal, and another pair of parietal, 
smooth, large, rounded swellings, with a shallow, equally smooth 
valley between them. The width of the head is nearly two inches at 
the point where the postorbital process of the frontal melts into the 
postorbital spur of the alisphenoid (post-frontal proper). Below and 
behind this point it is more than two inches wide. The junction of 
the thick quadrate splint (squamosal) with the post-frontal spur is 
so extensive as almost to cover in the small heart-shaped "temporal 
fossa." This bridge of bone is half an inch across. The optic fora- 
mina are about one- third of an inch apart ; the olfactory fissures are 
at the same distance. There is an elegant, small, shell-like middle 
turbinal on the front of the self-developed " }>ars plana," or antor- 
bital, and the simple eras of the ethmoid curls upon itself, so as to 
form an upper turbinal. There are evidently full two coils to the in- 
ferior turbinals, which are ossified in a fenestrate manner, as in mam- 
mals, and which project far beneath the alse nasi. These latter are 
ossified separately in the Parrots, and then, in many instances as in 
this, acquire an adhesion with the nasals and the inferior turbinals. 
The outstanding spurs of the antero-inferior septal bone increase the 
complexity of the nasal labyrinth. 

The sternum has its fenestrre nearly filled up. The sternal keel 
is, as in Parrots and many of their nearest allies, coincident with the 
upturned, somewhat bifurcate episternal process. This is perfectly 
normal ; for the keel, the episternal process, and the coracoid grooves 
really belong to the shoulder-girdle ; together they form the true 
episternum or manubrium. This might be called " omo-sternum," 
in contradistinction to the rib-sternum (" pleuro-sternum "), or that 
which relates to the inner cartilaginous belts, which grow directly 

Ann. fy Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. xvi. 10 

138 Zoological Society : — 

from the centra of the vertebne *. The furcular bone is only appa- 
rently simple, although in this specimen of Microglossa no sutures 
can be seen. In the Ash-coloured Parrot (Psittacns erythacus), 
however, and in the East-Indian Palceornis torquatus, the thick, 
broad end of each ramus is seen to be a separate piece. This is 
also to be seen in the Toucan (Ramphastos Toco) and in the King- 
fisher (Alcedo ispidd), but is still better developed in all the " Rap- 
tores" and Totipalmatte, in the Balceniceps and Umhretta, and, in 
a less degree, in most typical Herons. I have already spoken of 
this part (P Z. S. 1864, p. 339 et seq.), and may now say that it is 
a rudiment of the so-called " clavicle " of the Batrachian, Chelonian, 
and African Ostrich, and is well seen as a distinct bone in the 
shoulder-girdle of the Salmon tribe and some other allied Fishes. 
In Birds this rudiment is proximal ; in Mammals, generally, it is 
distal or sternal ; but I have found such a piece at both ends of the 
clavicle in certain Insectivora, e. g. the Mole (Tafpa europcea), and 
in the Shrew (Sorex tetragonurus). In Lizards the counterpart of 
this cartilage is the anterior boundary of the coraco-acromial fenes- 
tra. The supposed rudiment of the clavicle in certain small Par- 
rots, e. g. the Love-Bird (Agapornis pullaria) and the Grass- Parakeet 
(Melopsittacus undulatus), is an ossification of this acromial car- 
tilage. In Psephotis multicolor neither this nor the furcular bone is 

March 28, 1865.— John Gould, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 

Notice of a New Species of Porpoise (Phocena tuber- 
culifera) inhabiting the Mouth of the Thames. By 
Dr. John Edward Gray, F.R.S., F.L.S., etc. 

The fact of a new species of Porpoise being found on our own 
shores, at the mouth of the Thames, must be considered a proof of 
how little we at present know of the species of Cetacea. 

The Zoological Society, who are so anxious to obtain specimens 
of these animals that their habits may be studied, procured with 
considerable trouble a fine male Porpoise, which had been caught at 
Margate. It was carried to the Gardens, and placed in the pond 
formed for these animals; but, though showing no external injury, 
it was in so weak a state when it arrived that it sank to the bottom, 
and was obliged to be taken out and suspended by bands on the sur- 
face of the water so that it might not be choked. After a time it 
recovered so as to be able to swim about by its own exertion, but it 
only survived the transport a few days. 

Messrs. Bartlett and Gerrard, when it was alive, said that it dif- 
fered so much in general appearance from the Common Porpoise that 
they were induced to believe that it might be a species of Lageno- 
rhynchus or Grampus. 

* I would remark that, to trace the affinities of the Parrot tribe, we should 
take such forms as the Common Grey Parrot (Psittacus erythficus), Nestor, 
Psephotis, &c., in which the Psittacine characters are somewhat enfeebled. I 
have not found any other "family" so isolated as this. 

Dr. J. E. Gray on a new British Porpoise. 139 

The general form of the head, and examination of the teeth after 
death, proved at once that it was a species of Phoccena, very nearly 
allied to, if not identical with, Phoccena communis. 

Dr. Burmeister's description of a Phoccena from the River de la 
Plata (contained in the Museum at Buenos Ayres), which is peculiar 
for having some spines on the upper edge of the dorsal fin, naturally 
made me careful in examining the edge of the fin of this specimen ; 
and to ray astonishment I discovered that this species also was pro- 
vided with a series of compressed tubercles, giving the fin a sharp, 
hard, serrated appearance. 

The tubercles or spines on the dorsal fin having been observed in 
two specimens from very different localities, I was induced to inquire 
if this was a character common to the genus, which had been over- 
looked ; but, on examining the stuffed specimen of the Common 
English Porpoise in the Museum, it is clear that they are not found 
in the common state of the species. It then occurred to me that 
it might be a peculiarity of the male sex ; but Mr. Flower informs 
me that the male specimen which lived for some weeks in the Gar- 
dens of the Society, and which he lately dissected, certainly had no 
spines on the edge of the dorsal fin : so that cannot be the case. 

Under these circumstances I think I am justified in considering 
that the possession of these spinous tubercles is a peculiarity of the 
species, and therefore a specific character. The examination of the 
skull shows that there are differences in its form which confirm 
this opinion. 

The species of Phoccena may be thus defined : — 

a. Back in front of the dorsal fn, and upper edge of the dorsal fin, 

smooth, without tubercles or spines. Dorsal fin in the middle 
of the back. 

1. Phocjina communis. 

Hab. North Sea and mouths of rivers. 

b. Back in front of the dorsal fin smooth; the upper edge of the 

dorsal fin with a single series of oblong compressed tubercles, 
which are more crowded near the upper end of the fin. Dorsal 
fin in the middle of the back. 

2. Phoccena tuberculifera, sp. nov. 
Hab. Mouth of the Thames, Margate. 

c. Back in front of the dorsal fin with a single series, and upper 

surface of the dorsal fin with three series, of square-based com- 
pressed tubercles or spines. Dorsal fin behind the middle of 
the back. 

3. Phoc.ena spinipinnis, Burmeister, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 228. 
Hab. Rio de la Plata. 


140 Zoological Society : — 

The new species may be described as follows : — 

The specimen was .52 inches, measured along the side from the 
end of the nose to the notch in the middle of the tail. The front 
edge of the dorsal fin is 23 inches from the tip of the nose, measured 
over the arch of the back ; the hinder edge of the dorsal fin, mea- 
sured in the same manner, is 22 inches from the notch in the tail. 
The front edge of the base of the pectoral fin is I) inches from the 
end of the nose ; and the fin itself is i) inches long, measured along 
its front margin. The tail is 13 inches wide, measured across the 
hinder edges ; the lobes are rounded, and rather overlap each other 
at the central notch. 

The hinder part of the back, the whole of the dorsal fin, and the 
upper and lower surfaces of the pectoral and caudal fins are black ; 
the head, the lower lip, the front part of the back, and the sides to 
the base of the pectoral fins are greyish black ; the upper parts of 
the sides of the body behind the pectoral fins are grey, more or less 
mottled with a darker shade ; the chin, throat, chest, belly, and 
under parts of the body white. The upper and lower jaws are of 
the same length. The upper lip covers the edge of the lower one, 
the covered part being pale-coloured, flattened, and gradually shelv- 
ing in towards the upper margin. There are two minute pits (which 
may have been the places from which whiskers arose) in the upper 
part of the upper lip, situated about where the depression is placed 
that separates the beak from the head in those genera which have 
the beak marked. 

The dorsal fin is scarcely falcate, with a rather broad, rounded 
upper margin, which is armed with a single series of distinct com- 
pressed tubercles ; the tubercles have an oblong base, with a slightly 
raised conical centre, and the surface is covered with irregular radia- 
ting wrinkles. Those on the front part of the edge are largest, and 
separate from one another ; they diminish in size and become crowded 
near the hinder upper part of the fin, forming a ridge which is hard 
and serrated to the touch. 

The skull is much like that of Phoccena communis in size, general 
form, and in the number, disposition, form, and size of the teeth ; but 
it differs from the skull of that species in the heak of the skull being 
rather narrower, more tapering in front. The foramen maximum is 
narrow, much higher than wide, and the condyles larger; while iu 
P. communis the foramen maximum is nearly circular, and the con- 
dyles smaller and more oblique. The symphysis of the lower jaw is 
longer, and the sloping lower edge is more oblicpae and considerably 
longer than in P. communis. 

A skeleton is being formed of the bones of this animal ; and the 
skin has be,n preserved in spirits, which is certainly one of the best 
ways of preserving the specimens of Cetacea, as it allows the outer 
surface to be examined at any future time in a state most nearly 
resembling that of living specimens. 

Dr. A. Giinther on Australian Pipe-fishes. 141 

On the Pipe-fishes belonging to the Genus Phyllopteryx. 
By Albert Gunther, M.A., Ph.D., M.D., F.Z.S. 

Many Pipe-fishes are provided with short or thin cutaneous ap- 
pendages, symmetrically disposed on the different dermal scutes. 
These appendages are most developed in the species which may he 
referred to the genus Phyllopteryx (Swains.), Kaup. The first of 
these extraordinary forms was described and indifferently figured by 
Shaw (Zool. v. pi. 180). He named it Syngnathus foliatus, which 
name must be preferred to that given in the same year by Laecpede 
{Syngnathus tceniopterus, Ann. Mus. iv. pi. 58. f. 3), since the 
author of a work may be presumed to have named the species at a 
much earlier period than the writer of a memoir. 

The British Museum possesses, among others, a fine example, 
\'6\ inches long, of this Phyllopteryx foliata from Tasmania; and 
there is a beautiful coloured figure in the collection of drawings made 
by Ferdinand Bauer, Dr. Brown's companion during Capt. Flinders's 

A second species was described by Dr. Gray as Haliichthys 
tceniophorus in ' Proc. Zool. Soc' 1859, p. 38, and figured pi. vn. ; 
it is from Freycinet's Harbour. 

A third species has been lately presented to the British Museum 
by Mr. George French Angas, who received it from Port Lincoln, 
South Australia. 1 name it Phyllopteryx eques. Its form is still 
more extraordinary than that of the preceding species, the spines, 
crest, and cutaneous appendages being much more developed, 
and the trunk being dilated into an upper and three lower pro- 
minences. The snout is as long as the distance of the front mar- 
gin of the orbit from the hind part of the nape ; it bears a pair of 
small spines behind the middle of its upper edge, a pair of minute 
barbels at the chin, and a pair of long appendages in the middle of 
its lower part. The forehead bears an erect, broad, subquadrangular 
crest, with a shorter single spine behind ; a horizontal spine above 
each orbit ; a cluster of spines with narrow appendages on the occi- 
put. Nape of the neck with a long spine, dilated at the base into a 
crest, and carrying a long bifid appendage. 

The trunk is compressed, somewhat dilated, strongly arched on 
the back, and with two deep indentations in its lower profile. There 
are seventeen bony rings between the pectoral fin and the root of the 
tail. The spines are of three kinds : 1. The band-bearing spines are 
the strongest, strongly compressed, not flexible, each terminating 
in a pair of short points. There are one pair of these spines in the 
middle of the back, and one on each of the three prominences of the 
abdominal outline ; the flaps are long and bifid. 2. Very long, com- 
pressed, and somewhat flexible spines, without appendages ; these 
occupy in pairs the uppermost part of the back, and in a single series 
the median line of the belly. 3. Small, short, conical spines run in 
single series along the median line of the sides, and along the lateral 
edges of the belly ; a pair of similar spines in front of the lower part 
of the base of the pectoral fin. 

142 Miscellaneous. 

Tail quadrangular, with sharp edges, and with five pairs of band- 
bearing spines along its upper side ; its end is slightly prehensile. 

P. 20. 1). 37. The dorsal is situated entirely on the tail. 

The specimen, being dry, has lost its original colours, which were 
probably red during life. The iris is crossed by radiating streaks ; 
and several other streaks (of a whitish colour) radiate from the eye 
over the opercles and the upper part of the head. 

There is no doubt that these fish attach themselves with the pre- 
hensile end of their tail to stems of seaweed or other objects ; and 
when they are in the vicinity of seaweed of a similar colour, their 
resemblance to it must be so great that they would easily escape 
being observed by their enemies. 


The Food of the Aye- Aye. 

To Dr. J. E. Gray. 

Dear Sir, — The specimen of sugar-cane I sent for your examina- 
tion a few days since exhibits in a clear manner the mode of using 
its incisor teeth by the Aye-Aye. This animal, as you are aware, 
came here in August 1862, and during the period of nearly three 
years has been kept in good health and condition, its food being 
varied from time to time. It was only recently that I obtained some 
fresh green sugar-cane, and placed two or three sticks of the same in 
the cage of the Aye-Aye. I soon found the animal was fond of this 
kind of food ; and it is interesting to observe how well its teeth are 
adapted for obtaining the juice and sugar from each of the joints of 
the cane. As will be seen, the long points of the incisors cut deeply 
into the cane, the fibre being pulled forward, and the moisture 
chewed out. In the observations made by me, and published in the 
'Annals' for July 1803, p. 72, I stated that the animal feeds freely 
on a mixture of milk, honey, eggs, and any thick glutinous Jtu id; 
and, from what I had observed, I was led to think the creature fed 
upon the juices of trees ; and 1 am induced to send you this short 
notice as an additional proof of the correctness of my statements. 

I am, dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

A. D. Bartlett. 

On the Histology of the Acalephse. By Prof. Kolliker. 

Professor Kolliker has published in the ' Wiirzburger naturwis- 
senschaftliche Zeitschrift' some observations made by him upon the 
histology of the Hydrozoa and Ctenophora in the Firth of Clyde. 

In these animals he distinguishes three kinds of connective tissue. 
One forms the tentacles of the Hydroid Polypes and all the solid 
tentacles of the Medusye. It presents the appearance of a series of 
cells (muscular cells of Keferstein) occupying the axis of the tenta- 
cle. These cells possess no contractility ; at least the tentacles of 

Miscellaneous. 1 43 

the JEginidce and Trachynemidce, which present this structure, are 

The contractile tentacles owe their contractility to a muscular layer 
situated between the cellular axis and the external epithelium. This 
cellular axis is only a dependence of the internal epithelium which 
lines the digestive cavity (Hydroids) or the marginal canal (Medusae). 
It probably acts as an elastic organ antagonistic to the muscular 

The second kind of connective tissue is a substance destitute of 
cells, which forms the umbrella of all the simple Medusae, including 
the gelatinous substance of the natatory bells and covering laminae 
of the Siphonophora. Sometimes this substance is entirely homo- 
geneous ; sometimes it is traversed by numerous fibres very like the 
elastic fibres. In an JEquorea these fibres are attached to a mem- 
brane capable of isolation, placed beneath the epithelium of the 
convex surface of the umbrella. 

The third form is the well-known gelatinous substance with dis- 
seminated cells of the umbrella of the higher Medusae. Professor 
Kolliker agrees with Professor Virchow in denying the existence of 
these cells in Cyanea capillata. — Bibl. Univ. May I860, Bull. 
Scient. p. 66. 

On a New Type in the Group of Ascidians — Chevreulius callensis. 
By M. Lacaze-Duthiers. 

After describing the general characteristics of the Ascidia, the 
author says : — The specimen which forms the subject of the present 
memoir exhibits an exceptional and very remarkable arrangement, 
whieh masks the true characters of the group. All the indivi- 
duals of the genus Chrevreulius are without stolons or buds which 
might lead to their being approximated to the social Ascidia, and 
still less to the compound forms. Their form is that of a cylinder, 
free at one extremity, adherent by the other, and slightly flattened 
on that side which is in contiguity to the foreign body. The free 
superior extremity presents the characters of the genus. 

The test, which is of a yellowish colour and cartilaginous, is suffi- 
ciently resistant to retain its form after desiccation ; its thickness is 
not great, and it resembles a thin lamina of pale horn. When it is 
contracted, the orifices are not visible; but as it becomes distended, 
more than half of the flat upper .extremity of the cylinder is soon 
seen to detach itself towards the circumference, and to rise by moving 
as if round a hinge placed on the side of the cylinder which is 

Beneath the plate which rises thus so as to form a right angle 
with its former position, and which represents a valve, there appears 
a white transparent tissue — a membrane stretched from one side to 
the other of the separated parts, so as to fill up the great fissure 
produced by this sort of gaping. Upon this membrane two mamillae 
soon rise, at the summit of which open the two orifices characteristic 
of the Ascidia. One of these leads into the branchial chamber, and 

144 Miscellaneous. 

consequently to the mouth ; this is the highest one : the other, less 
prominent and placed laterally, gives passage to the water which 
traverses the branchiae, to the residues of digestion, and to the pro- 
ducts of reproduction. 

Between these two orifices a small opaque-white nucleus may be 
distinguished through the tissue, with delicate filaments issuing from 
it : this is the nervous ganglion. 

Thus Chevreulius is undoubtedly an Ascidian, but it is a bivalve 
Ascidian, of which the test is divided into two parts moveable upon 
each other, as in the Acephala ; and the Ascidia themselves must be 
arranged in two series — one for those in which the external envelope 
is a true little leather bottle with two apertures, the other for those 
in which the test, divided into two parts by a broad horizontal cleft, 
becomes bivalve. 

Having met with Chevreulius for the first time in the waters of 
Calle, I have named it C. cal/ensis. It lives at great depths (GO, 80, 
or 100 fathoms), and belongs to the fauna of the coralligenous zone. 

In conclusion, the author remarks upon the interest attaching to 
the discovery of Chevreulius, as an Ascidian with an upper and 
lower valve, in connexion with the relation existing between the 
Tunicata and Brachiopoda. — Comptes Rendus, June 19, 1865, 
p. I 264. 

On some singular Organs appended to the Feet of certain Crustacea. 
By MM. Claus and Sars. 

Professor Claus (Zeitschr. wiss. Zool. xiii. p. 422) and Professor 
Sars (Videnskabsselskab. Forhandl. 1863) have independently in- 
vestigated the Schizopod Crustacea of the family Euphausidse with 
regard to the singular organs already alluded to by Dana, Semper, 
and Krover, and regarded by Semper as eyes, and by Kroyer as 
auditory organs. These are spherical organs, of a reddish colour, 
situated at the base of several of the thoracic legs and of the first 
four pairs of abdominal appendages. Both the authors above men- 
tioned have demonstrated the correctness of Semper's view, although, 
besides these pedal eyes, the animals possess the two large com- 
pound eyes common to all Decapoda. Each of the thoracic and 
abdominal eyes receives a special nerve from the ventral ganglionic 
chain. The organ itself is a spherical bulb, moved by special mus- 
cles ; and in it may be distinguished a crystalline lens, a vitreous 
body, a pigment-layer, and a retina of complex structure. The 
existence of a crystalline lens distinct from the cornea is very striking, 
as remarked by M. Sars; for in other Crustacea no true crystalline 
exists, its function being performed by the thickened and inflated 
cornea. According to M. Claus, the position of the four pairs of 
abdominal eyes is very remarkable : the first pair looks forwards, 
the last pair backwards, and the two intermediate pairs downwards. 
— Bibl. Univ. May 1865, Bull. Scient. p. 63. 




No. 93. SEPTEMBER 1865. 

XVI. — On a new Lizard, with Ophidian affinities, from the Lower 
Chalk (Saurospondylus dissimilis). By Harry Seeley, 
F.G.S., of the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge. 

Professor Owen described the Raphiosaurus subulidens from 
the Lower Chalk of Cherry Hinton, and I should perhaps have 
been inclined to refer the vertebra here described from that 
locality to the same genus, had not a sight of Mr. Carter's type 
specimen shaken my faith in its reptilian character. So far as 
external features go, there is nothing to suggest that it is not 
the jaw of a fish. Even were it reptilian, it is so dispropor- 
tionately large in comparison with this vertebra, that the iden- 
tity of the two would still be doubtful. But Professor Owen 
appears to know the vertebrae of Raphiosaurus; for, in the 
'Palaeontology' (p. 311, 2nd ed.), it is on such evidence that 
the species is said to be based. 

The Lizards yet known from the Chalk have proccelian ver- 
tebrae with that simple structure of the zygapophyses in which 
the front articulations are turned up and exposed, and the back 
pair turned down. This structure, characteristic of most ver- 
tebrae, would appear to result from the fact that the limbs sup- 
port that part of the skeleton which is in front of them — a func- 
tion manifest in the straight or upward tendency of the neck, 
where each vertebra rests on its zygapophyses, and the down- 
ward dh-ection of the tail, where the vertebrae hang without 
support under the zygapophyses. 

The development and origin of these processes and the form 
of the bones depend on the functions of the muscles, though in 
a less degree than in the limbs, where bones appear to have 
owed their very existence to muscular and functional action. 

But in Saurospo7idylus the vertebra has ten articular facets, as in 
Serpents and in the Iguana Lizards, in which the neurapophyses 

Ann. 8f Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. xvi. 1 1 

146 Mr. H. Seeley on a new Lizard 

overhang and lock on to the zygapophyses of the vertebra in 
front. Such a structure indicates a flexible vertebral column, 
for it allows of dorsal vertebrse being supported by the anterior 
limbs. In the lumbar region of many mammals, such as the 
Armadillo, the Raccoon, and even the wild Cat, where there is 
much upward and downward motion, there is a near approach 
to a like modification of yoking. 

This vertebra, with depressed centrum, obliquely overhanging 
and transversely oval cup and ball, zygosphene, and zygantrum, 
indicates the lower dorsal region of a small reptile having its 
nearest affinities with Iguana. It is fths of an inch long, not 
quite so wide in front where widest. It was found in the lower 
Chalk of Cherry Hiuton, near Cambridge. 

There is no neural spine, and no hypapophysis. 

The inferior surface of the centrum is subtriangular. The 
length from the base of the cup in front to the base of the ball 
behind is equal to the width of the zygapophyses in front. 
From these, two strong curved ridges descend and approximate 
to the bottom of the sides of the ball. The subtriangular area 
so enclosed is a little convex transversely and concave in length. 

The vertebra is ^ths of an inch high in front, nearly one- 
half being the height of the centrum, and the remainder that of 
the neural arch, which is higher behind than in front, and may 
there have had a slight neural spine. The neural arch on each 
side is a smooth cupped surface, with a concave border, and 
contracts behind. 

The anterior zygapophyses are horizontal square surfaces, 
hardly above the border of the cup, from which they are sepa- 
rated in front by a perpendicular concavo-convex surface on 
each side, about the size of their own articulations. 

The zygosphene projects in front of the vertebra, and is just 
as wide as the cup. Its superior front margin is concave and 
horizontal. Its flat articular surfaces, which look forward and 
outward, are very narrow, and entirely between the zygapo- 
physes, above and in front of which they project about half their 
own length. 

The neural arch is very thin in front, thicker behind, where 
the processes are less perfectly preserved. 

The sides of the vertebra are narrow, concave, wedge-shaped 
surfaces bordered by (1) the basal ridges already mentioned, 
and (2) the concave ridges at the sides, which from above make 
the outline of the neural arch, are laterally parallel with its top 
ridge, and connect the anterior with the posterior zygapophyses. 
Both ridges meet in front, below the zygapophyses in the 
tubercle for the rib, which is broken off on both sides. 

The body of the centrum and the ncurapophyses appear to be 

from the Lower Chalk. 147 

cellular. The outline of the posterior end of the vertebra is 
pentangular, as high as wide. The height of the ball appeai-3 
to be less than the depth of the cup. 

Of the vertebral differences of Serpents and Lizards little is 
known. This fossil resembles a serpent more than could have 
been expected, and yet in other modifications comes near to the 
Lizards. A Cretaceous serpent may have been more Lacertian 
than any now known, and a lizard of the Chalk may have been 
more Ophidian. 

The chief Lacertian features which I detect are — 

(1.) The absence of an hypapophysis, which all serpents ap- 
pear to have, though in some (as in Python) it is very slight. 

(2.) The depressed centrum, with transversely oval and over- 
hanging cup and oblique ball, are Lizard characters, though the 
cup is oblique in Crotalus, Paleryx depressus, &c, and the ball 
is transversely elliptical in some other forms. 

(3.) The absence of additional diapophyses besides the costal 
tubercle is characteristic, though they are not found in all 

(4.) The neural arch is not notched between the zygantra, as 
in Serpents, but is prolonged back a little between and over 
them, as in Iguana. The zygantra are excavated in the middle 
of the sides of the neural canal, as in Iguana, and not at its 
summit, as in most serpents, though Naja, Hydrus, Natrix, &c., 
are exceptions. 

(5.) The zygosphene projects well over the cup, as in Iguana, 
and is not level with it, as in Ophidians. 

(6.) Iguana has similar basal ridges, and depressions under 
the costal tubercle, like those in the fossil, only more developed. 
But neither in lizards nor in serpents does the basal ridge meet 
the ridge between the zygapophyses, because the costal tubercle 
is always lower down. 

The more marked Ophidian characters are — 

(1.) The broad quadrate form, which is nearer to Palaophis 
than to Iguana, though the anterior vertebra? of this and most 
lizards are as short. In Scincus there is much the same general 
form of the vertebra, and a like absence of neural spine and 
hypapophyses ; but the zygosphene can hardly be said to exist, 
the zygapophyses are never horizontal, and are well raised above 
the tubercle for the ribs. 

(2.) The horizontal zygapophyses, level with the top of the 
cup, find their parallel in Eryx and most Serpents; but in 
Iguana, the nearest to it of the Lizards, they are higher. Iguana 
wants the sharp ridge connecting the zygapophyses ; it is cha- 
racteristic of some serpents, but is also found in Scincus. 

The balance of evidence from the few data at my command 


148 Dr. J. E. Gray on a new Finner Whale from Formosa. 

rather inclines to the conclusion that Saurospondylus was an 
Iguanoid Lizard, hardly separable from the Serpents, than that 
it indicates a Cretaceous Ophidian. So classed, it is the type of 
a new family. 

XVII. — Notice of a new Finner Whale from Formosa. 
By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S. &c. 

Mr. Swinhoe has kindly sent me some bones of a Finner Whale 
which was cast ashore on the coast of Formosa. 

The cervical vertebrae show that it is quite distinct from any 
Whale the bones of which have previously come under my 

It agrees with the smaller Finner, Balcenoptera rostrata of 
Europe, in the second and third cervical vertebrse being united, 
while in all the other true Finners known they are free ; and 
also in the subcircular form of the front part of the neural canal. 

I am therefore inclined to refer it provisionally to the genus 
Balcenoptera as restricted in my paper (Proc. Zool. Soc. May 24, 
1864) ; but I think it probable that, when we know the entire 
number of the vertebras and other details of the skeleton, it will 
prove to be a distinct form. 

The Whale may be named Balcenoptera Swinhoei. 

The second cervical vertebra with large, broad, truncated, 
lateral processes, with a large, oblong, subcentral perforation ; 
the lateral processes are each two-thirds of the transverse dia- 
meter of the articulating surface of the body of the vertebra. 

The third cervical united to the second by the anchylosis of 
the neural arches ; the body thin, oblong, transverse, broader 
than high ; the lateral processes slender, truncated at the end, 
not so long as the transverse diameter of the body, curved to- 
wards each other at the end, but not forming a ring. 

The rest of the cervical vertebrse free. 

The sixth or seventh cervical with a thin body, and a slender, 
nearly straight upper lateral process, and only a very short 
tubercle on each side below. 

The neural cavity of the second cervical vertebra subcircular, 
rather less high than broad, and not quite so wide as half the 
diameter of the front side of the body. 

The neural cavity of the third cervical vertebra oblong, trans- 
verse, rounded above, as wide as half the transverse diameter of 
the body, and about one-third broader than high. 

The bones are nearly the same size as the similar bones in the 
Physalus antiquorum, which is between 60 and 70 feet long when 
alive ; they therefore belong to an animal at least three times as 
large as the Balcenoptera rostrata of Europe. 

Dr. A. Krohn on the Male Generative Organs 0/ Phalangium. 149 

XVIII. — On the Male Generative Organs of Phalangium. 
By Dr. A. Krohn*. 

From dissections which I have very recently made, it appears 
that the notions of Treviranus and Tulk as to the male sexual 
apparatus of Phalangium still generally adopted require to be 
essentially modified. The principal question here is as to the 
still unexplained signification of a gland-like organ furnished 
with two efferent ducts, which is situated in the abdomen upon 
the lower wall of the alimentary tube, occurs only in the male, 
and appears, as Treviranus asserts, to have some connexion with 
the other parts of generation. 

My investigations have proved that the above-mentioned organ 
is the testis ; so that the pair of glands consisting of ramified 
lobes or cseca situated in the anterior part of the abdomen, to 
which Treviranus and Tulk ascribe the function of preparing 
the seminal fluid, have quite a different destination. 

When the abdomen is opened from the ventral surface, the 
testis falls out, and appears, after the removal of the adherent 
fatty body, as a sausage- shaped greatly curved organ f of a dull 
white colour, bridged over by the two retractor muscles of the 
penis (fig., a). From the extremity of each of its horns (which 

The male generative apparatus of the second species of Phalangium men- 
tioned in the text, without the accessory glands. Its component parts are 
removed from their natural position in order to show their connexion. 

a. The Testis, b b. Vasa efferentia. c. Coil of the vas deferens. 
d. Dilated portion of the vas deferens, e. Sheath of the penis, with 
the penis (/) within it. g g. Retractors of the penis. 

are directed forwards, and do not reach to the part where the 
two breathing-orifices or stigmata occur on the outer surface 

* Translated by W. S. Dallas, F.L.S., &c, from Wiegmann's Archiv, 
1865, pp. 41-48. 

t" The sigmoid or zigzag form ascribed to this organ by Treviranus and 
Tulk is probably only a consequence of injury or displacement during 

150 Dr. A. Krohn on the Male Generative Organs o/Phalangium. 

of the body) there issues one of the above-mentioned narrow 
canals, which may with perfect justice be characterized as vasa 
efferentia (b b). In its forward course each of these canals 
strikes first of all upon the origin of the tracheal stem of its side, 
then bends inwards, and runs to the median line of the abdo- 
men, where it meets with the canal of the opposite side, and 
both pass into the origin of the vas deferens. Of the nature 
of this long duct, which gradually increases in diameter, and is 
chiefly rolled together into a close coil (c), Tulk has already 
given a satisfactory account. I can completely confirm the 
statement of this naturalist that the vas deferens, after passing 
through the penis, opens at the extremity of the so-called glans*, 
which is armed with a curved spine or hook at its apex, and is 
moveably articulated upon the shaft of the penis. I may, how- 
ever, remark that the vas deferens, after having become suddenly 
and greatly dilated (d) just before its entrance into the penis, 
appears so exceedingly narrow during its passage through 
the latter, that the transverse section of its lumen bounded by 
a chitinous coat only seems very slightly to exceed the diameter 
of a single seminal corpusclef. 

The testis possesses a bounding membrane which passes into 
the outer envelope of the efferent ducts; it is, however, not 
hollow, but its mass consists throughout of round cells, fur- 
nished with a distinct wall, and closely pressed together, which 
contain a great number of small transparent vesicles. As a 
nucleus, often surrounded by dark granules or molecules, makes 
its appearance in these vesicles on the addition of acidulated 
water, I regard them as the formative cells of the semen, whilst 
the cells enclosing them seem to represent their mother cells. 

* This so-called glans no doubt functions as an excitant organ during 

t The above-mentioned dilated portion of the vas deferens is distin- 
guished from the preceding portions of this canal by a very thick chitinized 
lining membrane and by a very strong muscular coat. From the great 
narrowness of the duct in its passage through the penis, it might be sup- 
posed that the dilated portion may act as an organ of propulsion in the 
ejaculation of the semen. According to Tulk, the excitant organ (the so- 
called glaua), which, during repose, is always bent back over the end of 
the shaft of the penis, can be elevated or extended (that is, brought into 
the same line with the shaft of the penis) by means of two muscles. I 
must deny the existence of these muscles ; but, on the other hand, it is 
not difficult to detect the presence of a single powerful muscle which is 
evidently destined to this purpose. This muscle, which has hitherto been 
overlooked, occupies half the length of the interior of the penis from the 
base, and is connected with a strong sinew running straight to the excitant 
organ, to the base of which it is attached. The mode of action of this 
muscle may be easily ascertained by a simple experiment, namely, by laying 
bare the sinew, inserting a fine needle into it, and pulling in the direction 
of the traction of the muscle. 

Dr. A. Krohn on the Male Generative Organs o/Phalangium. 151 

In support of this view I may refer to the data already extant 
as to the development of the semen in some Arachnida (see 
Von Siebold, Vergl. Anatomie, p. 544, note 6; and Leydig, 
" Ueber den feineren Bau der Arthropoden," in M tiller's Archiv, 
1855, p. 470). 

Mature semen is usually found in greater or less abundance 
in the entire portion of the vas deferens before the dilatation. 
The seminal corpuscles are rounded structures, furnished, I 
believe, with a disciform nucleus. The oscillating movement 
which is observed in them when they are not too closely pressed 
together appears to be referable to the phenomenon of the so- 
called molecular movement*. 

The two accessory glands situated in the anterior portion of 
the abdomen immediately above the sheath of the penis are con- 
nected by connective tissue and tracheal ramifications with the 
coil of the vas deferens, which is placed between them. Their 
intimate structure is founded on the same plan that has been 
made known to us in the glands of many insects by the ad- 
mirable works of H. Meckel, and especially of Leydig. Thus 
we may distinguish in them a homogeneous external envelope 
(tunica propria), a subjacent, proportionally thick layer of se- 
creting cells, and within this a lining membrane (intima). The 
lumen of the lobules or cseca appears to be a comparatively 
narrow canal, from the circumference of which, throughout the 
whole length of the canal, numerous fine tubules pass deeply 
into the cellular layer. In the male of P. opilio (P. cornutum) 
single tubules are seen at intervals, which are distinguished 
from the rest both by their greater size and by their branching 
within the cellular layer. The canals of all the sacs, after 
uniting to form larger branches, finally combine into a main 
duct extending forward through the midst of the gland, and 
opening upon the upper wall of the sheath of the penis not far 
from the sexual aperture. This duct, however, is never free, as 
the layer of secretion-cells is continued upon it and envelopes 
it as far as its outlet. The orifices of the two main ducts at the 
point just mentioned lie close together on each side of the 
median line. On the lining membrane of the main ducts and 
their first branches a so-called spiral filament, similar to that 
of the tracheae, may be detected. In the male of P. opilio it may 
be pretty clearly distinguished even on the above-mentioned fine 
tubules which penetrate the cellular layer. 

* I have not been able to give a satisfactory description of the appear- 
ance of the seminal corpuscles under a high magnifying power. Accord- 
ing to Leydig's investigations, they are round, flat structures, with a cen- 
tral band-like elevation. Leydig regards their oscillating movement as 
quite spontaneous, and therefore assumes that they probably possess a fine 
capillary appendage {I.e. p. 469, pi. 17- fig- 41 d). 

152 Dr. A. Krohn on the Male Generative Organs w/Phalangium. 

These two glands also occur in the females ; but even when 
their pregnancy is very far advanced, the size of these glands is 
less than in the males. In their structure they differ from those 
of the males only in the circumstance that the spiral filament 
appears to be entirely wanting in the ramifications, although 
present in the main ducts. The spot at which the two main 
ducts discharge themselves corresponds exactly with that of the 
male. Their orifices are also in the vicinity of the sexual orifice, 
upon the upper wall of the sheath embracing the laying-tube*. 

As to the use of the secretion of these glands nothing can at 
present be stated with certainty. In the male, the secretion is a 
clear, tenacious, thickly fluid substance, apparently very similar 
to the spinning-material of the Araneida. 

In conclusion, I must refer to an exceedingly remarkable 
phenomenon which I have observed in the examination of nearly 
all males of P. opiliof. This is nothing less than a production 
of eggs from the testis, at the same time that the development 
of the semen is by no means diminished. The number of ova 
produced by the testis may sometimes be so great that, as in 
the ovary, they occupy the entire surface ; or it may be very 
small, and in this case the ova occur only on particular spots of 
the testis. In the former case the ova, as on the ovary, present 
the most various states of development, from the smallest, with 
the vitellus still clear, to those in which the vitellus appears 
more or less turbid. These ova, however, appear never to attain 
the full size of those produced on the ovary. I have only ob- 
served one case in which, among a number of ova, two or three 
were remarkable for their preponderant size. These ova agreed 
perfectly with the nearly mature ovarian ova, not only in their 
size, but also in the nature of the vitellus, which appeared of a 
chalky whiteness. In a second species (which, from the form 
of the penis, appears to be the one investigated by Treviranus 
and Tulk), the males of which I was able to procure much more 
frequently, I have rarely detected ova upon the testis, and when 
present they were always but little developed. 

To remove the suspicion that I may perhaps have erred in 

* I may remark here, in passing, that the two supposed cseeal tubes ex- 
tending to the laying-tube, which Tulk has regarded as cement-glands, are 
really nerves, as has already been indicated by Gegenbaur (Grundziige der 
vergl. Anat. p. 276). I have succeeded in traciug them to their origin in 
the thoracic ganglion. They also occur, although of less size, in the male, 
in which they accompany the portion of the vas deferens issuing from the 
coil to its immersion in the penis. In both sexes they supply the retrac- 
tors of the copulatory organs, and also penetrate with a portion of their 
branches into the interior of the latter, and then become further divided. 

f The males of this species are exceedingly rare in comparison to the 

Mr. J. S. Baly on new Species of Crioceridse. 153 

the interpretation of what I have seen, I may refer to the testi- 
mony of a celebrated witness, who detected the same pheno- 
menon long before me. This is Treviranus, who makes the 
following statement : — " In one of the Phalangia that I examined 
I found an ovary filled with eggs, but, instead of the laying-tube, 
a male genital organ. Hermaphroditism, which has often been 
observed in the Lepidoptera, appears, therefore, not unfrequently 
in the Phalangia" {I. c. p. 38). 

This case, in my opinion, agrees exactly with those observed 
by me, if we only admit that the organ described as an ovary 
can have been nothing but the testis. And this will be the less 
doubtful when we consider that, as already stated, Treviranus 
certainly saw the testis, but was not in a position to recognize 
it as such. 

As regards the ultimate fate of these eggs, there seems to be 
no doubt that, after persisting for a longer or shorter time, they 
disappear. In favour of this we may quote as an analogous 
example the case of some of our indigneous toads [Bufo variabilis, 
B. calamita, and especially B. cinereus), the males of which, ac- 
cording to the thorough investigations of Wittich, possess, 
besides a testis, a more or less rudimentary ovary*. From these 
investigations it appears clearly that the ova produced by this 
ovary, after attaining a certain degree of maturity, finally become 
aborted and disappear f- 

XIX. — Descriptions of new Species of Crioceridse. 
By J. S. Baly. 

Crioceris scabrosa, Baly. 
, C. elongata, subcylindrica, plumbea, subnitida, pube aureo-sericea 
brevi vestita ; capite rugoso ; antennis dimidio corporis longioribus, 
obscure rufo-piceis, basi et apice nigris ; thorace sat profunde 
transversim strigoso, fere glabro, lateribus vix constrictis ; elytris 
crebre rugoso- punctatis, elevato-reticulatis, reticulis fere lsevibus, 
glabris, disco anteriore dilatatis, et ibi superficiem totam fere am- 
plectentibus ; tarsis obscure cyaneis ; tibiis intermediis ad apicem 
incrassatis, intus curvatis. 

Long. 4 lin. 

Hab. Mexico. 

Elongate, subcylindrical. Head not constricted behind the 

eyes ; face subelongate, finely rugose, sparingly clothed on the 

* " Beitrage zur morphol. unci histol. Entvvickelung der Ham- unci 
Geschlechtswerkzeuge der nackten Amphibien," Siebold and Kolliker's 
Zeitschrift, Bd. iv. p. 159. 

•f Morphologically it is an interesting fact that the ovary in the above- 
mentioned toads occurs as a perfectly independent organ having no further 
connexion with the testis, whilst the seminal gland of Phalangium (espe- 
cially in P. opilio) has completely the character of an hermaphrodite gland. 

154 Mr. J. S. Baly on new Species of Crioceridae. 

labrum, lower parts of epistome, and round the eyes with short, 
adpressed, aureo-sericeous hairs; front impressed with a deep 
fovea, on either side of which is a fine but distinct groove, which, 
commencing at the apex of the epistome, runs obliquely upwards 
on either side to surround the upper portion of the orbit of the 
eyes, but at a considerable distance from the eye itself; eyes 
not mounted on a raised orbit, rotundate, entire; antennae 
slightly thickened towards their apex, moderately robust. Tho- 
rax cylindrical, slightly flattened above, subquadrate, its surface 
closely covered with deep, irregular, transverse grooves; just in 
front of the base, and again behind the apex, are two indistinct 
transverse depressions. Scutellum smooth, triangular, its apex 
obtusely truncate. Elytra much broader than the thorax, pa- 
rallel, acutely i*ounded or almost angulate at their apex ; sub- 
cylindrical above, slightly flattened along the back, obsoletely 
depressed transversely below the basilar space, their apical por- 
tion suddenly and obliquely deflexed; closely and somewhat 
finely rugose, closely clothed with short, adpressed, aureo-seri- 
ceous pubescence ; whole surface (with the exception of the de- 
flexed apex) covered with large, broad, raised, glabrous reticula- 
tions; on the anterior half of the inner disk these elevations 
become much dilated, and coalesce so as to occupy by far the 
greater portion of the whole surface. Body beneath clothed with 
coarser hairs than the upper surface ; abdomen smooth, impunc- 
tate, each segment impressed on either side its centre with a deep 
fovea, from the surface of which springs a tuft of pale suberect 
hairs ; hinder thighs extending rather beyond the apex of the 

Crioceris rugata, Baly. 
C. elongata, nigra, nitida, thoracis dorso elytrisque fulvis ; antennis * 
subfiliformibus, vix compressis et perfoliatis ; thorace subquadrato, 
lateribus leviter coarctato, dorso rude punctato ; elytris infra basin 
obsolete transversim depressis, profunde punctato-striatis, inter- 
stitiis basi planis, apicern versus subelevatis ; scutello piceo, glabro. 
Long. 3| lin. 

Hab. Japan. 

Head deeply constricted behind the eyes ; forehead impressed 
with a deep groove ; face triangular, closely covered with ad- 
pressed sericeous hairs ; eyes deeply notched ; antennae half the 
length of the body, moderately robust, subfiliform, first, third, 
and fourth joints equal in length, fifth to the eleventh each half 
as long again as the fourth, equal, somewhat thickened and 
compressed, scarcely perfoliate. Thorax subquadrate, subcy- 
lindrical, sides moderately constricted in the middle, stained in 
front with nigro-piceous ; upper surface deeply and coarsely 
punctured. Scutellum triangular, its apex truncate. Elytra 
much broader than the thorax, parallel, upper surface slightly 

Mr. J. S. Baly on new Species of Crioceridse. 155 

flattened along the suture, indistinctly depressed transversely 
below the basilar space, very deeply punctate-striate, interspaces 
impunctate, plane at the base, indistinctly rugulose on the 
transverse depression, distinctly thickened towards their apex, 
being subcostate near the outer margin and suture. Body be- 
neath nearly glabrous, the pleura clothed with adpressed seri- 
ceous pubescence ; abdomen smooth, impunctate, very sparingly 
furnished with subdepressed silky hairs. Hinder thighs not 
thickened, not extending beyond the second abdominal segments. 
Very closely allied to C. impressa, smaller, much more coarsely 
punctured ; antennae more slender. 

Crioceris ruficollis, Baly. 

C. oblonga, nigra, nitida, collo thoraceque rufis, hoc vix elongatulo, 
subcylindrico, lateribus medio modice coarctato, dorso vage sub- 
remote punctato ; elytris convexis, nigro-cseruleis, infra basin 
leviter transversim impressis, distincte sed tenuiter punctatis, in- 
terstitiis planis. 

Var. A. Capite antice obscure rufo ; antennis basi piceis. 
Long. 3£ lin. 
Hab. Northern China. Collected by Mr. Fortune. 

Face triangular, clothed with aureo-sericeous pubescence; 
antennae moderately robust, slightly compressed, subperfoliate, 
more than half the length of the body. Scutellum rufo-piceous. 
Elytra broadly oblong, much broader than the thorax. Pubes- 
cence on the under surface of the body silvery white, that on 
the legs with a golden tint. Abdominal segments each with a 
transverse groove, which is clothed with a single row of sub- 
erect silvery hairs. Hinder thighs very slightly thickened, their 
apex not reaching beyond the apex of the third abdominal 

Lema quadriplagiata, Baly. 

L. oblongo-elongata, fulva, nitida, subtus sparsim fulvo-sericea, 
ore supra nigro; antennis modice robustis, corporis longitudine 
brevioribus, articulo tertio secundo duplo longiore ; thorace cylin- 
drico, subquadrato, lateribus medio valde constrictis, dorso lsevi, 
pone medium profunde transversim sulcato, disci medio obsolete 
lineatim punctato ; elytris infra basin obsolete transversim im- 
pressis, sat fortiter punctato-striatis, striis ad apicem sulcatis, in- 
terspatiis postice elevatis, utrinque plagis magnis duabus obscure 

Var. A. Antennis (basi excepta) fuscis ; corpore subtus fusco 

Var. B. Elytris totis metallico-cseruleis. 

Long. 2| lin. 

Hab. Pachybouri. Collected by the late M. Mouhot. 

This species may be separated from L. his trio, Clark, by the 

156 Mr. J. S. Baly on new Species of Crioceridse. 

following character : — In the present insect the third joint of 
the antenna is double the length of the second, whilst in L. 
histrio it is only from one-third to one-half longer. 

Lema Adamsii, Baly. 

L. elongata, subcylindrica, pallide fulvo-flava, nitida ; capitis maculis 
duabus, thoracis maculis quatuor, quadratim dispositis, elytrorum 
maculis quatuor, duabus pone basin parvis, duabusque ante apicem 
magnis, pectore, femorum singulorum macula, tibiarum apice, 
tarsis antennisque nigris, his subfiliformibus, dimidio corporis 
lougioribus, articulis duobus basalibus fulvo-flavis ; thorace sub- 
quadrato, lateribus sat coarctato, ante basin transversim sulcato, 
disco lsevi fere impunctato ; elytris fortiter punctato-striatis, infra 
basin vix transversim impressis, interspatiis laevibus, antice trans- 
versim rugulosis, apice callosis. 

Long. 3 lin. 

Hab. Chusan. Collected by Mr. A. Adams. 

The more robust, shorter, black antennae, with the second 
and third joints nearly equal, will distinguish this species from 
L. quadriplagiata and L. histrio. 

Lema Downesii, Baly. 

L. subelongato-parallela, pallide fulva, nitida, antennis (basi excepta) 
tarsisque fuscis ; scutello elytrorumque vitta suturali, ante apicem 
abbreviata, nigris ; thorace elongatulo, basi transversim sulcato, 
lateribus vix pone medium modice constrictis, antice subgloboso, 
Isevi, lateribus et disci medio fortiter subremote punctato ; elytris 
infra basin haud transversim impressis, profunde punctato-striatis, 
interspatiis prope apicem elevatis, secundo octavoque apice coeun- 
tibus callosisque. 

Long. 2 lin. 

Hab. Bombay ; Bengal. 

Thorax smoother and more swollen than in L. suturella\ 
third joint of antenna one-half longer than the second, equal in 
length to the fourth. 

Lema suturella, Baly. 

L. oblongo-parallela, fulva, nitida, tibiis tarsisque infuscatis, pectore 
abdominisque basi nigris ; antennis (basi excepta) fuscis ; thorace 
cylindrico, lateribus medio modice constrictis, supra ante basin 
transversim sulcato, leviter irregulariter punctato ; scutello piceo ; 
elytris infra basin vix transversim impressis, fortiter punctato- 
striatis, interspatiis prope apicem costatis, linea suturali cyanea, 
ante apicem abbreviata, instructis. 

Long. 2 lin. 

Hab. Bengal. 

Thorax less swollen than in L. Downesii, irregularly punctured; 
a longitudinal space down the middle of the disk, together with 

Mr. J. S. Baly on new Species of Crioceridse. 157 

the sides in front, more coarsely punctured than the remainder 
of the surface ; third joint of antenna one-half longer than the 
second, distinctly longer than the fourth. 

Lema concinnipennis, Baly. 

L. elongata, parallela, subcylindrica, nitido-cserulea ; antennis nigris, 
abdominis apice fulvo ; thorace subquadrato, subcylindrico, lateri- 
bus medio modice constrictis, disco ante basin transversim sulcato, 
fortiter punctato, spatio longitudinali centrali laevi, fere impunc- 
tato ; elytris infra basin transversim impressis, intra callum hu- 
merale sulcatis, punctato-striatis, punctis ad apicem minus fortiter 
impressis, interspatiis planis ; antennis corporis dimidio longiori- 
bus, modice robustis. 

Var. A. Abdomine corpore concolore. 
Long. 2\ lin. 
Hah. Northern China. 

Face subelongate ; eyes deeply notched j lower portion of 
face closely subrugoso-punctate ; forehead impressed with a 
short longitudinal groove, very finely punctured. Legs mode- 
rately robust. 

Lema Psyche, Baly. 

L. oblonga, valde convexa, chalybeo-ceerulea, nitida ; antennis pedi- 
busque nigris ; thorace subtransverso, cylindrico, lateribus medio 
modice constrictis, disco tenuissime punctato, basi impresso ; 
elytris purpureis, robustis, thorace multo latioribus, infra basin 
transversim depressis, sat fortiter punctato-striatis, striis integris, 
interspatiis ad apicem convexiusculis, obsolete costatis ; antennis 
gracilibus, filiformibus, articulis 3° et 4° sequalibus. 
Long. 3 lin. 
Hah. Northern India. 

Face subelongate, vertex coarsely punctured ; eyes notched j 
antennae two-thirds the length of the body ; transverse depres- 
sion of elytra shallow, obsoletely wrinkled. Legs slender; 
thighs scarcely thickened. 

The broad elytra and robust form of this insect at once dis- 
tinguish it from its congeners. 

Lema bipunctata, Baly. 

L. subelongata, piceo-fulva, nitida ; antennis (articulo basali preeter- 
misso), scutello, thoracis vitta laterali, abdominis fasciis, tibiarum 
apice tarsisque nigris ; elytris singulatim fovea infra basin, linea 
suturali alteraque marginali, apice abbreviata, chalybeis. 

Long. 2-2£ lin. 

Hah. Port Natal. 

Forehead impressed with a deep oblong fovea ; antenna? half 

the length of the body, subfiliform, second and third joints 

each equal in length to the first, obovate. Thorax scarcely 

158 Mr. J. S. Baly on new Species of Crioceridse. 

broader than long, subcylindrica], sides moderately constricted 
just behind their middle, anterior angles acute, upper surface 
convex, transversely excavated in front of the base, distinctly 
punctured down the middle of the disk and along the anterior 
border. Elytra broader than the thorax, not transversely de- 
pressed below the basilar space, punctate-striate ; interspaces 
towards the apex furcate. 

Lema globicollis, Baly. 

L. elongata, parallela, subcylindrica, picea, nitida ; ore antennisque 
nigris ; pectore, scutello thoraceque rufis, hoc elongatulo, basi 
constricto, antice globoso, fortiter punctato, utrinque spatio longi- 
tudinali impunctato ; oculis nigris, prominulis, intus vix sinuatis ; 
elytris cyaneis, dorso plauiusculis, infra basin haud transversim 
impressis, fortiter punctato-striatis, interspatiis prope apicem 

Long. 2j lin. 

Hob. India. 

Head short; face triangular, concave between the eyes, the 
latter very prominent, globular, shining black ; forehead nearly 
impunctate ; antennae scarcely equal in length to half the body, 
robust, gradually increasing in thickness towards their apex, 
basal joints pitchy. Thorax rather longer than broad, deeply 
impressed with subremote large punctures ; a longitudinal space 
on either side the disk smooth, impunctate. 

Lema Dia, Baly. 

L. fulva, nitida ; pectoris lateribus pedibusque obscurioribus, femori- 
bus (basi excepta) abdominisque utrinque macula basali nigro- 
piceis ; antennis fuscis ; thorace fere transverso, lateribus medio 
valde constrictis, dorso ante basin transversim sulcato, lsevi, disci 
medio longitudinaliter tenuissime punctato ; elytris obscure caeru- 
leis, violaceo micantibus, infra basin transversim depressis, tenuiter 
punctato-striatis, punctis vix ante apicem deletis, interspatiis 
planis ; limbo (basi excepta) fasciaque centrali fulvis. 

Long. 3| lin. 

Hab. Ega, Upper Amazons. 

Head deeply constricted behind the eyes ; face triangular ; 
antennas two-thirds the length of the body, slender, filiform, 
basal joint fulvous, second very short, third nearly twice as 
long as the second, fourth one-third longer than the third, the 
rest each equal in length to the fourth. Scutellum triangular. 
Elytra much broader than the thorax, suboval, their apex broadly 

Lema ornata, Baly. 
L. oblongo-elongata, subcylindrica, nigra, nitida ; capite, scutello 

Mr. J. S. Baly on new Species of Crioceridse. 159 

thoraceque rufo-piceis, hoc vix transverso, cylindrico, lateribus 
medio modice constrictis, dorso lsevi, ante basin transversim sul- 
cata ; pedibus antennisque pallide fulvis, his apice fuscis ; elytris 
infra basin leviter transversim depressis, subfortiter punctato- 
striatis, interspatiis postice subcostatis, disco antico obsolete 
transversim crenulatis, flavo-albis, vitta brevi suturali ante me- 
dium abbreviata, plaga communi apicali et utrinque vitta lata a 
callo humerali longe ultra medium extensa, postice paullo am- 
pliata, obscure caeruleis. 
Long. 3 lin. 

Hab. Guatemala. 

Lema praclara, Baly. 

L. subcylindrica, testaceo-fulva, nitida ; capite (antennarum apice 
albo excepto), thorace basi et apice, tibiis tarsisque nigris ; tho- 
race subtransverso, lateribus medio sat valde constrictis, dorso 
lsevi, ante basin transversim sulcato, disci medio tenuiter lineatim 
punctato ; elytris lsete purpureis, infra basin profunde transversim 
depressis, punctato-striatis, stria nona medio obsoleta, punctis 
apicem versus minus distinctis, interspatiis planis, ad apicem con- 

Long. 3 lin. 

Hab. Nauta, Upper Amazons. 

Lema Pithys, Baly. 

L. elongata, subcylindrica, rufo-fulva, nitida, subtus aureo-sericea ; 
antennis gracilibus, filiformibus, fusco-fulvis, apice pallidis ; tho- 
race transverso, pone medium strangulato ; elytris nigris, infra 
basin et intra humeros impressis, disco exteriore pone medium 
foveolatis, punctato-striatis, striis postice sulcatis, stria nona medio 
late interrupta, callosa, interspatiis antice planis, crebre sed tenuis- 
sime crenulatis, postice costatis. 

Long. 3|-4 lin. 

Hab. S. Paulo, Upper Amazons. 

Antennas nearly equal to the body in length, second and third 
joints equal, each more than twice the length of the second, 
fourth equal to the two preceding united, fifth and following 
joints nearly equal, each somewhat shorter than the fourth. 
Thorax broader than long, deeply constricted behind the middle, 
smooth, impunctate. Scutellum triangular, its apex truncate. 
Elytra longitudinally sulcate within the humeral callus, trans- 
versely excavated near the suture below the basilar space, inter- 
spaces strongly costate behind the middle of the elytra ; ninth 
stria from the suture broadly interrupted, the interrupted por- 
tion costiform ; on the inner side of this costa, near its apex, is 
a broad shallow fovea which extends across several of the adja- 
cent striae. 

160 Mr. J. S. Baly on new Species of Crioceridse. 

Lema Idalia, Baly. 

L. elongata, subcylindrica, rufo-fulva, nitida, subtus aureo-sericea; 
antennis elongatis, filiformibus, fulvo-flavis ; tborace vix trans- 
verso, lateribus medio sat coarctato, pone medium trausversim 
sulcato, laevi impunctato ; elytris lsete violaceis, nitidissimis, infra 
basin et intra humeros impressis, tenuiter punctato-striatis, stria 
nona medio late interrupta, interspatiis planis, lsevibus, postice 
obsolete convexiusculis. 

Long. 3£ lin. 

Hab. Upper Amazons. 

Antennse rather shorter than in L. Pithy s ; otherwise in form 
and structure very similar. Thorax less transverse, less deeply 

Lema pulchra, Baly. 

L. subcylindrica, testaceo-fulva, nitida, subtus aureo-sericea, antennis, 
genibus, tibiis tarsisque nigris ; elytris infra basin trausversim 
depressis, punctato-striatis, striis ad apicem subsulcatis, inter- 
spatiis postice convexis, stria nona medio late interrupta ; lsete 
violaceis, apice pallide fulvis. 

Long. 3 lin. 

Hab. Nauta, Upper Amazons. 

Face elongate-trigonate ; epistome and labrum clothed with 
coarse yellow hairs ; eyes obliquely notched ; antennas slender, 
filiform, nearly as long as the body. Thorax cylindrical, sub- 
quadrate, sides moderately constricted in the middle; upper 
surface smooth, impunctate, impressed before the middle by a 
broad transverse sulcation. Hinder thighs slightly thickened, 
extending nearly to the apex of the abdomen. 

Lema Latona, Baly. 

L. rufo-fulva, nitida ; antennis pedibusque (femoribus basi et infra 
exceptis) nigris ; thorace lsevi, transverso, lateribus medio con- 
strictis, dorso ante basin trausversim sulcato ; elytris infra basin 
leviter trausversim depressis, punctato-striatis, striis ad apicem 
distinctis, interspatiis ad latera et ante apicem costatis ; lsete vio- 
laceis, vitta lata laterali pone medium valde angustata rufo-fulva. 

Long. 3^ lin. 

Hab. S. Paulo, Upper Amazons. 

Head deeply constricted behind the eyes ; face triangular, 
front impressed with an oblong fovea; antenna? moderately 
slender, filiform, slightly tapering towards their apex. 

Mr. A. G. Butler on a new Species of Cctonia. 1G1 

XX. — Description of a new Species of Cetonia in the Collection 
of the British Museum. By Arthur G. Butler, F.Z.S., 
Assistant Zoological Department, British Museum. 

Schizorhina Nortoni. 

Clypeus black, elongate, emarginate ; thorax sinning black, with 
black margins ; elytra sliining black, sulcated, the stria broad and 
clothed with short white hair, apices of elytra coarsely pilose. 

Clypeus large, black, smooth, elongate, cylindric, emarginate 
in front, densely punctured, with black, opake, elevated lateral 
margins. Eyes lateral, pitchy. Antenna? black. 

Thorax smooth, very finely punctured, densely near the mar- 
gins, shining black, with black edges ; anterior portion narrower 
than the posterior, and somewhat depressed at the sides so as to 
form an obtuse keel ; hinder portion a little narrower than the 
elytra, with trisinuate hind margin. 

Scutellum very large, smooth, nearly triangular, black. 

Elytra smooth and shining, nearly covering the abdomen, a 
little narrower at the apex than at the base, with four longitu- 
dinal smoothly hollowed stria? on each elytron, not reaching the 
base, and filled with very short white setae, the two outer stria? 
meeting at the apex, and filled at their apical terminations with 
very long golden-yellow hairs, which extend beyond the ab- 

Body shining black beneath; head, thorax, and sides of abdo- 
men clothed with coarse golden-yellow hairs ; sternum produced, 
compressed, subtriangular. 

Legs black ; femora compressed, those of fore and middle legs 
densely punctured and sparsely clothed with short yellow seta? ; 
femur of hind leg sparsely punctured, the sides not clothed with 
hair; tibia of fore leg short, compressed, strongly punctured, 
outer edge trispinose, inner edge with a marginal line of minute 
yellow hairs, and terminated by a long spine ; tibia of middle 
leg cylindrical, finely and sparsely punctured, a few yellow seta? 
extending half along its inner side, apex quadrispinose; posterior 
tibia elongate cylindrical, outer edge coarsely punctured and 
bluntly unispinose in the middle, the remainder smooth ; inner 
edge clothed with long, straight, yellow hairs; apex quadri- 
spinose : tarsi five- jointed. 

Length 16 lines. 

Habitat. Sydney. 

Closely allied to S.Philipsii, Schreib. (Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. vi. 
p. 193, t. 20. fig. 1, Gory, Monog. Ceton. p. 158, pi. 27. fig. 2), 
from which it differs in being altogether longer and much 
larger, and more quadrate ; the clypeus being longer, narrower, 

Ann. fy Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol.xvi. 12 

162 M. Hesse on new or rare Crustacea 

and destitute of seta? ; the thorax much move finely and sparsely 
punctured, more depressed at the sides in front, much more 
deeply trisinuate behind, shiny black, and destitute of setse; 
the scutcllum almost imperceptibly punctured ; the elytra more 
roof-shaped, the stria? more irregular, narrower above than be- 
low, filled with shorter and white hair, apical portion filled with 
long golden-yellow seta?, protruding beyond the abdomen. 

The underside is not so densely clothed, and the femora are not 
so densely punctured and are much more destitute of hair; the 
tibia? much more finely punctured, the middle leg with no me- 
dian spine, and the hind leg with little beyond an excrescence. 

This interesting species was presented to the National Collec- 
tion by Mr. H. Norton, and is one of the most beautiful insects 
in the genus. 

XXI. — Investigations on new or rare Crustacea of the French 
Coasts. By M. Hesse*. 


M. Hesse has obtained individuals of all ages of the curious 
Crustacean described by him (Ann. Sci. Nat. 5 e ser. tome i.) 
under the name of Notopterophorus papilio, and now gives an 
account of the life-history of the species. 

The male is one-third of the size of the female (2 mill, in 
length), and has the head large and the body short and stout ; 
and the thoracic region, which is of uniform width, does not 
present an enlargement for the reception of the ova at its base. 

The abdominal portion, which is cylindrical, is also shorter 
and more robust than in the female, and the dorsal membranous 
expansions are but small at the base, whilst the lobes which 
accompany them are very long, and gradually diminish to a 
point. In number and position these expansions are exactly 
similar to those of the female. The colour is a slightly yellowish 
white, through which the large intestinal tube, of a yellow 
colour, with red and black points, may be perceived. The eye is 
black. The males occur in much smaller numbers than the 
females, in the interior of Phallusia canina. 

In their early states the Notopterophuri resemble Cyclops. 
The body is cylindrical, and formed of four thoracic segments 
(including the cephalic shield), all of which present posteriorly 
two triangular acuminate processes ; of these the points, directed 
obliquely, project outwards and on the back, and they are evi- 
dently destined to become the membranous expansions of the 

* Abstract, by W. S. Dallas, F.L.S. &c, from Annates des Sciences 
Naturelles, 5 e ser. torn. iii. (1865) pp. 221-242. 

of the French Coasts. 163 

adults. The abdomen, antennas, and feet exactly resemble those 
of the adults. 

At its first escaping from the egg the body of the young ani- 
mal is perfectly cylindrical. The antennas are broad, flat, and 
rounded at the end; their joints are not distinctly marked. The 
first legs are very strong, and composed of four joints, terminated 
by a stout claw; then follows a pafr, thinner, of footjaws, ter- 
minated by bristles or spines, and beneath these is the rostrum, 
formed of two pairs of jaws ; beneath these is another pair of 
short, slender feet, placed laterally, followed by another larger 
pair, curved upwards, and furnished with a comb of strong 
spines or rigid hairs. The thoracic feet are already biramose. 

Notopterophorus Bombyx, Hesse. 

This Crustacean, found in the interior of Phallusia intestinalis, 
is doubtfully described as a new species by the author. The 
male, as in the preceding species, is one-third of the size of the 
female. Its head is much larger ; the thorax is broad and short, 
and diminishes gradually in diameter to the abdomen ; it is very 
retractile, the segments forming it have their margins everted 
so as to favour their invagination, and the lower extremity of 
the last segment, being capable of vertical elevation, forms a sort 
of broad, flat surface, which probably serves as a point of sup- 
port for propulsion. 

The membranous dorsal expansions appear to be much less 
extensive than in N. papilio, and that which is implanted upon 
the nape presents at its base an occipital protuberance. The 
colour is entirely yellowish white. 

The female is elongated, especially in the abdominal region ; 
the head is also very long, and the ridge which forms the base 
of the occipital membranous expansion is much thicker than in 
the other species ; the membranous expansions are also smaller 
and thicker. The antennas and feet are more slender, and the 
last thoracic segment, which contains the eggs, is remarkable 
for a peculiar structure which, when seen in profile, presents 
some analogy with that of Doropygus. The female is very little 
smaller than that of N. papilio ; its colour is pale yellow, with a 
rusty red streak in the middle. The eye is red. The eggs are 
very dark green, with a transparent limb. 

In this species the membranous expansions were more lace- 
rated than hi the other. The Crustaceans are seen constantly 
extending and contracting themselves as if endeavouring to re- 
move something, or to force a passage through resisting objects; 
their movements of propulsion are aided by the strong claws 
and spines with which the feet are armed, and the hooks which 
terminate the abdominal appendages enable them to move back- 


10 i M. Hesse on new or rare Crustacea 

wards. M. Hesse thinks that the membranous expansions may 
also assist in locomotion ; they are moved in the manner of the 
wings of a butterfly. They are probably employed as a point of 
support and traction, by being applied hermetically, and by pro- 
jecting, upon surfaces to which the animals wish to adhere, the 
lobes by which they are accompanied. There is also a very fre- 
quent and active movement of the mandibles, which might lead 
to the supposition that these parasites are rather masticators 
than suckers. 

The young animal, at the second or third transformation, has 
a nearly uniformly cylindrical body, diminishing gradually, how- 
ever, towards the posterior extremity, by which it acquires the 
appearance of a Cyclops. There is as yet no dorsal appendage ; 
bnt the last thoracic segment has commenced the modification 
which fits it for the reception of the ova. The other appendages, 
although imperfectly formed, resemble those of the adult. The 
body is hyaline, with the eye alone red. 

Genus Pleurocrypta, gen. nov. 

M. Hesse, in September 186 -A, discovered under the arch of 
the branchial cavity of Galatea squamosa a parasitic Crustacean 
belonging to the group of the Isopoda, which he regards as 
forming the type of a new genus intermediate between Gyges 
and Phryxus. He gives the following characters of this para- 
site, for which he proposes the name of 

Pleurocrypta Galatea. 

" Male. Body elongate-ovate, divided into seven nearly equal 
thoracic segments, of which the first is amalgamated with the 
head, which is deeply inserted into it ; and the last is attached 
to the abdomen, which is triangular and of a single piece. Feet 
terminated by a strong hooked and denticulated claw. 

"Female. Body ovate, symmetrical, provided above with very 
long incubatory laminre, which entirely cover the thoracic por- 
tion ; abdomen divided into six [five ?] segments, furnished with 
simple acuminate branchire of unequal size ; feet terminated by 
an oblique, ampulliform joint, having a prehensile orifice. 

" Length of the male 0-001, of the female 0-007 m." 

The head of the male is amalgamated with the first thoracic 
segment, forming a sort of buckler, rounded in front and hemi- 
spherical above ; the six following thoracic segments are of nearly 
equal width, but the sixth is a little narrower and soldered to the 
abdomen. The latter is of an elongate triangular form, rounded 
at the extremity, and presents no trace of segments, unless it be 
that the lateral margins are slightly undulated. On each side 

of the French Coasts. 165 

of the body, in cacli segment except the first, the white branch- 
ing reproductive organs are seen shining through the skin. 

On the lower surface of the body the foremost organs arc 
two pairs of short antennas placed obliquely on the sides of 
the head, and scarcely passing its margin. The superior an- 
tenna is shorter than the other, and of three joints ; the inferior 
antenna has four. The antennas of each side spring from a 
common fiat basilar piece. 

The buccal apparatus is of a somewhat conical form, with the 
apex, bearing the buccal orifice, directed forward. The organs 
of the mouth consist of two pairs of hard corneous denticulated 
jaws, forming a sort of curved nippers, of four other small foot- 
jaws, each consisting of three joints and terminated by a crooked 
claw, and of two flat pointed laminae forming a lower lip. The 
thoracic legs consist of five joints, of which the femoral and the 
apical are the largest ; the latter is terminated by a powerful, 
curved, and denticulated claw, which, by folding down upon a 
protuberance of the lower surface of the inflated apical joint, 
becomes a prehensile organ. The body is of a buff colour, with 
the abdomen reddish brown. The intestinal canal is brick-red, 
with a fine white line upon it, indicating the course of the in- 
terganglionic cord. The surface is covered with short, rigid, 
and scattered hairs. 

The female is much larger than the male, measuring 7 mill, 
in length by 3 mill, in breadth; its form is a regular oval. 
The head is hemispherical, and embraced by the first pair of 
incubatory plates, of which there are in all four pairs, increasing 
in dimensions as they descend towards the abdomen. The last 
two plates are longer than the others, and their posterior margin 
is turned down almost perpendicularly upon the base of the 
abdomen so as to close the incubatory chamber. At their base 
these plates present small niche-like cavities for the reception 
of the feet. 

The epimeric pieces are alternately large and small, so as to 
facilitate the movements of the thorax ; from the fifth onward, 
they become more and more pointed to the extremity of the 
abdomen. Each of the five segments of the abdomen is pro- 
vided on each side with a branchial lamina, which is very deli- 
cate and contractile ; these lamina?, like the segments to which 
they are attached, diminish in size posteriorly. 

The ventral surface is nearly fiat, or very slightly concave. 
The buccal apparatus is placed close to the membranous anterior 
margin of the head ; the orifice is pierced in the middle of a 
large lip, and from it issue two pointed denticulated jaws, form- 
ing a pair of pincers. A little above this orifice are situated 
the antennas, which, as in the male, are four iu number j the 

166 M. Hesse on new or rare Crustacea of the French Coasts. 

superior antennae are shortest, and composed of three joints ; 
the inferior have a large basal joint, and are terminated by a 
cylindrical filament of five joints. The eyes are situated on 
small rounded protuberances close to the base of the inferior 

The body is divided into twelve segments, seven thoracic and 
five abdominal ; and, from the arrangement of the former, the 
animal is enabled to roll itself up into a ball like the vvoodlice. 
Each thoracic segment is furnished with a pair of feet, which 
are articulated laterally to the epimeric pieces at the base of the 
incubatory laminae ; each foot is formed of five nearly equal 
joints, and curved in such a manner that its extremity is di- 
rected towards the ventral surface. The apical joint, which is 
larger than the others, is inflated above and flat beneath, and 
on the first two pairs of feet forms a sort of elastic pad ; the 
apical joints of the other feet are hollow internally and nar 
rowed at the apex, where there is a small contractile aperture 
with a raised margin. The anterior half-circumference of this 
aperture appears to be of a more solid substance, and, furnished 
with denticulations, may render the organ more efficient in 

The head, abdomen, and whole lower surface of the female 
are bright yellow, with the two small lateral protuberances of 
the head reddish brown ; the incubatory plates are light vinous 
grey, and the branchial laminae transparent and bright blue. 
Beneath, the segments and epimeric pieces are bounded by 
white lines. 

The young, on escaping from the egg, are minute and very 
active, swimming rapidly by jerks. The head is hemispherical, 
rounded in front, and as wide as the first thoracic segment in 
which it is immersed ; this is followed by seven other segments, 
all of the same size, except the last, which has a small rounded 
process in the middle. The eyes, situated on the sides of the 
head, are large and hemispherical ; the abdomen is formed of a 
single piece, as in the male. 

The mouth, which is proboscidiform and retractile, is placed 
at the lower extremity of an oval protuberance, which projects 
in the middle of the first thoracic segment. The superior an- 
tennae are short, stout, and formed of three joints, the last of 
which is slender and cylindrical, and truncated at the extremity, 
and the second bears some strong pointed setae. The inferior 
antennae are much elongated, and composed of five nearly cylin- 
drical joints, which diminish in thickness from the second to 
the apex. 

The legs, as in the adult, are seven on each side, and all 
formed of five joints, of which the last is the most developed. 

Mr. H. W. Bates on the Longicorns of the Amazons Valley. 167 

The first pair, as in the male, is terminated by a powerful claw; 
the last joint of the others is hollow, and terminated by a round 

The abdomen has on each side a broad, lamellar, bifurcate 
false leg, and these appendages are preceded by others which 
are also lamellar, pointed and denticulated on the margins ; these 
are organs of propulsion, and subsequently form the branchiae. 
In some individuals the extremity of the abdomen bears, close to 
the anus, two small, flat, rounded, margined laminae. The body 
of the young animal is of a pale violet-grey colour, as are also 
the eggs; and it is to the latter, seen through the transparent 
incubatory laminae, that the suprathoracic pouch of the female 
owes its peculiar tint. 

The females of these Crustaceans reside in tumours produced 
by them on the inner surface of the arch of the branchial cavity 
in Galatea squamosa; and the males are found adhering to the 
abdomen of the females, frequently to the branchial laminae. 
In many cases two males are attached to one female. 

XXII. — Contributions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazons Valley. 
Coleoptera : Longicornes. By H. W. Bates, Esq. 

[Continued from p. 113.] 

6. Hypselomus pay anus, Pascoe. 

H. sordide fuscus, nigro obscure irroratus ; thorace dorso tuberoso, 
lateribus tuberculo acuto ; elytris humeris subconicis, antice cur- 
vato angulatis, cristis centrobasalibus prominulis, obtusis. Long. 
7-8 lin. S $ ■ 

Head dingy brown. Antennae blackish brown, bases of the 
joints (from the fourth) pallid. Thorax with prominent dorsal 
ridge and, on each side, two well-marked tubercles, sides each 
with a small acute tubercle ; colour dingy tawny brown, speckled 
with dusky. Elytra with projecting shoulders, the projection 
somewhat conical, but anterior slope curved or angulated, the 
apex formed by a thick black tubercle ; centro-basal ridges pro- 
nounced, but not crested with tubercles ; surface dingy tawny 
brown, speckled or irregularly marked with, dusky. Body be- 
neath dingy brown ; abdomen black in the middle. Legs 
blackish, speckled with tawny ; base of claw-joint reddish : 
posterior tibiae in the male dilated at apex. Supplementary 
antennal joint of male wanting. 

Ega and S. Paulo, Upper Amazons. 

7. Hypselomus seniculus, n. sp. 

H. parvus, fuscus griseo vestitus, summa fronte acute bituberculata ; 

1G8 Mr. II. W. Bates on (he Longicorn Coleoptera 

clytris grosse punctatis, humeris modice productis, obtuse trun- 
catis, truncaturse angulo ]>ostico acuto ; maris articulo 12'"° an- 
tennarum longiusculo, curvato. Long. A\ mi « <$ • 
Head clothed with thick tawny-grey pubescence, vertex 
spotted with brown ; inner side of each antenniferous tubercle 
{<$) produced into an acute tooth. Antenna) towards the base 
grey, spotted with dark brown ; apices of third to eleventh joints 
dusky, bases of joints from the fourth testaceous. Thorax con- 
vex, unarmed, grey, coarsely punctured (especially on the sides) 
and spotted with dark brown. Elytra moderately broad at the 
shoulders, the latter not conically produced, but obtusely trun- 
cated, with the posterior end of the truneature acute ; surface 
thinly clothed with grey pile, and coarsely punctured, simply 
convex. Body beneath and legs clothed with tawny- grey pile, 
spotted with blackish, base of claw-joint testaceous ; apical half 
of posterior tibia) strongly dilated ( <$ ). 

8. Hypselomus crassipes, n. sp. 

II. robustus, brunneus ; tborace lateribus pallidis ; clytris utrinque 

macula oblonga transversa cretacea ; pedibus crassis, nigris, tibiis 

posticis maris trigonis. Long. Sh lin. <$ . 

Head coarsely wrinkled, black ; antenniferous tubercles pro- 
duced on the inner side into a stout spine ($). Antenna) 
scarcely so long as the body, bases of joints, from the fourth, 
pale testaceous; twelfth joint (<^) short and twisted. Thorax 
convex in the middle, without distinct tubercles, a short obtuse 
tubercle on each side; above dark brown, sides dingy tawny 
white, traversed by an indistinct dusky stripe. Elytra broad 
and but slightly convex ; shoulders conically produced, base on 
each side obtusely elevated and very coarsely granulate-punctate, 
sides under the humeral projections also coarsely punctured, 
rest of the surface faintly punctured; dark brown, base dingy 
tawny white ; each elytron beyond the middle ornamented with 
a distinct oblong, transverse, chalky spot. Body beneath dingy 
tawny; abdomen black in the middle. Legs very stout, black; 
tibia) compressed; hind tibiae ($) dilated from the base, and 
obliquely truncated at the apex; claw-joint red. 

Tapajos. Apparently allied to H. fasciatus of Thomson; but 
no mention is made by this author of any peculiar formation 
in the legs. 

9. Hypselomus simplex, n. sp. 

77. subelongatus, brunneo-fulvus, unicolor ; elytris modice attenuatis, 
humeris conicis ; antennis gracilibus, articulis basi griseis. Long. 
6|-9 lin. 6 $ • 
Rather more elongate than the allied species; but the elytra 

rather convex, and the third antennal joint strongly bent. Head 

of the Amazons Valley. 1G9 

dusky. Antcimrc slender, a little longer than the body in the 
female, much longer in the male ; basal joint strongly clavate ; 
dark brown, bases of the joints, from the fourth, grey. Thorax 
bituberculate on each side the central ridge, dingy tawny brown. 
Elytra elongated, gradually and slightly tapering from base to 
apex ; shoulders conical, base on each obtusely raised, finely 
punctured, colour uniform brownish tawny. Body beneath 
tawny brown ; abdomen black down the middle. Legs simple, 
posterior tibire scarcely dilated in the male; black, thinly clothed 
with tawny pile ; claw-joints black. 


10. Hypselomus lignicolor, n.sp. 

H. subcylindricus, brimneus ; thoracc et pectore vittis lateralibus 
obliquis, elytris sutura vittisque lateralibus abbreviatis curvatis, 
nigris pallide marginatis ; elytris compressis, sparsim punctatis, 
humeris paulo productis baud tuberculatis. Long. b\ lin. $ . 

Head tawny, spotted with dark brown. Antennas as long as 
the body ( ? ), moderately stout, brown, unicolorous. Thorax 
unarmed and free from tubercles, surface smooth, brown ; sides 
each with two oblique, blackish vittre, the upper one margined 
with dull ochreous ; there is also a short dusky central line near 
the middle of the hind margin. Scutellum blackish in the 
middle. Elytra nearly cylindrical, sides compressed, shoulders 
produced each into a slightly elevated ridge not surmounted by 
a tubercle; surface sparingly and finely punctured, brown, su- 
ture and several curved streaks on each side blackish, the lateral 
streaks margined on the upper sides with pallid brown. Body 
beneath brown ; breast with oblique stripes, dull ochreous and 
blackish ; basal half of abdomen dusky. Legs simple, tawny 

Ega. This species is much more elongate and narrow than 
the typical forms of the genus; it consorts, however, much better 
with the Hypselomi than with Hesycha or Oncideres (which com- 
prehend elongated forms), having antenna; approximated on the 
forehead instead of widely separated at their bases. It seems to 
be nearly allied to Hypselomus egens, Erichson (Consp. Col. Peru. 

p. 148). 

11. Hypselomus obscurellus, n. sp. 

H. subelongatus, nigricans, griseo variegatus ; antennis articulo ba- 
sali apice subgloboso ; thorace postice constricto ; elytris elongatu- 
trigonis, humeris conico-elevatis, obtusis. Long, oh lin. <S . 

Head dusky, eyes ample; forehead narrow, coarsely punctured; 
antenniferous tubercles unarmed. Antenna? black, base of joints 
grey, basal joint very abruptly clavate near the apex, subglobose, 
third joint very slightly curved. Thorax cylindrical, constricted 
behind the middle, surface very uneven, coarsely wrinkled trans- 

170 Mr. H. W. Bates on the Longicorn Culeoptera 

versely, dark brown. Elytra moderately elongated, wide at the 
base, and narrowed thence towards the apex ; shoulders conically 
produced, but apex of cone obtuse and not tuberculated ; surface 
very roughly punctured near the base, more finely so towards 
the middle, colour dark brown or blackish, thinly variegated 
with greyish pile. Body beneath tawny brown ; abdomen in the 
middle glossy blackish, and sides spotted with black. Legs 
blackish, varied with tawny ; hind tibiae dilated near the apex ( $ ). 
Obydos, Lower Amazons. Similar in size and general figure 
to H. Syrinx* (Hesycha syrinx, Dj. Cat. and French collections), 
but differing in the shape of the basal joint of antennae and in 
the constricted thorax. 

Genus Jamesia, Jekel. 
Jckel, Journal of Entomology, i. p. 259. 

This genus is distinguished from Hypselomus by the basal 
joint of the antennas being very gradually thickened from the 
base to the apex, not abruptly clavate, and by the third joint 
being quite straight instead of crooked. The claw-joints of the 
tarsi are quite as long as the three remaining joints taken to- 
gether. The species have the same heavy figure and dull colours; 
but the elytra are much more elongated, and less trigonal. The 
genus is distinguished also by the large volume and subquadrate 
form of the eyes. 

There seems to be scarcely sufficient difference to warrant the 
separation of Jamesia from Clytemnestra (Thorns.) f, the larger 
volume of the eyes being the only apparent definite character. 

* Hypselomus Syrinx. Subelongatus, brunneus vel nigricans, elytris 
utrinque vitta obscura obliqua pallidiore. Caput angustum, fronte 
impunctata; tuberis antenniferis intus dente armatis. Antennae cor- 
pore paulo longiores, articulis basi pallidioribus, articulo basali paulo 
incrassato. Thorax basi latus, antice angustatus, linea dorsali elevata. 
Elytra elongata, postice paulo attenuata, subtiliter punctata, brunnea, 
linea curvata mediana obscure fulva ; humeris prominulis, in carinara 
laevem curvatam desinentibus. Corpus subtus fuscum. Pedes fusci, 
unicolores ; tibiis compressis. Long. 4^-5h lin. S ? . Hub. Rio 

t Since the early part of the genus Hypselomus in this memoir was in 
print, I have found that Perty and Serville happen to have described the 
types of two distinct genera under the respective names of Hypsioma and 
Hypselomus. The latter genus is equivalent to Clytemnestra of Thomson, 
which therefore becomes: a synonym. M. Thomson, in his later work, 
' Systema Cerambycidarum,' has adopted this change of nomenclature. 
The following rectification of synonymy is therefore necessary : — 

Gen. 1. Hypselomus, Perty, Delect. An. Art. Bras. 

=zClytemnesfrn, Thomson, Class, des Cerambycides. 

=zJumesia, Jekel, Thomson, Systema Cerambycid. (section). 
Gen. 2. Hypsioma, Serville, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. iv. 

=Hypselomus, Thorns. (Class, des Ceramb.) Bates (ut supra) 
and authors, nee Perty. 

of the Amazons Valley. 171 

1. Jamesia globifera, Fab. 

Lamia globifera, Fabricius, Syst. Eleuth. ii. 284. 15. 

Hypselomus variolosus, Pascoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. n. s. v. pt. 1 (1859). 

J. subelongata, sordide griseo-brunnea ; thorace transverse raguloso 
et acute tuberculato ; elytris prope basin tuberculis globosis nigris 
politis et postice maculis nigris leviter impressis variegatis ; capite 
lateribus parallelis, oculis magnis, subquadratis ; antennis brun- 
neis, maris corpore multo longioribus ; pedibus simplicibus. Long. 
10 lin. 

Not uncommon on dead trees throughout the Amazons region; 
also found at Cayenne. 

2. Jamesia pupillata, Pascoe. 

Hypselomus pupillatus, Pascoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. n. s. v. pt. 1 . 
Jamesia bipunctata, Jekel, Journ. of Eutom. i. 260. 

J. subelongata, parum convexa, olivaceo-brunnea, nigro punctata ; 
elytris medio utrinque ocellatis ; maris capite infra dilatato, corni- 
bus frontalibus magnis acutis porrectis ; antennis quam corpus 
duplo longioribus. Long. 1 1 lin. 3 § . 

Differs from J. globifera chiefly by the more depressed form 
of the elytra, and the absence of basal elevation with globular 
tubercles. It may readily be recognized also by the eye-like 
spot on the disk of each elytron, consisting of a rounded, black, 
slightly impressed spot, surmounted by a white speck. The 
antennae are much more elongated, and the projecting angles of 
the antenniferous tubercles in well-developed males are very 
large and acute, and are directed horizontally. The base of the 
elytron has a few minute granulations with punctures, and the 
rest of the surface is sprinkled with rounded, dark-brown, 
slightly impi'essed spots, as in J. globifera. 

Ega; not uncommon. 

Genus Hesycha (Dj. Cat.), Thomson. 

Thomson, Archiv. Entom. i. 187 (1857). 
Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (1859), p. 523. 

This genus was first characterized, in few words, by M. Thom- 
son in 1857 ; but the description subsequently published by 
M. Fairmaire defined more accurately its points of distinction. 
It agrees with Hypselomus in having the first joint of the an- 
tenna? abruptly clavate, and the third joint curved ; the curva- 
ture, however, is much less pronounced than in Hypselomus, 
and is sometimes very slight. Its other distinguishing charac- 
ters are (1) the elongate, parallelogrammical, and depressed 
form of body, (2) the more elongated claw-joint of the tarsi, 
and (3) the wide separation of the antennae at their origin. 

L72 Mr. 11. \V. Bates on the Longicorn Coleoptera 

1. Hesycha Nyphono'ides, Pascoe. 
Hesycha Nyphono'ides, Pascoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. n.s. v. pt. 1. 
//. parallelogrammica, deprcssa, obscure fusca cinereo-fulva varie- 
gata; elytris medio fascia undulata, obscura, cinereo-fulva. Long. 
6£-8 lin. tf $. 

Head dull brown ; forehead broad, sparingly punctured; an- 
tenniferous tubercles in the male produced on their inner side 
into a stout pointed tooth. Antennae in the nude nearly twice 
the length of the body, with the apical joint greatly elongated; 
in the ten, ah' abou! the length of the body, apical joint shorter 
than the preceding; colour dull brown or blackish. Thorax 
uneven above, sides with a short pointed tubercle; dull brown, 
speckled with black. Elytra slightly narrowed from base to 
apex, shoulders slightly prominent and surmounted by an ob- 
tuse shining; tubercle; surface even, thickly but finely punc- 
tured, dull brown, covered with dingy tawny confluent spots, 
and crossed beyond the middle by a zigzag fascia ol' a little 
paler hue. Body beneath and legs blackish or dull brown. 

Common on branches of dead trees at Ega. There are two 
closely allied species in collections from the interior of Trench 


Hesycha jaspidea, n. sp. II. Nyphonoidei simillima, robustior, maris 
elytris postice inagis angustatis e< froute valde cornuta. Obscure 
fusca; thoracis lateribus utriuque tuberis duobus obtusis armatis. 
Elytra humeris prominent Urns. l>asi rugoso-punctata et insequalia 
fusco-nigra, maculis sordidc fulvis spoi'sis quarum tribus majoribus 
raedianis in fasciam abbreviatam conjunctis. Corpus subtus iiilvo to- 
mentosum. Antennae valde elongatse, articulis basi griseis. Long. 
8 lin. J. llab. In Cayenua interiore (Dom. Bar). 

Hesycha lit ur at a, n. sp. Minor, brunnea, elytris litura tenui obliqua 
albicante. Caput t'useum, fronte punctata, tuberculis antenniferis 
utroque sexu intus acutis. Antenna' brunnese, maris corpora paulo 
longiores. Thorax quadratus, lateribus tuberaulo distincto subacuto, 
supra brunneus vitiis tribus nigris, lateribus cinerascentibus. Elytra 
postice paulo angustata, apice oblique breviter truncata, humeris vix 
productis, obtusis; dorso punctata, brunneo et fulvo variegata, infra 
humeros (cum prothoracis et pectoris lateribus) nigricantia, apud me- 
dium litura tenui valde obliqua albicante, Corpus subtus et pedes 
brunneo tomentosa. Long. 5 t> liu. S $• Had. In Cayenna (Dom. 

The following species belongs also to this genus, from its linear sub- 
depressed form and the somewhat wide separatum of the antennae at their 
bases : — 

Hesycha xyttna, n. sp. Elongata, sordide brunnea ; elytris rugoso-punc- 
tatis, fusco et griseo strigatis, humeris subuncinatis. Caput fuscum, 
fronte grosse sparsim punctata, tuberetihs antenniferis intus denteva- 
lido eurvato armatis( .' '. Antenna- valde elongatte, brunnea-. apice 
pallidas, articulis (a tertio)basi testaceis, articulo li' 111 " acuto, eurvato. 
Thorax supra insequalis, inermis, brunneus. Elytra valde elongata, 

of the Amazons Valley. 173 

2. Hesycha maculosa, n. sp. 

//. elongata, convexiuscula, fusca, maculia numerosissimis partim 
confluentibus fulvis; vcrtice nigro trilineato ; thorace nigro macu- 

lato. Long. 8J, lin. 6 ? . 

Head dusky, front channeled down the middle, punctured ; 
eyes rather elongated, margined on the inner side narrowly with 
lawny; vertex tawny, marked in the middle with three parallel 
black lines; antenniferous tubercles produced into a short acute 
tooth on the inner side, longer in the male than in the female. 
Antennae longer by one half than the body in the male, and the 
terminal joint very slender and much longer than the preceding ; 
ill the female a little longer than the body, with the terminal 
joint shorter than the preceding ; basal joint abruptly clavate, 
third joint scarcely perceptibly curved ; colour blackish. Thorax 
quadrate, surface uneven, with several impressed curved lines 
and raised interspaces, sides behind the middle with an acute 
tubercle; colour tawny, marked with two short black lines in 
front in the middle and a spot behind thcin, and four spots on 
each side of the disk. Scutellum black. Elytra elongate and 
rather convex, slightly tapering; shoulders prominent, and sur- 
mounted by a glossy black tubercle; surface quite even and 
moderately punctured, dark brown, covered uniformly with a 
multitude of tawny specks, mostly confluent. Body beneath 
tawny. Legs blackish. 


3. Hesycha crctacca, n. sp. 

//. oblongo-elongata, subdepressa ; clytris maculis numerosis fulvis 
maculaque magna laterali cretaeco-alba. Long. S lin. 2 . 

Head grey, margins of eyes with tawny lines, front punctured; 
eyes elongated; antenniferous tubercles acute on their inner 
side, vertex with three short black streaks. Antennae a little 
longer than the body, dark brown; basal joint clavate, third 
joint very slightly curved. Thorax quadrate, sides each with 
two large obtuse tubercles, surface with transverse furrows, 
lawny mixed with grey, and spotted with black. Scutellum 
black, margined with grey. Elytra oblong, a little dilated be- 
yond the middle, slightly convex, shoulders moderately promi- 
nent ; with irregular clusters of punctures arranged in lines, 
black, covered with pinkish-tawny spots, partly confluent, and 

parum convexa ; humeris productis, autiee curvatis, postice tuberculo 
nigro armatis, quasi uncinatis; supra ^rossc punctata, puuetis partim 
confluentibus, sordine brunnea, strips pallidis et fuscis variegata. 
Corpus subtus brunneum. Pedes fusci. Long. 4| lin. $. Hub. Kio 
Janeiro, a. D. Squires capta. 

174 Mr. H. W. Bates on the Longicorn Coleoptera 

having in the middle on each side a large chalky-white spot. 
Body beneath dull chalky white;; breasts with pinkish streaks, 
and abdomen spotted with black. Legs black, thinly clothed 
with grey pile. 

Ega; rare. This handsome species, like the preceding (H. 
maculosa), approaches Oncideres in many of its characters, espe- 
cially the elongate eyes, subconvex form of body, and scarcely 
curved third antcnnal joint; but it lacks the massive head, 
cylindrical form of body, and short transverse thorax of Onci- 
deres, and therefore must be classed with Hesycha. 

Genus Trachysomus, Serville. 

Serville, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. iv. (1835). 
(Char, emend.) Buquet, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1852, p. 345. 

This remarkable group is distinguished from the allied genera 
chiefly by the elytra being disfigured by tubercular excrescences, 
and by the antennae being composed of short joints reaching 
only three-fourths the length of the body. The head is mode- 
rately narrow, the eyes oblong (not narrow and elongated as in 
Oncideres), the basal joint of the antennae very abruptly clavate, 
the third joint very slightly curved, the thorax subcylindrical, 
and the claw-joint of the tarsi shorter than the remaining joints 
taken together. The species are found closely clinging to thin 
woody stems of plants, and strongly resemble portions of the 
stems distorted by glandular prominences or galls. 

Trachysomus Santarensis, n. sp. 

T. Trachysomo fragifero (Kirbii) valde similis, differt colore ochra- 
ceo- vel rufo-fulvo ; thorace supra ochraceo ; elytris juxta scutel- 
lum utrinque spinis quatuor acutis, fasciculis singulis pilorum 
subapicalibus nigris linea curvata nigra communi connexis. 
Long. 7} lin. 

This is so closely similar in form of body and tubercular 
excrescences to the South-Brazilian T. fragifer, that it can 
scarcely be considered more than a local form of the same stock. 
It is a little broader and more robust, the thorax is less uneven 
on the disk, and is there of a bright yellowish-tawny colour. 
The two tubercles on each elytron, near the scutcllum, are longer 
and more acute. The elytra are of a nearly uniform reddish or 
orange-brown hue; the subapical fascicle of hairs is a little 
further removed from the apex and margin of the elytra; it is 
connected with the corresponding fascicle posteriorly by a curved 
black line, and a large portion of the disk behind each basal 
excrescence is quite smooth. 

Dry woods near Santarem. 

of the Amazons Valley. 175 

Genus Oncideres, Serville. 
Scrville, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (1835) iv. 

The chief characters of this, the typical genus of the group, 
are furnished by the elongate-oblong or cylindrical form of body; 
the broad head and convex occiput, with consequent wide sepa- 
ration of the antenna? at their bases ; the elongated eyes ; the 
clavate shape of the basal antennal joint, and straight form of 
the third joint ; the short transverse thorax ; and, lastly, the' 
great length of the claw-joint of the tarsi, which exceeds that of 
the three remaining joints taken together. 

The species are all found on the branches of trees, which they 
amputate from the living tree by gnawing deeply into the bark 
and wood, making a ring-like incision, until the bough breaks 
off by its own weight. I have often seen boughs thus severed 
from green and living Caju trees, and hence discovered that the 
best means of finding the insects was by examining the ampu- 
tated portions lying on the ground in woods or the thinner parts 
of the forest. The object of the severance is apparently to 
create a supply of dead wood in which to deposit their eggs and 
rear the larvae. 

1. Oncideres Callidryas, n. sp. 

O. minus convexus ; thorace griseo-tomentoso ; elytris basi minute 
granulatis, medio confertim punctatis, nigris, guttis numerosis- 
simis carneo-griseis. Long. 10| lin. S $ • 

Head much narrower than the middle part of the thorax, 
clothed with pinkish-tawny pile; forehead plane, punctured; 
antenniferous tubercles ( $ ) on each side armed with longish 
acute teeth directed forwards ; eyes oblong. Antennse about the 
same length as the body in the female, twice the length in the 
male, black. Thorax with transverse depressions, sides each 
armed with a strong conical tubercle, clothed with hoary- grey 
pile. Scutellum and basal margin of elytra hoary grey. Elytra 
less cylindrical and convex than in the more typical species; 
shoulders prominent and surmounted by a retrocurved tubercle, 
base and shoulders thickly and finely granulated, middle part 
simply but thickly punctured, punctures becoming finer poste- 
riorly, and disappearing before the apex ; colour black, sprinkled 
throughout with small grey or pinkish-grey spots, some very 
minute, others larger ; near the middle of each side the spots 
are whiter, and tend to aggregation. Body beneath hoary 
white. Legs black, thinly clothed with grey pile. 

Para, banks of the Tapajos, and Ega; one pair taken in co- 
pula on a branch of a felled tree at Para. The elytra are much 
more thickly spotted in the Ega examples than in those from 
Para and the Lower Amazons. 

17 C> Mr. H. W. Bates on the Longicorn Coleoptera 

2. Oncideres Satyrus, n. sp. 

O. cylindricuSj fulvo-bninneus ; elytris guttis alhis paucis sparsis, 
basi tuberculis nigris ; antennis validis ; thorace basi valde con- 
stricto. Long. 10-12 lin. S 2 • 

Head in the $ much narrower than the thorax, in the $ as 
wide as the widest part of the thorax, with broad plane front, 
colour tawny brown, a black stripe below each eye. Antennae 
about the length of the body in the female, a little longer in the 
male, with the apical joint twice the length of the preceding; 
they are robust in both sexes, but the four basal joints are 
thicker in the <$ than in the $ ; colour black. Thorax with 
transverse depressions; a conical tubercle on each side, and 
much constricted behind the tubercle; brownish tawny, with a 
fine, black, central, transverse line. Elytra cylindrical, brownish 
tawny, sprinkled with a small number of minute white spots; 
base and shoulders with a few polished rounded tubercles ; rest 
of surface impunctate, smooth. Body beneath and legs thickly 
clothed with tawny pile ; sides of breast chalky white. 

Para. Closely allied to O. vomicosus, Germar (Ins. Nov. 482), 
but differing greatly in the maculation of the elytra, the spots 
being small, few in number, and all distinct from each other. 

3. Oncideres f ulcus, n. sp. 

O. oblongo-subcylindricus ; thorace postice baud constricto, guttis 
nigris quinque discoidalibus in linca transversa dispositis, tuber- 
culo parvo laterali ; elytris modice elongatis, valde convexis, lscvi- 
bus, guttis parvis albis sparsis, prope basin tuberculis utrinque 
circa duodecim nigris. Long. 1 1 lin. 5 . 

Closely resembles 0. Satyrus ; but the body is proportionately 
shorter and broader in the female than in the corresponding sex 
of that species ; the thorax is shorter, and shows no constriction 
near the base; the elytra are uniformly convex and impunctate, 
and there are very few tubercles near the base, only two con- 
spicuous ones on each side of the scutellum, and a small number 
under each shoulder. The colour is entirely ochreous tawny, 
with the exception of five small spots placed in a transverse row 
across the thorax, the black elytral tubercles and a small number 
of widely separated, but tolerably uniformly distributed, white 
specks over the elytra. The antenna? are somewhat darker, and 
and there is a very distinct oblong chalky spot on each side of 
the breast. 


4. Oncideres Diana, Olivier. 

Lamia Diana, Oliv. Ent. 6". p. 107. f. 168. 

O. subcylindricus, griscus ; elytris quarta parte basali dense ac mi- 

of the Amazons Valley. 177 

nute tubereulata, parte apicali lincis tenuissimis furcatis nigris, 
medio guttis sparsis nigris ; thorace linea transversa nigra : foe- 
minee capite lato fulvescente ; maris capite angusto, fusco, inermi. 
Long. 8-11 lin. <$ $. 

This species is distinguished by the basal portion of the elytra 
being thickly covered with small glossy-black tubercles, of which 
one at the hinder part of the humeral prominence is much 
larger than the rest. The tuberculated area ceases abruptly 
behind, and the disk of the elytra has only a very few scattered 
and slightly elevated black specks, which towards the apex sub- 
side into simple spots, not raised at all from the smooth surface. 
The general colour is pale ashy grey (white beneath); the apical 
part of the elytra has a few fine black lines in the form of a 
double or treble fork joined at the base. The male differs 
greatly in width of head from the female, but the antennas 
scarcely differ in proportionate length or stoutness ; they are, 
however, more nearly approximated at their bases by one-half 
in the male than in the female, which gives to a male insect an 
appearance quite foreign to the genus. The male specimen be- 
fore me has a finely reticulated black patch across each elytron 
at the tips of the forked lines, of which there is only a trace in 
one of the female examples. 

Para, and at Santarem on the Tapajos. 

5. Oncideres crassicornis, n. sp. 

O. subcylindricus, postice utroque sexu attenuatus, fulvo-brunneus ; 
elytris basi tuberculis diversis sparsis instructis, postice punctis 
impressis rufescenti-brunneis in lineis furcatis ordinatis ; maris 
antennis basi valde incrassatis, capite bicornuto. Long. 9-10 
lin. 6 2 • 

Head not much wider in the female than in the male, brownish 
tawny, with the usual black stripe below each eye ; antenniferous 
tubercles in the male dentiform on each side. Antenna? dark 
brown, simple in the female, one-half longer than the body in 
the male, with the basal and third joints much thickened, espe- 
cially the latter. Thorax impressed transversely, and furnished 
on each side with a tubercle ; colour brownish tawny. Elytra 
narrowed to the tip in both sexes, tawny brown, inclining to- 
wards ashy near the middle ; the basal part raised in the middle, 
and studded with a moderate number of scattered tubercles, dif- 
fering greatly in size, and all glossy black; from the middle to 
the apex there is a number of shallow punctures covered each 
with a reddish-brown spot and arranged in forked lines. Body 
beneath and legs clothed with tawny-brown tomentum. 
Ega, and banks of the Tapajos. 

Ann. cy Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. xvi. 13 

178 Mr. H. W. Bates on the Longicorn Coleoptera 

6. Oncideres dignus, n. sp. 

O. cylindricus, fuscus ; thorace tuberculis quinque in linea trans- 
versa ordinatis ; elytris prope basin tuberculis magnis globosis 
utrinque sex nigris, postice guttis numerosis albis. Long. 1 lin. <$ . 

Head ( £ ) moderately narrow ; forehead very narrow, being 
encroached upon by the voluminous eyes, which are oblong and 
reach very nearly to the extremity of the muzzle ; antenniferous 
tubercles unarmed; colour dark brown. Antenna? nearly twice 
the length of the body, black, basal joint gradually thickened 
from base to apex, rest of the antennse tapering to the tip. 
Thorax longer and narrower than in the typical species of Onci- 
deres ; lateral tubercles small, obtuse, and black ; in a line with 
them is a row of five similar glossy-black tubercles lying across 
the middle of the thorax; colour dark brown. Elytra cylin- 
drical, clear dark brown, impunctate ; middle of base with six 
very prominent glossy-black tubercles, arranged in two rows ; 
besides these, there are ten or twelve smaller tubercles on each 
side, three of which are on the shoulder : the rest of the elytra 
smooth, and ornamented with a number of small clear white 
spots, distributed regularly and widely apart over the surface. 
Body beneath and legs dark brown. 

This handsome species was very rare, at Ega, Upper Amazons. 

7. Oncideres pulchellus, n. sp. 

O. minor, cylindricus, griseo-brunneus ; elytris cinereo maculatis, 
dimidio basali tuberculis rotundatis, dimidio apicali maculis im- 
pressis, nigro-nitidis. Long. 6i lin. $ . 

Head and thorax of same breadth ; head ashy brown, with a 
streak down each side of the front tawny; buccal organs and 
circuit of the mouth red. Antennas a little longer than the 
body, dark brown. Thorax ashy brown, with three shining- 
black tubercles in a triangle on the disk, and two smaller ones 
on each side, the outermost of which is in the position of the 
ordinary lateral tubercle. Elytra cylindrical, obtuse behind, 
ashy brown, varied with a small number of equal-sized and equi- 
distant pale ashy spots, and with a number of scattered shining 
round spots, those over the basal half covering large rounded 
tubercles of small elevation, and those towards the apex shallow 
impressions; the tubercles are not crowded near the base or 
shoulders, but are widely dispersed. Body beneath and legs 
light brown ; sides of breast with an ashy patch. 

Ega; rare. 

8. Oncideres Cephalotes, n. sp. 

O. magnus, robustus, convexus, postice attenuatus, cinereo-brunneus; 
elytris prope basin dense, pone basin sparsim tuberculatis, tuber- 

of the Amazons Valley. 179 

culis ovatis, obliquis et postice elevatis ; thoracis tuberculis latera- 
libus elongatis, fronte magna, latissima, nuda, punctulata. Long. 
15 lin., lat. capitis 4^ lin. $. 

Head brown ; front naked, coriaceous, punctured, black ; eyes 
moderate, reaching little more than halfway down the forehead; 
vertex very convex. Antennas rather shorter than the body ( $ ), 
tapering to the apex, basal joint curved ; colour brown. Thorax 
twice as broad as long, a little narrowed behind the lateral tu- 
bercles, which are long and spiniform ; surface dull ashy brown, 
with a central transverse black line. Elytra massive, narrowed 
to the apex, convex, especially in the middle of the basal part on 
each side ; shoulders prominent and oblique, with a conspicuous 
tubercle at their hinder angles ; colour ashy brown, paler near 
the middle, and covered with small, oblong, raised, scale-like 
tubercles, which are very crowded and strongly elevated at their 
posterior ends near the base, much scattered and very slightly 
elevated near the middle, and arranged in rows, simply as spots, 
near the apex. Body beneath ashy white; legs ashy brown. 


Genus Eudesmus, Serville. 

Serville, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. iv. (1835) p. 82. 

This well-marked genus resembles Oncideres in its cylindrical 

form of body. Its distinguishing character is derived from the 

bulbous ovate shape of the third antennal joint in the male. 

* The following new species have lately been received from entomological 
travellers in South America : — 

Oncideres limpidus. Cylindrieus, fusco-nitidus ; elytris fulvo-ochraceo 
irroratis. Caput ( $ ) modice angustatum, fronte punctata, ochracea, 
vitta infraoculari nigra; tuberculis antenniferis intus prominulis, 
acutis. Antennae corpore longiores, nigra; nitidse; articulo basali 
distincte clavato, articulis tertio et quarto infra dense ciliatis. Thorax 
postice angustatus, tuberculis lateralibus modice productis, nigris ; 
supra ochraeeo-brunneus, linea nigra transversa, ante medium fascia 
rufo-fulva. Elytra cylindrica, fusco-nitida maculis numerosissimis 
discretis tomentosis ochraceo-fulvis ; juxta basin tuberculis globosis 
paucis ; deinde leviter granulata, humeris confertim tuberculatis. 
Corpus subtus fulvo-tomentosum. Pedes nigricantes, femoribus 
fulvo tomentosis. Long. 10 lin. $ . Hab. in Bahia Brasilia), a Dom. 
Reed lecto. 

Oncideres Bouchardii. Cylindrieus, cano-griseus ; elytris nigro punc- 
tatis et maculis majoribus rotundatis fulvis sparsis. Caput latum, 
griseum, maris paulo angustius, tuberculis antenniferis intus vix pro- 
minulis. Antennae grise;e ; articulo basali gradatim incrassato, nigro, 
maris valde rugoso. Thorax griseus, linea transversa nigra. Elytra 
convexa, vage punctata, cano-grisea, maculis rotundatis carneo-fulvis 
conspersa, punctis nigris; prope basin tuberculis numerosis globosis. 
Corpus subtus pedesque cano tomentosa. Long. 10-11 lin. $ %, 
Flab, in Sta. Martha Nova; Granatse, a Dom. Bouchard copiose missus. 


ISO Mr. II. W. Bates on the Lonr/icorn Coleoptcra 

The females of some of the species resemble Oncideres very 
closely; and almost the only feature by which their generic 
position may be recognized is the peculiar dark patch, streaked 
with paler colours, which exists on the apical part of the elytra 
of all the species. The head is broad, very little broader in the 
females than in the males ; but the forehead is not so plane or 
so much elongated as in Oncideres. The basal joint of the an- 
tenna? forms a smooth ovate club ; the thorax is relatively a little 
longer than in Oncideres ; the elytra are free from ridges and 
tubercles, and are obtusely rounded at the apex; the claw-joint 
of the tarsi is moderately elongated, and is about equal in length 
to the remaining three. 

1. Eudesmus rubef act us, n. sp. 

E. cylindricus, convexus, rufescens ; thorace nigro-lineato ; elytris 
dimidio basali grisescente, apice utrinque macula magna ovata 
saturatiore strigis nigris et griseis ornata. Long. 7g-9 lin. S ? . 

Head reddish tawny, vertex streaked with black ; front plane, 
coarsely punctured, dingy grey ; eyes oblong, one-half the length 
of the front ; antenniferous tubercles in the male acute on their 
inner sides. Antenna? about the length of the body, reddish 
tawny; apices of joints, from the fourth, blackish. Thorax 
cylindrical, of same width as the head, very uneven, especially 
on the sides, where the inequalities rise to broad, obtuse tuber- 
cles ; colour pinkish red, centre with two black lines continuous 
with those on the vertex, sides each with two or three much- 
broken and oblique lines. Scutellum and basal margin of ely- 
tra reddish, spotted with black. Elytra cylindrical, convex, 
abruptly declivous near the apex ; surface uneven, with faintly 
raised lines, thickly punctured, especially towards the base, 
basal half occupied by a large, triangular, common, dingy-grey 
patch; on this follows a belt of pale greyish red, which broadens 
greatly on the lateral margins; the apical portion of each elytron 
is occupied by a dark, neatly limited, oval patch, streaked longi- 
tudinally with black, tawny red, and grey. Body beneath and 
legs reddish brown ; breast ashy in the middle. 

Ega, clinging to dead boughs of trees ; rare. 

2. Eudesmus caudalis, n. sp. 

E. cylindricus, depressinsculus, cinereo-brunnens ; thorace postice 
fusco notato ; elytris dimidio basali griseo-fusco, apice utrinque 
macula magna ovata nigricante fulvo strigata, medio cinereo las- 
ciata. Long. 5^—6 lin. J § . 

Very closely allied to E. rubef actus, and scarcely differing in 
the disposition of the colours and markings of the elytra. The 
latter, however, are much more depressed; and the insect is of a 

of the Amazons Valley. 181 

dull ashy-brown hue, and much narrower and smaller. The 
forehead is uneven, punctured, and of a dull slaty hue; the 
third antennal joint in the male is much less swollen than in 
E. rubefactus, and therefore more elongate, and fusiform rather 
than ovate in shape. The thorax is uneven and obtusely tuber- 
culated on the sides, but is destitute of longitudinal lines, except 
two very short ones near the base. The elytra arc of the same 
grey leaden hue over their basal halves, and have a pale belt 
beyond the middle ; but the latter does not expand on the mar- 
gin. The dark apical streaked spot has an ashy transverse 
streak across the middle. 
Also found at Ega. 

3. Eudesmus posticalis, Guerin. 
Eudesmns posticalis, Guerin-Meneville, Icon. Regne Animal, p. 24S. 
E. cylindricus, subdepressus, brunneus ; tborace dorso valde in- 
sequali immaculate, tuberculis lateralibus parvis ; elytris medio 
fascia obliqua gvisea, deinde brunneis griseo et griseo-brunneo 
strigatis, ante apicem signatura nigra griseo marginata ; antennis 
brunneis, articulis (dnobus basalibus exceptis) basi testaceis ; 
maris articulo tertio valde inflato, ovato. Long. 6-i- lin. <$ . 

"D'un gris-brunatre couvert d'un duvet tres-court et tres-fm 
d'une couleur cendree, surtout en dessous, sur les cotes du 
corselet et au milieu des elytres, oil ce cendre blanchatre forme 
une bande crochue en arriere, termiuee en pointe pres dc la 
suture et precedant une tache arrondie d'un brun plus fonce, 
en arriere de laquelle on voit une petite tache allongee blanche 
et deux ou trois petites lignes noiratres. Antennes d'un gris 
brun, avec la base du troisieme article et des suivants d'un jaune 
roussatre pale, une petite pointe avancee a la saillie du front sur 
laquelle s'inserent les antennes. Pattes courtes et fortes, d'un 
gris brun dessus, cendrecs en dessous. Long. 14, lat. 5 mill. — 
Bresil interieur." (Guerin-Meneville, /. c.) 

My example was found at Ega. 

4. Eudesmns sexvittatus, n. sp. 

E. elongatus, depressus, fulvo-brunneus ; tborace supra vittis sex 
nigris ; elytris ultra medium dilatatis, plaga laterali infra humeros, 
linea basali strigisque ante apicem fuscis, vitta curvata laterali 
cinerea; fronte abbreviata, oculis magnis subconvexis. Long. 
61 lin. 2- 

Head slightly convex on the forehead, with short muzzle; 
eyes very large, broad, and somewhat convex, reaching very 
nearly to the edge of the epistome ; vertex bright tawny, and 
marked with a semicircular figure of a blackish-brown hue. 
Antennae rather longer than the body ( ? ) and stout, ochreous 

182 Mr. P. M. Duncan on some Fossil Corals 

brown, base of joints (from the fourth) pallid. Thorax convex, 
but depressed near the hind margin ; lateral tubercle small, 
conical ; colour above bright tawny, with six blackish-brown 
vittae; sides ashy, with a broader and paler dusky stripe. Scu- 
tellum pale tawny ochreous. Elytra dilated a little behind the 
middle, depressed, and thickly punctured (except towards the 
apex), rusty tawny, with a few short ashy streaks and a number 
of dark-brown strigse a little behind the middle, the innermost 
of which runs near the suture to the apex : the basal half of the 
suture is broadly margined with dusky, and there is a short 
blackish stripe on each side near the scutellum, and a broad 
patch of similar hue beneath each shoulder, on the upper edge 
of which is an ashy streak, which continues in a curved line to 
the lateral margin, and then to the apex. Body beneath ashy ; 
sides of breast and abdomen dark brown. Legs reddish ; femora 
and tibiae each with a blackish ring round the middle. 

I met with the female only of this remarkable species, which 
differs so much from the other Eudesrni in the shortness of the 
muzzle. If the male, when discovered, should be found not to 
possess the swollen third antennal joint, the species will have to 
be removed from this genus. It was found at Ega. 

[To be continued.] 

XXIII. — A Description of some Fossil Corals from the South 
Australian Tertiaries. By P. Martin Duncan, M.B. Lond., 
Sec. Geol. Soc. 

[Plate VIII.] 

The corals about to be described were derived from the same 
Tertiary beds which yielded the species noticed in the 'Annals' 
for Sept. 1864*. A new genus is represented by three well- 
marked species; the well-known genus Sphenotrochusf has two 
species in the collection; and the genus Antillia J, which attains 
so great a development in the Nivaje shale of San Domingo, is 
represented by a very interesting new species. 

List of Species. 

1. Sphenotrochus australis, Woods & Duncan, sp. nov. 
2. emarciatus, sp. nov. 

* The Rev. J. Woods, who collected those formerly described, classes 
the various beds of Muddy Creek, Geelong, and the Murray beds as the 
" Hamilton " Tertiaries. I have to thank him for the specimens now 
determined and for others which require some further study before their 

f Edwards and Haime, Hist. Nat. des Coralliaires, vol. ii. p. 65. 

% P. Martin Duncan, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Feb. 1864, p. 28. 

from the South Australian Tertiaries. 183 

3. Conosmilia elegans, gen. et sp. nov. 

4. anomala, gen. et sp. nov. 

5. striata, gen. et sp. nov. 

6. Antillia lens, sp. nov. 

1. Sphenotrochus australis*, n. sp. PI. VIII. fig. 1 a, b, c, d. 

The coral is very compressed, especially inferiorly, where on 
either side of the centre of the base a process passes downwards, 
giving a " fish-tail " appearance. At the calice the compression 
is less; but the great axis is at least twice the length of the 
smaller. The coral is longer than its breadth. The costse are 
broad, somewhat wavy, and are separated by well-marked lines : 
those of the inferior appendages arise from the extremities of 
the processes, and pass upwards and inwards ; and the lateral 
costse, wavy below, become straight above. All are plain. The 
wall is much thicker at the ends of the long axis than elsewhere 
(in sections). The calice is not shallow, is elliptical, and pre- 
sents, deeply seated, a long lamellar columella, which is joined 
to the primary and secondary septa by processes. The septa 
are well developed and plain ; they are not exsert, but pass 
straight downwards and inwards towards the columella; they do 
not correspond with the costse, but with the intervals between 
the costse, and they number thirty-two. There are three cycles, 
with the orders of a fourth, in two systems. 

Height ^ inch, breadth ^ inch; small diameter, halfway, 
~q inch. 

Hamilton, Victoria, South Australia. Coll. Geol. Soc. 

2. Sphenotrochus emarciatus, n. sp. PL' VIII. fig. 2 a, b, c, d. 

The coral is generally much compressed, especially inferiorly, 
where two lateral processes give a notched or emarciate appear- 
ance to the base. Superiorly the relation of the long to the 
short axis is at least 2 to 1. The coral is short and broad; the 
base is nearly as wide as the calice is long. The costse are large 
and plain, and are separated by well-marked lines : the costse of 
the appendices are the largest ; they pass upwards to the calice, 
and all are more or less wavy, the central widening out near the 
calicular margin. The calice is shallow and elliptical. The 
columella is not long, and, from being joined to the primary 
and secondary septa by processes which are rounded above, is 
confused in its appearance. The septa are in six systems of 
three cycles; they are wider at the wall than elsewhere, are 
granular, and those of the third cycle are much smaller than 

* Mr. Woods gave the name ; but I have not had the opportunity of 
seeing his MS. 

184 Mr. P. M. Duncan on some Fossil Corals 

the others. All the septa correspond to the depressions between 
the costae. 

Height £ inch, breadth T 2 n inch. 

Hamilton, Victoria, South Australia. Coll. Geol. Soc. 

Conosmilia, nov. gen. 

Coral simple, pedicellate, conical. Columella formed of one 
or more twisted laminae, which extend from the base upwards. 
Endotheca scantily developed. Septa apparently with simple 
margins, and variable in regard to the number of the primary. 

3. Conosmilia clegans, ri. sp. PI. VIII. fig. 3 a, b, c. 

The pedicel is large. The costae, equal, sharp, and prominent 
at the base, become broad, flat, and granular above, where they 
are separated by very faint lines. The columella is formed by 
one twisted lamella, and occupies much space. The septa are 
in eight systems of three cycles. There are eight primary septa 
which reach the columella ; the secondary are smaller and reach 
midway; and the tertiary are very small. The septa arc nearly 
plain, are as thick at the columella as at the calicular margin, 
and appear to arise between the costae. The calice is nearly 

Height -fV inch ; breadth of calice -^ inch. 

Geelong, Victoria, South Australia. Coll. Geol. Soc. 

4. Conosmilia anomala, n. sp. Tl. VIII. fig. 4 a— e. 

The coral is tall in relation to its small pedicellate base. The 
costae arc not prominent, but are traced by the faint lines which 
separate them, and by the fine herring-bone pattern which marks 
each of them. The columella is large, strong, and consists of 
two twisted riband-shaped laminae. The septa are in eight sys- 
tems of three cycles; the laminae are sparely granular, and the 
primary are attached to the columella by processes. The se- 
condary are smaller than the primary, and their inner edge is 
wavy; the tertiary septa are small. The septa arise between 
the costae. The endotheca is sparely developed. The wall is 
very thin. The calice is slightly elliptical. 

Height -j^j- inch, greatest breadth ^\, inch. 

Hamilton, Victoria, South Australia. Coll. Geol. Soc. 

5. Conosmilia striata, n. sp. PI. VIII. fig. 5 a-c. 

The coral has a very narrow base, and does not expand gra- 
dually. The costa 1 are very broad, have marked lines between 
them, are xtvy flat, and have wavy transverse markings like 
those of a pellicular epitheca. Septa in six systems of three 
cycles; the primary, which are granular, reach the columella, 

from the South Australian Tertiaries. 185 

which appears to be formed by one twisted process. The septa 
arise between the costse. The calice is more or less elliptical. 

Height -pr, inch, greatest breadth T V inch. 

Geelong, Victoria, South Australia. Coll. Geol. Soc. 

6. AntiUia lens, n. sp. PL VIII. fig. Q>a-e. 

Coral in the shape of a cyclolite Fungia. The base is circular 
in outline, nearly fiat, the concavity being very slight. The 
epitheca is pellicular and faint. The costse are seen as radiating 
flat elevations, those corresponding with the smallest septa 
being the smallest. The margin of the base presents slightly 
exsert, equal processes, which are the septa. The upper surface 
of the coral is convex and nearly hemispherical, the depression 
for a small essential columella, formed by processes from the 
base and septal ends, being slight. The septa are in six systems 
of four cycles ; the primary and secondary septa are equal, 
and the tertiary are nearly as large ; those of the fourth and 
fifth orders are somewhat less : all are very convex superiorly, 
and less so and nearly straight externally. The lamina? are 
thin, and are very strongly marked by sharp ridges, which, 
radiating from the basal part of each septum, are more or less 
parallel, and give at the free margin a laterally dentate appear- 
ance. The appearance is less in the smaller septa. There is 
often a paliform process on the larger septa near the columella ; 
and the terminations of the ridges give the dentate character to 
the free margin of the septa. The endotheca is scanty, stout, 
and inclined. 

Breadth -^ inch, height -,--„- inch. 

Hamilton, Victoria, South Australia. Coll. Geol. Soc. 

Remarks on the new Genus and Species. 

There is much that is very interesting in these Australian 
forms ; they are so novel to those who are acquainted with the 
coral-fauna of the past in Europe and America, and moreover 
they present structural peculiarities which remove some broad 
lines of demarcation between some of the principal families in 
our classification. 

The new genus Conosmilia possesses the twisted riband-shaped 
columella of the subfamily Caryophyllacere, the endotheca and 
septal margin of the Trochosmiliacese, and the irregular septal 
arrangement which was so common in the corals of the Oolitic 
age, and which, from its octomeral type, reflected the rugosa of 
palaeozoic times. 

A simple conical coral with a twisted " st'rialaire " columella, 
an endotheca, and an octomeral arrangement of its septal sys- 

186 Mr. P. M. Duncan on some Fossil Corals. 

terns, is as abnormal as the Echidna hystrix, as far as European 
classifications are concerned. The new genus must be placed in 
the neighbourhood of Axosmilia ; and it connects the families 
of the Turbinolides and the Astraeides. 

The connexion between the septal and costal arrangements in 
the species of the genus is very remarkable. The bases of the 
septa and of the costae are not continuous, but the septa appear 
to correspond with the line of depression between the costae. 
This is common in species of other genera in Australia, but is 
very rare indeed in any specimens from any other part of the 
world. It was noticed in the c Annals' of September 1864 in 
Flabellum Victoria, nobis, and the arrangement is seen in the 
two species of Sphenotrochus described in this communication. 
It gives a sort of Australian stamp to the corals. The costae 
are much broader than the septa ; and it will be observed that 
in Sphenotrochus emarciatus the line of depression between the 
costae is continuous with the line which separates the two laminae 
of which the septa are composed. The costae to the left and 
right of the depressed line give each a root to the septum. The 
species of the new genus are readily distinguished. 

The Sphenotrochi are at first sight not unlike well-known 
European older Pliocene and recent forms; but the emarciate 
base and appendages, with the direction of the plain costae, and 
the septal arrangements, distinguish the Australian species, and 
prevent their being confounded with the genus Platytrochus. 

The cyclolitoid Antillia is a most interesting species. The 
genus superseded Montlivaltia during the Miocene (it is a 
Montlivaltia with a well-formed columella); and it would appear 
that all the various forms of the elder genus are represented in 
the more modern. The tall cylindro-turbinate, the shorter, the 
forms with oval, elliptical, or circular calices, those with large 
bases and short or tall sides, and those with many or but few 
septa, amongst the Montlivaltice, are represented in the Miocene 
of San Domingo, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, and Sinde by Antillice of 
corresponding shape. In the Hamilton Tertiaries the interesting 
cyclolitoid Montlivaltice of the Oolites have a representative in 
the Antillia lens. 


Fig. I. Sphenotrochus australis: a, lower half, natural size; b, part of 

calice and columella, magnified 4 diams.; c, transverse section, 

magn. 4 diams. ; d, costae, magn. 2 diams. 
Fig. 2. Sphenotrochus emarciatus : a, nat.size; b, side view, magn. 4 diams.; 

c, calice, magn. 6 diams.; d, continuation of septa and intercostal 

lines, magn. <> diams. 
Fig. 3. Conosmi/ia elegans : a, nat. size; b, side view, magn. 3 diams,; 

c, calice, magn. (> diams, 

Prof. F. M'Coy on the Australian Species of Arripis. 187 

Fiy. 4. Conosmilia anomala: a, nat. size; b, columella, magn. 4 diams.; 
c, costa;, magnified 4 diams.; d, transverse section, magn. 4 diams. 
(one system is closed below by endotbeca) ; e, septum with endo- 
theca, magn. 4 diams. 

Fiy. 5. Conosmilia striata : a, nat. size; b, costse, magn. 6 diams. ; c, trans- 
verse section, magn. b' diams. 

Fiy. 6. Antillia lens: a, nat. size, view from above and side; b, base, 
nat. size; c, side view (part of), magn. 4 diams.; d, base (part 
of), magn. 4 diams. ; e, septum, magn. 4 diams. 

XXIV. — Notes on the Australian Species of Arripis. By Frede- 
rick M'Coy, Professor of Natural Science in the University 
of Melbourne, and Director of the National Museum at Mel- 

I find that nearly all the scales of the Victorian fishes of the 
genus Arripis have a more or less distinct fan -like structure of 
the base, from the supposed absence of which the genus was 
originally named. 

Having dissected a great number, I am sure there must be 
some mistake (probably a clerical error) in Dr. Giinther's state- 
ment that the pyloric appendages are from seventeen to fifty in 
number, as I find them always about one hundred and sixty. 

The Australian species to be found in books are Centropristes 
Georgianus (Cuv.), C. salar (Richardson), C. Tasmanicus 
(Homb.), C. truttaceus (Cuv.), Perca trutta (Cuv.), and probably 
Perca marginata (Cuv.). I have perfectly satisfied myself, from 
a laborious examination of a great number of fresh specimens, 
at different seasons and of all ages, that the whole of these six 
supposed species should be reduced to one, and that the more 
important characters relied upon by Cuvier, Richardson, and 
Gunther are the peculiarities only of different ages of the fish. 

The adult form is the Centropristes {Arripis) Georgianus (Cuv.) 
and the C. Tasmanicus (Homb.). It reaches nearly 2 feet in 
length ; and, although abundant in the market, it is eaten with 
great hesitation, owing to the many cases (sometimes fatal) 
reported of poisonous effects produced on certain persons eating 
it, although others at the same table suffered comparatively 
little. It is the fish improperly called " Salmon" by the colo- 
nists. It is of a nearly uniform pale olive-colour. Probably 
from having counted the fin-rays of so large a number of speci- 
mens, I am able to announce an extraordinary variation in this 
character : thus the pectorals vary from 14 to 16, the soft anals 
from 9 to 11, soft dorsals from 16 to 19. 

The young, up to about 10 or 11 inches in length, are com- 
monly supposed by the colonists to be a different fish, which 
they call "Salmon-trout" in the markets; and they are the 

188 Prof. F. M'Coy on the Australian Species of Arripis. 

Centropristes or Arripis salar of Richardson and Gunther's 
works. They have the belly silvery, back olive, sides rich green 
with vertical darker bands, and four or five longitudinal rows of 
round yellow spots, like lacquered brass, on the sides. This 
style of colouring, so different from that of the adult, is most 
strongly marked in the young of three or four inches in length; 
and 1 have traced in the most gradual and satisfactory way its 
gradual confusion and obliteration as the size approaches 1 
foot, beyond which only traces can be seen of any difference 
from the nearly uniform dull colouring of the adult. The su- 
perior size of the eye, the difference of proportional distance 
between the orbits, and the shape of the forehead, relied upon 
by authors amongst the characters separating the C. Georgianus 
from the others, are more and more exaggerated as the size and 
age of the individuals are less and less. 

In small, very young individuals the posterior edge of the 
prfeoperculum is not denticulated ; and this is the great charac- 
ter relied on by Cuvier and Giinther for the specific distinction 
of the C. truttaceus in their works (the fin-rays of the adult 
varying to the amount I have shown above) ; but I have clearly 
demonstrated the gradual appearance and development of the 
serration with increase of size; so that this is certainly (as might 
even be seen by observing the relative lengths of the radiating 
ridges forming the denticles going to the posterior and inferior 
edges of the prseoperculum respectively in an old fish) only a 
character of immaturity. 

Living specimens of the young fish three or four inches long 
have the caudal fin bright yellow, with a broad posterior margin 
of rich black ; both these colours fade quickly, and totally dis- 
appear in spirit or on a dried skin. Now as this particular 
colouring, noted by Cuvier on a drawing from life of a fish of 
which he had never seen a specimen, was the foundation of the 
species Perca marginata in his ' Histoire Naturelle des Poissons/ 
and all the other characters are those found likewise in the 
young of Arripis Georgianus, I have no doubt, from my observa- 
tion of these fugitive colours in the living fish, that Perca 
marginata should be added to the synonyms of the one Australian 
species of Arripis found here — the A. Georgianus. I mean to 
publish figures from the life, shortly, in the ' Decades of the 
Prodromus of the Zoology and Palaeontology of Victoria/ which 
I am preparing as part of the " Memoirs of the Melbourne 
Museum," the establishment of which occupies all my leisure so 

Melbourne, June 24, 1865. 

Mr. G. S. Brady on undescribed Fossil Enlomostraca. 189 

XXV. — On undescribed Fossil Entomostraca from the Brick- 
earth of the Nar. By George Stewardson Brady. 

[Plate IX.] 

For the opportunity of describing the following species of Ostra- 
coda I am indebted to the kindness of Professor T. Rupert Jones, 
from whom I received the specimens. An account of the deposit 
in which they occurred was given in the ' Geological Magazine/ 
vol. ii. p. 8, to which the reader is referred. The carapaces were 
very few in number, and belonged to the four species here 


Fam. Cypridae. 

Genus Cytheridea, Bosquet. 

Cytheridea punctillata, n. sp. PI. IX. figs. 9-11. 

Valves oblong, subtriangular, convex. Dorsal margin gently 
arched, highest at its anterior third ; ventral margin straight. 
Anterior border broad and well rounded ; posterior narrower, 
and sloping steeply to its lower extremity, which forms a 
rounded angle. Seen from above, the carapace is oval in out- 
line, and shows scarcely any appearance of pitting. End view 
suborbicular. Surface marked with fine and thickly set 
puncta. Length T Vth of an inch. 

This is nearly allied to Cytheridea pinr/uis, Jones, and to 
Bairdia punctatella, Bosquet, but is not strictly referable to 
either of these species. It differs from the former in surface- 
ornament, as well as in the absence of angulation of the dorsal 
border ; from the latter, as well as from B. Hebertiana, in its 
more triangular shape and finer surface-ornament. 

Genus Cythere, Miiller. 
Cythere carinata, n. sp.* PI. IX. figs. 1-4. 

Carapace obliquely subtetragonal, convex; margins fiexuous. 
Dorsal margin arched, gibbous in the middle ; ventral margin 
convex, produced anteriorly into a broad, strongly developed 
keel. Anterior extremity narrow, bordered partially by the 
ventral keel ; posterior extremity broad, somewhat truncate. 
Dorsal outline broadly oval. End view ovate, tumid. Surface 

* This species was noted by Prof. T. R. Jones in the ' Geological Maga- 
zine,' vol. ii. p. 306, under the name Normania carinata. I have, however, 
thought it advisable to abandon the MS. genus Normania, which was 
meant to include the " peach-stone " forms, but which I found incapable 
of accurate definition or separation. 

190 Mr. G. S. Brady on undescribed Fossil Entomostraca. 

covered with conspicuous concentrically arranged pits, which 
are well developed towards the margins, but nearly obsolete 
at the centre of the valves. Length ^ih of an inch. 

This species is cither identical with, or very closely related to, 
a recent form which is common in deep water on many parts 
of the British coast, but which appears hitherto to have escaped 

Cythere arborescens, n. sp. PI. IX. figs. 5-8. 

Carapace broadly oval, well rounded in front, about once and a 
half as long as broad. The left valve is much larger than the 
right, overlapping it considerably on the dorsal and posterior 
margins. The dorsal margin is strongly arched, and slopes 
somewhat steeply behind towards the ventral margin, the two 
being produced at their junction into an obtusely angular 
prominence. Ventral margin nearly straight, somewhat in- 
curved at its anterior third, and sloping gently upwards be- 
hind. The dorsal outline is oblong oval, compressed. End 
view ovate. Surface of the shell finely punctate, marked at 
the extremities and along the ventral margin with an elevated 
reticulated pattern, the ramifications of which are gradually 
lost on the surface of the valves. Length jVth of an inch. 

The recent species Cythere convexa differs from the present 
only in the general outline of the valves, which in C. arbores- 
cens are more decidedly quadrangular, and in the ornamentation 
of the surface. But though there is much diversity in the sculp- 
turing of C. convexa, I have never met with any specimens, either 
recent or fossil, which show the least trace of the beautiful ar- 
borescent ribbing characteristic of the present species. The 
surface is also more finely punctate than in C. convexa ; but I 
should not, on this account alone, have thought it justifiable 
to propose for it a distinct specific name. 

Cythere aspera, n. sp. PI. IX. figs. 12-19. 

Valves oblong, quadrilateral, compressed. Extremities nearly 
equal, the anterior obliquely rounded, bordered by an elevated 
nodulated ridge, which terminates in a conspicuous tubercle 
over the anterior hinge, and is fringed with short blunt spines. 
Posterior border produced into a broad flattened lamina, which 
bears at the ventral angle three or four strong squamous 
spines. Dorsal margin nearly straight ; ventral sinuatcd and 
squamous behind. Seen from above, the carapace is com- 
pressed, oblongo-ovate, tuberculated, spinous behind. End 
view quadrilateral. Surface of the valves marked by three 
conspicuous longitudinal ridges, the ventral ridge sharply 

Mr. A. E. Verrill on the Classification of Polyps. 191 

defined, the others nodulated and less distinct. The valves 
are covered, between the ridges, with rounded tubercles. In 
young specimens the longitudinal ridges are sharper, the 
surface-tubercles are sharp and spinous, and the elevated an- 
terior border is absent or indistinct. The young state of this 
species is represented in figs. 12-15. Length (of the adult) 
aVrd of an inch. 

The above description applies to well-marked specimens ; and 
much latitude must be allowed as to the amount of spinous and 
tubercular development, especially with reference to the squa- 
mous spines and lamina of the posterior extremity. 


Fig. 1. Cythere carinata (Brady), left valve, X 50. 

Fig. 2. The same, seen from above, X 50. 

Fig. 3. The same, seen from below, X 50. 

Fig. 4. The same, end view, X 50. 

Fig. 5. Cythere arborescens (Brady), perfect carapace, X 40. 

Fig. 6. The same, seen from above, X 40. 

Fig. 7. The same, seen from below, X 40. 

Fig. 8. The same, end view, x 40. 

Fig. 9. Cytheridea punctillata (Brady), left valve. X 40. 

Fig. 10. The same, seen from above, X 40. 

Fig. 11. The same, end view, X 40. 

Fig. 12. Cythere aspera (Brady), right valve (young), x 40. 

Fig. 13. The same, seen from above, X 40. 

Fig. 14. The same, seen from below, x 40. 

Fig. 1 5. The same, end view, x 40. 

Fig. 16. The same, adult right valve, X 40. 

Fig. 17. The same, seen from above, X 40. 

Fig. 18. The same, seen from below, X 40. 

Fig. 19. The same, end view, x 40. 

XXVI. Classification of Polyps. {Extract condensed from a Syn- 
opsis of the Polypi of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition 
under Captains Ringgold and Rodgers, U.S.N.) By A. E. 

The report upon the collection made by Dr. William Stimpson, 
naturalist to the expedition, having been much delayed, the 
following tabular view of the classification adopted is here pre- 
sented, with the hope that, if imperfect like every other, it may 
nevertheless afford some aid in illustrating the natural affinities 
of these humble forms. 

Although, in a communication read before a zoological club 
at Cambridge, January 1862, I attempted to demonstrate the 

* From the ' Proceedings of the Essex Institute,' U. S., for 1865. 

192 Mr. A. E. Verrill on the Classification of Polyps. 

existence of the three natural orders among Polyps, I refrained 
from presenting this view in a paper published last year, in 
order that I might make further investigations upon the sub- 
ject before finally publishing it. 



Polyps simple or compound, with embryonic or rudimentary 
basal or abactinal region, which has no special function, unless 
for vegetative attachment while young. Actinal area well deve- 
loped, form broadly expanded, having a tendency in the higher 
groups to become narrowed towards the mouth. Tentacles 
simple, conical. Dermal tissues and, usually, the radiating la- 
mellrc depositing solid coral ; the radiating plates, being between 
the lamellae, are therefore ambulacral, and appear to originate 
from the surfaces of the lamellae and the connective tissues ex- 
tending across the ambulacral chambers and filling them from 
below. Interambulacral spaces distinct. 

Suborder I. Stauracea (Madreporaria rugosa)*. 
Coral simple, or compound by budding ; chiefly epidermal and 
endothecal; septa apparently in multiples of four, sometimes 
wanting. Type embryonic, like a young Astrea or Fungia. 

Families: Stauridse, Cyathophyllidse, Cyathaxonidre, Cysti- 

Suborder IT. Fungacea. 

Polyps either simple or compound by marginal or disk-bud- 
ding, rarely by fissiparity. Tentacles numerous, in multiples 
of six, imperfectly developed, scattered on the actinal surface, 
usually short and lobe-like. Upper part of polyps scarcely ex- 
sert. Coral broad and low, growth mostly centrifugal, tissue 

* This group is placed here with considerable hesitation, and principally 
on account of the close resemblance in structure to the young of the suc- 
ceeding and higher groups when they first begin to form a coral, which 
then consists of a ring of epitheca or epidermal deposit, with a few, imper- 
fect, rugose septa radiating from the centre. If the number four be a 
constant feature of the arrangement of their septa, it is possible that they 
may be entitled to rank as a separate order of Polyps. To this opinion 
Prof. J. D. Dana inclines. Prof. Agassiz unites the group with Ilydroid 
Acalephs, on account of their resemblance in some features to the Tabulata. 
It seems to me, however, that the absence of transverse plates in Cyathaxo- 
nida? and Cystiphyllidaj, and the perfection of the vertical septa in Stau- 
ridae, Cyathaxonidae, and some of the Cyathophyllid.c, together with their 
general structure, show them to be more closely allied to the Fungacea 
and Astreacea, of which they may be considered embryonic types, while at 
the same time the group is a synthetic one, having analogies with nearly 
all the higher groups of Polyps and also, in some respects, with Hydroids. 

Mr. A. E. Verrill on the Classification of Polyps. 193 

chiefly septal ; walls imperfectly developed, often perforate, sub- 
ordinate, usually forming the basal attachment. 

Families : Cyclolitidse, Lophoseridse, Fungidse, Merulinidse. 

Suborder III. Astreacea. 

Polyps mostly compound, either by fissiparity or various modes 
of budding. Tentacles usually well developed, long, subcylin- 
drical, limited in number, in multiples of six, encircling the disk. 
Coral mural, septal, and endothecal ; growth vertical and centri- 
fugal, producing turbinated forms which are often elongated. 

Families : Lithophyllidre, Mseandrinidse, Eusmiliidre, Caryo- 
phyllidse, Stylinidae, Astreinse, Oculinidse, Stylophoridse. 

Suborder IV. Madreporacea {Madrepor aria perforata). 

Tentacles in definite numbers, twelve or more, well developed, 
encircling the narrowed disk, therefore nearer the mouth ; po- 
lyps with the upper portion much exsert, flexile ; growth chiefly 
vertical ; coral mural and septal, porous. Polyps compound by 
budding, sometimes simple. 

Families : Eupsammidae, Gemmiporidse, Poritidse, Madre- 


Polyps with well developed, often highly specialized, basal or 
abactinal region. Walls well developed; tentacles longer, more 
concentrated around the mouth, which is also usually, if not 
always, furnished with special tentacular lobes or folds. Ambu- 
lacral spaces always open, destitute of connecting tissues and 
solid deposits. 

Suborder I. Zoanthacea. 

Polyps encrusting, adherent, budding from mural expansions ; 
tentacles simple, short, at edge of disk. 
Families : Zoanthidae, Bergidse. 

Suborder II. Antipathacea. 

Polyps connected by a ccenenchyma, secreting a solid sclero- 
base or coral-axis. Tentacles few, six to twenty-four, simple, 

Families : Antipathidse, Gerardidse. 

Suborder III. Actinacea. 

Polyps free, capable of locomotion, with a highly specialized 
muscular base or abactinal area. Tentacles well organized, 
either simple or branched, varying from ten to many hundreds, 
often with accessory organs arising from the same sphcromeres, 

Ann. Z$ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. xvi. 14 

194 Mr. A. E. Verrill on the Classification of Polyps. 

such as inner tentacles, verrucae, complicated or simple branchial 
lobes, cinclidae, eye-spherules, suckers, &c. Mouth with special 
lobes or folds. Most of the species are simple, a few are com- 
pound by fissiparity, many abnormally bud from the wall near 
the base, a few secrete from the base a horn-like deposit similar 
to the axis of Antipathes. 

Families : Actinidse, Thalassianthidae, Minyidae, Ilyanthidae, 


Polyps with well developed actinal, mural, and abactinal re- 
gions, compound by budding. Tentacles eight, pinnately lobed, 
long, encircling a narrow disk. No interambulacral spaces. 
Ambulacral ones open and wide. 

Suborder I. Alcyonacea. 

Polyps turbinate at base, budding in various ways, encrusting, 
adherent to foreign bodies by the ccenenchyma. 

Families : Alcyonidae, Xenidae, Cornularidae, Tubiporidse. 

Suborder II. Gorgonacea. 

Polyps cylindrical, short, connected by a ccenenchyma, se- 
creting a central supporting axis. 

Families : Gorgonidae, Plexauridae, Primnoidae, Gorgonellidae, 
Isidae, Corallidae, Briaridae. 

Suborder III. Pennatulacea. 

Polyps forming free moving colonies, the composite basal 
portion with locomotive functions and special cavities, with or 
without a solid free axis. 

Families : Pennatulida, Pavonarida>, Veretillida, Renillidce. 

Among the most interesting species in this collection the 
following may be mentioned : — 

Stephanoseris lamellosa, Verrill. 

Coral low, subcylindrical, with a broad base, which completely 
covers small univalve shells, with the exception of the opening ; 
wall rudimentary ; septa in four cycles, the primaries much the 
largest, with subentire rounded tops ; columella well developed, 
papillose ; costae prominent, unequal. 

Loo-Choo Islands. Dr. Win. Stimpson. 

Heterocrjathus alternata, Verrill. 
A low species with very unequal septa and costae, the primary 

Mr. A. E. Vcrrill on new Species of Polyps. 195 

septa very prominent. Encrusts and covers small univalve 

Gaspar Straits. Capt. John Rodgers. 

Balanophylia capensis, Verrill. 

A species about half an inch high, broadly attached, slightly 
turbinated, with an epitheca rising within a line of the margin. 
Calicle deep, broadly oval. Septa in four cycles, the principal 
ones much exsert, vertical, narrowed at top, those of the fourth 
cycle joining the columella in pairs. Colour of the living Polyp 
bright orange. 

Cape of Good Hope. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Eupsammia Stimpsonii, Verrill. 

Coral free, elongated, turbinated, blunt at base. Calicle oval, 
deep j columella well developed ; septa broad, the principal ones 
with entire inner edges, rounded. Length an inch or more ; 
breadth of cell 3 in. 

Interesting as a living representative of a genus hitherto 
known only in the fossil state. 

North China Sea. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Metridium fimbriatum, Verrill. 

A species closely allied to M. marginatum of this coast, but 
apparently more elongated, with longer and more slender tenta- 
cles, which are almost hair-like. Disk within the tentacles nar- 
row. "Colour pale orange, translucent; body punctate with 
dark brown; mouth deep orange." 

San Francisco, California. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Phellia collaris, Verrill. 

Edwardsia collaris, Stimpson, Proc. Philad. Acad. Nat. Science. May and 

June 1865. 

A species remarkable for its great size compared with pre- 
viously known species from Europe. 

Hong-Kong, China. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Phellia clavata, Verrill. 
Edwardsia clavata, Stimpson, I. c. 1855. 
A species even larger than the last. 
Near Ousima, Japan. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Ammonactis, nov. gen. 

Column elongated, subcylindrical, with well developed basal 
disk, covered, as in Phellia, with a persistent epidermis extend- 


190 Mr. A. E. Verrill on new Species of Polyps. 

ing to near the summit, naked above ; but differs in having a 
lobe-like tubercle below each tentacle, distinct from the margin. 
Tentacles long and numerous. 

Ammonactis rubricollam, Verrill. 
Edwardsia rubricollum, Stimpson, Z. e. 1855. 
Hong-Kong, China. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Halocampa brevicornis, Verrill. 
Edwardsia brevicornis, Stimpson, I.e. 1855. 
Hong-Kong, China. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Halocampa capensis, Verrill. 

Body elongated; tentacles twenty, blunt; ambulacra sub- 
papillose. Six tentacles have their inner bases dark brown ; 
body pale reddish, with dots and patches of flake white ; inner 
side of tentacles flake white. 

Cape of Good Hope, 12 fathoms, sand. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Ceriantkus orientalis, Verrill. 

A large species, similar to C. americana, nobis. Body elon- 
gated, in a tube of mud. Tentacles long and slender. Colour 
of body deep reddish brown ; outer tentacles translucent, yellow- 
ish and white, pale brown on their inner sides, greenish at base ; 
inner ones purplish brown, or sometimes grass-green. 

At low-water mark, Hong-Kong, China. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Nephtkya thyrsoidea, Verrill. 

Polyps forming thyrsiform bunches of closely clustered branch- 
lets, 3 inches high and 2 inches broad. Colour wine-yellow or 
light brown, with a dark purplish tinge below the tentacles ; 
tentacles nearly white ; spicula forming elevated transverse lines 
of silvery white on the stalks. 

Cape of Good Hope, 20 fathoms, rocks. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Telesto ramiculosa, Verrill. 
Cornularia aurantiaca, Stimpson, I. c. 1855, non T. aurantiaca, Lamx. 
Hong-Hong, 10 fathoms, shelly bottom. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Parisis laxa } Verrill. 

Coral forming openly reticulate fronds; papillae numerous, 
rounded, on all sides of the branches ; ccencnchyma minutely 
villous in alcohol. Calcareous joints shorter, and internodes 
longer, than in P.fruticosa, nobis. 

Hong-Kong. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Royal Society. 197 

Acanthogorgia coccinea, Verrill. 

Nepthya coccinea, Stimpson, /. c. 1855. 

Hong-Kong, 10 fathoms, on shells. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Veretillum Stimpsonii, Verrill. 

A large species, 6 or 8 inches long, the upper portion en- 
larged, more than half the entire length. Polyps much exsert, 
upwards of an inch long; tentacles very long. Axis thick, 
short, fusiform, a third of an inch long. Base white, somewhat 
striated ; body light cream-colour ; polyps transparent, bluish 
white at the bases of the tentacles. 

Hong-Kong, 6-10 fathoms, mud. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Veretillum baculatum, Verrill. 

Club-shaped, the base about a third of the length. Polyps 
scattered, not numerous. Axis small, fusiform, about half an 
inch long in a specimen 3 inches long. 

Sea of Ochotsk, off Siberia. L. M. Squires. 

Kophobelemnon clavatum, Verrill. 
Veretillum clavatum, Stimpson, I. c. 1855. 
Polyps more numerous and crowded than in K. Burgeri, 
Herkl., which it resembles ; body more claviform, naked dorsal 
space very narrow. 

Hong-Kong, 6 fathoms, mud. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 



June 15, 1865. — Major-General Sabine, President, in the Chair. 

" On the Anatomy and Physiology of the Nematoids, parasitic 
and free ; with observations on their Zoological Position and Aflini- 
nities to the Echinoderms." By Henry Charlton Bastian, M.A., 
M.B. (Lond.), F.L.S. 

After commenting upon the many conflicting statements which 
have been made concerning the anatomy of these animals, and more 
especially with regard to the presence or absence of a nervous 
system, and of real organs of circulation, the author alludes to the 
increased interest which has lately been thrown over this order by 
the discovery of so many new species of the non-parasitic forms, 
marine, land, and freshwater. 

He has entered fully into the description of the tegumentary 
organs, and has recognized a distinct cellulo-granular layer inter- 
vening between the great longitudinal muscles and the external cbiti- 

198 Royal Society : — 

nous portion of the integument. This layer is one of great import- 
ance in the economy of these animals ; the author looks upon it as 
the deep formative portion of the integument, from which the chi- 
tinous lamellae are successively excreted. It is bounded internally 
by a fibrous membrane, which serves as an aponeurosis for the at- 
tachment of the four great longitudinal muscles ; and the well-known 
lateral and median lines which have so long been a puzzle to ana- 
tomists are, he says, in reality nothing more than intermuscular 
developments of this layer. In some species each of the lateral lines 
contains an axial vessel, though in very many others nothing of this 
kind is to be met with. A periodical ecdysis of the chitinous por- 
tion of the integument takes place in all Nematoids during the period 
of their growth. 

The author agrees with Dr. Schneider as to the nature of the 
transverse fibres attached to the median lines. They are contractile 
prolongations from the longitudinal muscles, and may be considered 
extrinsic muscles for the propulsion of the intestinal contents, since 
the intestine itself has no muscular tissue in its walls. 

Schneider's description of the nervous system in Ascaris megalo- 
cepka/a has been confirmed, and a similar arrangement has been re- 
cognized by the author in several other Nematoids. It exists as a 
nervous ring encircling the commencement of the oesophagus, in 
connexion with many large ganglion-cells. The principal peripheral 
branches are given off from the anterior part of the ring, and pro- 
ceed to the region of the mouth and cephalic papillae. Although 
well developed ocelli exist in many of the free marine species, no 
nerve-filaments have yet been detected in connexion with them. 

The organs of digestion are mostly simple, the principal variations 
being met with in the presence or absence of a pharyngeal cavity, 
and in the structure of the oesophagus. In some species its parietes 
are distinctly muscular, whilst in others, as in the Trichocephali 
and Trichosomata, they are as distinctly cellular. Those possessing 
a pharyngeal cavity sometimes have well-marked tooth-like processes 
developed from its walls ; but the author believes that the chitinous 
plates which are sometimes met with in posterior swellings of the 
oesophagus are not " gastric teeth," as they have been hitherto de- 
scribed, but rather valvular plates for ensuring greater perfection in 
the suctorial process by which these animals pass their food along 
this portion of the alimentary canal. 

The water- vascular system may be seen in many Nematoids in its 
most elementary condition, as a small tubular gland, with an excretory 
orifice in the mid- ventral region of the anterior part of the body. In 
other Nematoids no trace of such a system exists ; whilst its most 
developed condition yet recognized iu these animals may be seen 
in Asccwis osculatu and A. spiculigera, where an intimate plexus of 
vessels, still in connexion with an anterior ventral pore, is met with 
in a peculiar development from the left lateral band. Intermediate 
conditions between these extreme forms may be traced in other spe- 
cies ; and from the obviously glandular nature of the tubular or 
pyriform organ met with so commonly in the free, and also in many 

Mr. Bastian on the Anatomy and Physiology of Nematoids. 199 

of the parasitic species, he thinks considerable light is thrown upon 
the function of the " water-vascular " system. He says, " Here we 
have undoubtedly to deal with an excretory glandular apparatus. 
No one could for a moment regard these structures as at all analo- 
gous to vessels destined alternately to receive and discharge an ex- 
ternal fluid medium. I believe that in the Trematoda and Tceniada 
also, where similar though often more developed systems exist, their 
function is in like manner one of a purely eliminatory kind ; and 1 
therefore cannot but look upon the name of ' water-vascular ' appa- 
ratus as a singularly inappropriate appellation for this system of 

Other very peculiar transverse vessels exist in the deep integu- 
mental layer of Ascaris megalocephala and A. lumbricoides, mostly 
running in pairs from median line to median line, and, strangely 
enough, being about twice as numerous on the right as on the left 
side of the body. 

The author believes that in the Nematoids but little provision 
exists for the oxidating portion of the process of respiration, and 
thinks that this deficiency may be compensated by a greatly increased 
activity of glandular eliminating organs. Considering the conditions 
under whose influence so many of the parasitic forms pass their 
existence, we can easily imagine that the presence of any organs for 
effecting an oxidation of their tissues would not only be useless, but 
actually baneful. Glandular organs exist in the greatest abundance 
in all Nematoids, and raanj' of these are excretory organs. In those 
species in which no modification of the ventral excretory apparatus 
is met with, the author has found a very large number of channels 
running through the chitinous portion of the integument, so as to 
bring its deep cellular layer into communication with the exterior. 
These pores are, he believes, complementary respiratory organs, and 
their development is always in an inverse proportion to that of the 
other excretory organs. Thus amongst the free Nematoids he has 
found them most numerous in Dorylaimus stagnalis and Leptoso- 
matum figuratum — species in which the ventral excretory apparatus 
is entirely absent. The same arrangement is met with in the Tri- 
chocephali and Trichosomata, in which these integumental channels 
attain their maximum development. The gradually widening longi- 
tudinal band long known to exist in the Trichocephali is due to the 
presence of thousands of these channels in connexion with a glandular 
development of the deep integumental layer beneath. 

Many interesting facts are brought forward concerning the " tena- 
city of life " of some of the free Nematoids, and their power of re- 
covery after prolonged periods of desiccation. This has been long 
known as one of the characteristics of Tylenchus tritici*, but the 
author has found it common only to the species of four land and 
freshwater genera — Tylenchus, Plectus, Aphelenchus, and Cephalo- 
bus. The remainder of the free Nematoids are remarkably frail, and 
incapable of recovering even after the shortest periods of desiccation. 

* Vibrio tritici of older writers. 

200 Ruyal Society : — 

In the last section, on "The zoological position and affinities of 
the Nematoids," the author enters fully into what he helieves to he 
the points of resemblance between these animals and the Echino- 
derms. The strongest evidence is, he thinks, to be found in the fact 
of the very close resemblance between the nervous systems of these 
animals, differing notably as they do at the same time from what we 
find in the Scolecida or Annelida. Then the integumental pores 
which he has now discovered in so many Nematoids can, he thinks, 
be paralleled only by the ambulacral and other pores met with in 
the Echinoderms. Great similarities in the distribution of these 
pores may also be observed in the two groups. The Nematoids 
present no trace of segmentation or lateral appendages to their bodies, 
but traces of a radiate structure do exist. Their various parts and 
organs exhibit a quadrate mixed with a ternate type of development. 
He looks upon the order Nematoidea as an aberrant division of the 
class Echinodermata, which at the same time tends to connect this 
class in the most interesting manner with the Scolecida — since, 
although in the points above mentioned they display their affinities 
to the Echinoderms, still, as regards the structure and different 
modifications of the ventral excretory apparatus, they agree more 
closely with the Trematoda or flukes. 

" Researches on the Structure, Physiology, and Development of 
Antedon (Comatula, Lamk.) rosaceus." By Dr. W. B. Carpenter, 
F.R.S. 1 

The author, after adverting to the special interest attaching to the 
study of this typical form, as the only one readily accessible for the 
elucidation of the life-history of the Crinoidea, states it to be his 
object to give as complete an account as his prolonged study of it 
enables him to offer, of its minute structure, living actions, and 
developmental history, taking up the last at the point to which it 
has been brought in the memoir of Prof. Wyville Thomson. 

He prefaces his memoir with an historical summary of the progress 
of our knowledge of the distinctive peculiarities of this genus, and of 
its relation to the Crinoidea; and he shows that the first recognition 
of this relationship was most distinctly made by Llhuyd, at the 
beginning of the last century, though that recognition has been 
passed without notice by most subsequent writers, and is altogether 
ignored by MM. de Koninck and le Hon in their recent history. 

The author then proceeds to describe the external characters of 
Antedon rosaceus ; and shows, from its habits as observed in a 
vivarium, that although possessed of locomotive power, it makes so 
little use of this under ordinary circumstances, that its life in the 
adult condition, no less than in its earlier stage, is essentially that of 
a pedunculate Crinoid. 

He then gives a minute description of the several pieces of the 
skeleton — the accounts of these previously given by J. S. Miller 
and Prof. Joh. Midler not being in sufficient detail to serve as 
standards of comparison to which the parts of fossil Crinoids may be 

Dr. Carpenter on Antedon rosaeeus. 201 

referred. And he directs special attention to the curiously inflected 
rosette-like plate, previously unnoticed, which occupies the central 
space left within the annulus formed hy the adhesion of the first 
radials. This plate is in special relation to the organ termed by 
Joh. Midler the " heart," but certainly having no proper claim to 
that designation, being a quinquepartite cavity in the central axis, 
from the walls of which there pass out not vessels but solid cords 
of sarcode, into the rays and arms, and also into the dorsal cirri. 
The inflexions of the rosette-like plate serve for the support and 
protection of the large cords passing into the rays, each of which has 
a double origin, and a connexion with the adjacent radiating cords 
that reminds the anatomist of the " circle of Willis." 

The skeleton of the adult differs so widely in the forms and rela- 
tions of its parts from that of the early Pentacrinoid larva described 
by Prof. Wyville Thomson, that the derivation of the former from 
the latter can only be understood by observation of all the inter- 
mediate stages. When the calcareous skeleton of the calyx first 
shows itself, it consists only of five oral plates arranged conform- 
ably upon five basal plates, as thus : — 

B B B B B 

At a stage a little more advanced (which has been described by 
Prof. Allman, Trans. Roy. Soc. Ed. vol, xxiii. p. 241), the rudiments 
of the first radials are found interposed between the orals and basals, 
alternating in position with both, as in the 
margin j and between two of these first radials 
there appears a single small unsymmetrical a a a a a 
plate, which afterwards proves to be the anal. B B B B B 
The first radials undergo a rapid increase in 

size, and soon become surmounted by second and third radials, 
which project between the orals ; whilst the orals and basals, under- 
going no such increase, are relatively very much smaller ; the anal 
plate is still found on the line of the first 

radials. But from this time the radials A 3 A 3 A 3 A 3 A 3 
form the principal part of the calyx, A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 
which opens out widely in conformity 

with the increase of space required for A 1 A'anA 1 A 1 A 1 
the digestive apparatus, the intestinal B B B B B 

canal being now developed around what 

was originally a simple stomach with one orifice. The highest joint 
of the stem also undergoes a remarkable increase in size, and begins 
to acquire the form of a basin with an inflected rim, constituting 
what is known in the adult as the centro-dorsal piece. When the 
calyx opens out, the five oral plates, which originally formed a circlet 
around the mouth, retain that position, and detach themselves en- 
tirely from the divergent radials, nothing but the soft perisomatic 
membrane filling up the space between them. These oral plates 
never increase in size, and towards the end of the Pentacrinoid stage 

202 Royal Society. 

they begin to undergo absorption. I can still trace tbeir basal 
portions in young specimens of the free Antedon ; but as the 
creature advances towards maturity they are altogether lost sight of. 
When the intestinal canal has been sufficiently developed to open on 
the surface of the oral disk, the anal plate is lifted out of the posi- 
tion it originally occupied, and is at last found on the anal funnel, 
far removed from the radials. This, like the oral plates, begins to 
undergo absorption towards the end of the crinoidal stage, and 
completely disappears in the early part of the life of the free Ante- 
don. The radial plates increase not only in size but also in thick- 
ness ; and channels which are left on their internal surface by 
vacuities in the calcareous network, are converted into canals by a 
further inward growth of this, which completely covers them in. 
It is through these canals that the cords of sarcode pass to the arms. 
The basal plates, like the oral, remain stationary in point of size, 
and present no change in appearance or position until after they 
have been completely concealed externally by the centro-dorsal piece 
(the highest joint of the stem), which rapidly augments, both in 
absolute and in proportional size, when the development of the dorsal 
cirri is taking place from its convex surface. By the end of the 
Pentacrinoid stage, this plate has extended itself so far over the base 
of the calyx as completely to conceal the basals ; and as the free 
Antedon advances towards maturity, it gradually extends itself over 
the first radials, which then become adherent to it and to each other. 
The basals then undergo a most curious metamorphosis, consisting 
in absorption in one part and extension in another, by which they 
finally become converted into five peculiarly shaped pieces, the 
ultimate union of which forms the single rosettedike plate which 
has been already stated to lie within the annulus formed by the first 
radials of the adult Antedon. Hence the calyx finally comes to be 
thus composed : — 

R 3 R 3 R 3 R 3 R 3 
R 2 R 2 R 2 R 2 R 2 

b R 1 b R 1 b R 1 b R 1 b R' 



«- — yr- ' 

As the orals and the anal have entirely disappeared, no part of 
the primordial calyx of the Pentacrinoid larva is traceable in it, until 
we separate the adherent pieces which form its base, and search out 
the minute and delicate rosette-like plate which is formed by the 
metamorphosis of the basals. 

The structure, physiology, and development of the digestive, cir- 
culatory, and respiratory apparatus, and of the nervous and muscular 
systems, will form the subject of a future memoir. 



March 28, 1865.— John Gould, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 

Notice of an apparently Undescribed Species of Ameri- 
can Porcupine. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., F.L.S., etc. 

There has been in the British Museum since 1853 a small specimen 
of a short-tailed American Porcupine, which was sent from Columbia. 
I suspected that the animal might be young ; and I have been wait- 
ing, expecting that we might receive another specimen from the 
same source, which would enable me to give a more complete account 
of the animal ; but as no additional materials have come to hand, I 
shall now proceed to give a short notice of it, in the hope of draw- 
ing the attention of collectors to the animal. 

Erethizon (Echinoprocta) rufescens. 

Pale brown, varied with black ; head white, speckled with black 
and pale brown ; tail and feet black ; chin, throat, and beneath pale 
brown. A short white streak on the centre of the nose, and a few 
white spines, forming a slight crest, on the nape ; a whitish mark on 
the side of the cheek. The bristly spines of the head thin, white, 
with a small black subterminal band and yellow tip ; the spines of 
the back elongate, white, with a black subterminal ring and elon- 
gated rufous tips ; those of the front part of the back and sides very 
slender, bristle-like, gradually becoming thickened, stronger, and 
shorter, until on the hinder part of the back, above the tail, they are 
well developed, short, thick. Spines with black ends and very small 
brown tips. The end of the nose, chin, and underside of the body 
covered with uniform pale brown slender bristles. The tail and 
feet covered with short black bristles. Whiskers black, slender, 

Hab. Columbia. 

There are a few spines on the top of the head, with one white to 
the tip, making a kind of occipital crest ; but I am not sure that 
this may not be an individual peculiarity. 

The soles of the hind feet are bald to the heel. Cutting-teeth 
yellow, slender, rounder in front. Unfortunately I have not been 
able to see the skull. 

If this is a true Erethizon, the genus may be divided into two 
sections : — 

1. Erethizon. The back covered with elongated bristles and 
short spines. E. dorsatus and E. epixanthus. 

2. Echinoprocta. The back covered with one kind of elongated 
slender spines, which become shorter, thicker, and more rigid over 
the rump. E. rufescens. 

Notice of a Species of Tupaia from Borneo, in the 
Collection of the British Museum. By Dr. John 
Edward Gray, F.R.S., F.L.S., etc. 

There has been in the British Museum for some years a specimen 

204 Zoological Society : — 

of a Tupaia in spirits, which was received from Borneo, and also a 
stuffed specimen without a hahitat, evidently of the same species. 

These specimens have the general coloration of Ttipaia tana, and 
have evidently been regarded as varieties of that species ; but they 
are most distinct. The head and skull are short and broad, of about 
the same form and proportion as those of Tupaia ferruginea ; the 
fur and tail is of the same bright shining bay as T. tana, but it is 
entirely destitute of the three black streaks between the shoulders, 
which are so well marked in that species. 

The skull shows that the stuffed specimen is that of an adult 
animal not so large as T. tana, and more nearly resembling in size 
T. ferruginea. It may be known at once from the latter species by 
the dark red-brown colour of the tail, with its very red underside. 
I propose to call it 

Tupaia splendidula. 

Fur dark red-brown, blackish-washed. Tail dark red-brown ; 
pale red beneath ; the shoulder-streak yellow. The head conical, 
about twice as long as wide behind. 

Hab. Borneo. 

The head is large compared with the size of the body ; the ears 
rounded, with several ridges on the conch, and a well-developed con- 
vex tragus, not unlike the human ear. The palm and soles are bald 
to the wrist and heel. 

I thought at first that this species might be the Tupaia speciosa of 
Wagner ; but that animal is stated to have a head as long and as 
tapering as T. tana, and, indeed, seems to be only a slight variety of 
that species. 

Notice of a New Genus and Species of the Family Trio- 


F.R.S., F.L.S., etc. 

The British Museum has just received two specimens of a Trionyx 
with covered legs from Western Africa (collected by the late Dr. B. 
Baikie, probably on the Niger), which is evidently different in 
structure from any we have before received from that country, and 
which I am inclined to believe is an entirely new form. 

It differs from the other African Trionyches with covered feet in 
only having two pairs of callosities on the sternum ; while Hepta- 
thyra has seven, and Cyclanosteus has nine such hardnesses on the 
sternal bones. These callosities differ in disposition and mode of 
development, as well as in manner, in the three genera. The skull 
is in form like that of the genus Cyclanosteus ; that is to say, 
the face is moderate, with eyes about halfway between the front of 
the zygomatic arch and cavity of the temporal muscle and the end 
of the nose ; but it differs from the skull of the latter genus in the 
forehead and crown being wider and flatter. 

The genus (which I should refer to the tribe Cyclanosteina) may 
be defined thus : — 

Dr. J. E. Gray on a new Form of Trionychidae. 205 


The face of the skull short, convex, arched in front ; orbits lateral, 
shelving, about midway between the end of the nose and the front 
of the zygomatic arch ; forehead flat, rhombic, broad. The dorsal 
shield with flexible margins, without any marginal bones ; front of 
dorsal shield warty above and without any odd nuchal bone. Ster- 
num flat, with broad rounded lobes covering the feet, and two pairs 
of sternal callosities ; the front pair small, rounded, on the front 
ends of each of the front pair of sternal bones ; the lateral pairs 
are large, oblong, broadly notched out behind, and very rugose. 

This genus differs from Cyclanosteus in the want of any odd bone 
in front of the dorsal shield, as well as in the number and disposition 
of the sternal callosities. 

The upper surface of the front of the disk is closely covered with 
roundish warts. The sternal callosities are not developed in the 
young specimen, the larger lateral pair being first indicated as the 
animal increases in size. The dorsal disk of the young specimen is 
marked with close grains, or warty, in rather arched longitudinal ridges. 

1 K&'^&Wi 


Lower surface of Tetrathyra Baikii. 

There are some young specimens in spirits from West Africa in the 
Museum, which belong to this species ; they differ from the young 
of C. senegalensis in being marbled, while that species is marked 
with distinct small subcircular black spots. 

This second genus of Cyclanosteina may explain the reason why 
we have two skulls from West Africa the one with the front and 
the other with the whole upper edge of the lower jaw dilated, as 
figured in the 'Proceedings of the Zoological Society' for 1864, 
fig. 18, p. 95, and fig. 21, p. 96. 

Tetrathyra Baikii, sp. nov. 

Head olive, white-spotted. Back olive, marbled with black above ; 

206 Zoological Society : — 

the lower surface pale, irregularly black-marbled or spotted. The 
front pair of callosities small, oblong. 

Younger specimen, the head and dorsal shield pale brown, mar- 
bled with large black (often inosculating) streaks ; lower part of head 
and sternum black, with large, irregular-sized, pale spots, some of 
which are symmetrical. 

Hab. West Africa, River Niger ? 

Tbe largest specimen, which is not full-grown, is 1 1 inches long ; 
the dorsal shield 7 inches long and 5 inches wide. 

April 11, 1865.— Prof. T. H. Huxley, F.R.S., V.P., in the Chair. 

Description of a New Species of Indian Porcupine. 
By P. L. Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

About three years ago I received a communication from our excel- 
lent Corresponding Member, Colonel Sir William Thomas Denison, 
K.C.B., Governor of Madras, inquiring of me whether anything was 
known in Europe of a second Indian Porcupine, distinguished from 
the common species by having some of its quills of a deep orange- 
colour. Upon my replying that this Porcupine appeared to be un- 
represented in our collections of animals either living or dead in this 
country, and would moreover probably prove new to science, Sir 
William promised to do his best to obtain living specimens of it for 
the Society's Menagerie. The first examples of this animal obtained 
by Sir William for transmission to this country died, I believe, before 
they were shipped. But in the latter part of last year Sir William 
was successful in obtaining four other living specimens, which reached 
this country in safety on the 22nd of December last. Three of these 
Porcupines are still living in the Society's Menagerie. The fourth 
died a few days after its arrival, and was found one morning already 
partially devoured by its carnivorous companions. Enough, however, 
remained of it to make a tolerably good skin, which, together with 
the skull, I now exhibit. Upon these materials I propose to attempt 
to give characters to this hitherto undescribed species. 

Before doing so, however, I should mention that this species, 
although it has never yet been described, and, as far as I can ascer- 
tain, has never reached Europe before, alive or dead, has been already 
provided with a name, which I do not propose to alter. Mr. Francis 
Day, Fellow of this Society, late of II. M. Madras Medical Service, 
in his work on the native Indian state of Cochin, called ' The Land 
of the Permauls,' published at Madras in 1863, has spoken of this 
animal as " The Orange Porcupine, Hystrix malabaricus" and given 
some details respecting it*. Mr. Day has also kindly supplied me 
with some further notes respecting it, which I shall give presently. 

I commence, however, by characterizing the species, which belongs 
to the typical Hystrices, and is very closely allied to II. leucura, as 

Hystrix malabarica, sp. nov. 

H. cristcE setis purpurascenti-nigris, unicoloribus ; rostro pilis 
* Land of the Permauls, pp. 44G, 447. 

Dr. P. L. Sclater on a new Indian Porcupine. 207 

minutis obsito : colore corporis antici purpurascenti-rubro, 
spinis ad basin aurantiacis, inde ad apicem purpurascenti- 
nigris : spinis dorsi elongatis, aliis aurantiaco-rubro et nigro, 
aliis, sicut in specie vulgari, a/bo et nigro annul atis : dorsi 
postici linea mediali distincta, e spinis aliis albis, aliis auran- 
tiucis composita : cauda longa, spi?iis aliis albis, aliis auran- 
Long, tota a rostro ad basin caudse 28*0 poll., caudse 8'0. 
Hub. India Meridionalis, prov. Cochin. 

Obs. Affinis H. leucurce, sed spinarum colore, rostro minus 
setoso, et cauda longiore distinguenda. 

Although the general external appearance of this Porcupine is re- 
markably different from that of H. leucura, so that the living animal 
strikes one at the first glance as being undoubtedly distinct, I have 
been somewhat disappointed, on comparing the two skins together, to 
find how difficult it is to detect any very decided differences in their 
structure. The muzzle in the present specimen of H. malabarica 
(which is the only individual I have been able to examine) seems to 
be decidedly less clothed with hair than in H. leucura. This is one 
of the few points in which H. leucura differs externally from H. 
cristata, and in this respect the present specimen seems more like 
H. cristata. The whole of the short spines and hairs of the anterior 
portion of the body in H. malabarica are dark reddish orange at 
their bases, growing into purplish brown at their tips ; and the same 
is the case with those of the flanks and legs. The elongated spines 
of the middle of the back are some of them black, annulated with 
white, just as in 77. leucura ; others, more especially towards the sides, 
where these latter rather predominate, have the white replaced by a 
bright orange-red. The medial line of the rump is well defined, as 
in H. leucura ; but the white spines are mixed with others wholly 
orange. This is likewise the case with the spines round the base of 
the strong spines which terminate the tail : some of these are wholly 
white, and some wholly orange. The strong spines which surround 
the tail, and extend beyond its extremity, are mostly wholly white, 
with some wholly orange intermixed. In the centre of these are 
about twelve of the singular hollow truncated quills mounted on pe- 
dicels, just as in H. leucura and H. cristata*. About one-fourth 
part of these abnormal quills are orange ; the others are white. 

As the cranial characters of the species of Hystrix are generally 
very well marked, and indeed the only test by which the species can 
be certainly distinguished, I was in hopes of finding in the cranium 
of Hystrix malabarica some more certain evidence of its real distinct- 
ness from H. leucura. I have therefore carefully compared the skull 
of the new species with a fine series of six skulls of H. leucura in the 
British Museum f, in doing which I have received the valuable as- 

* I am not aware whether any explanation has ever been given of the use of 
these curious quills. My impression is that they serve to act as a rattle, which is 
thus formed, as in the Rattle-Snakes (Crotalus), by a cutaneous development at 
the end of the tail. 

t H. cristata and //. leucurus of the ' Catalogue of the Bones of Mammalia in 
the British Museum ' (1862), p. 191. 


Zoological Society: — 

sistance of my friend Dr. Peters, who happened to be present on the 
occasion. The skull of Hystriv malabarica, which is that of a very 
old animal with the molar teeth worn very low and the cranial sutures 
nearly obliterated, agrees in the shape of the nasal and intermaxillary 
bones with II. leucurn. As in the latter species, so in H. malabarica 
the nasal bones have their sides nearly parallel with the hinder mar- 
gin, terminating nearly in a line with the anterior edge of the orbit, 
and the nasal processes of the intermaxillaries are broad and truncated. 
At first I was inclined to think there was some difference in the pat- 
terns of the molar teeth of the two species, those of H. malabarica 
being surrounded by a complete cingulum of enamel, and the internal 
areas being completely isolated, which is not the case in H. leucura. 
But this, I suspect, is only due to the age of the specimen. It would 
therefore be desirable to have further specimens of the skull of H. 
malabarica for comparison upon this point ; but in other respects 
there seem to exist differences in the skulls of the two species which 
are amply sufficient to confirm their specific separation. 

Skull of Hystrlx malabarica. 

1 . In //. leucura the total length of the molar series is greater 
than the distance between the molars and the tympanic bone ; in //. 
malabarica it is rather less. 

2. In H. malabarica the entopterygoid is more remote from the 
tympanic bone, and is of a different form. 

3. The facial surface of the lachrymal is very small in H. mala- 
barica — much smaller than in II. leucura. 

4. The rostral part of the cranium is more elongated and more 

Dr. P. L. Sclater on a new Indian Porcupine. 209 

compressed in II. malabarica, and the foramina incisiva are longer 
and narrower. 

These and other minor peculiarities will, I think, sufficiently serve 
to separate H. malabarica from its nearest ally, although it is of course 
desirable that farther specimens should be obtained for comparison. 

With regard to the habits of H. malabarica, Mr. Day has kindly 
furnished me with the following particulars : — 

" During my residence at Cochin I was informed by the natives 
that a species of orange-coloured Porcupine was found in the neigh- 
bouring hills, the flesh of which was more highly esteemed for food 
than that of the common variety. It was said to be a smaller species, 
and that the two never lived in the same locality. Small families of 
them, I subsequently ascertained, are found in various places along 
the ghawts of Cochin and Travancore. 

" AtTrichooe, about forty miles north-east of Cochin, there was a 
colony of these animals. They had formed their burrows in the 
laterite rock, in a spot from which it was impossible to reach them 
by digging. As I was anxious to obtain one of them, the burrows 
were stopped and a pitfall dug before two, which were the most fre- 
quented ; brushwood was then heaped before the other apertures 
and set on fire, but the prisoners did not venture out until they had 
been smoked three days and nights. 

" The native sportsmen declare that the aroma from these burrows 
is quite sufficient to distinguish the different species. 

" In 1862 I placed a pair, about a third grown, in a cage, and kept 
them there nearly two months : although they permitted the dogs 
and cats to steal their food, they never became tame or even friendly 
with those who fed them. 

"They were omnivorous ; and, though quiet all day, as soon as 
it became dusk they commenced to gnaw their cage, and continued 
to do so until daybreak ; subsequently, when the bars were encased 
with tin, they passed the night scratching. 

" In captivity they lose much of their orange-colour ; and its 
vividness greatly decreases when they are ill. 

"The natives consider wounds caused by their quills to be venom- 
ous, and the effects frequently fatal." 

It may be useful to add to this paper a list of the known species 
of Hystrix, and their localities, arranged according to Mr. Water- 
house's excellent system *. 

a. Species nucha cristata. 

1. H. cristata, Linn, et auct. (Acanthion Cuvieri, Gray) ; Water- 
house, /. c. p. 448 : ex Europa merid. et Africa bor. et occ. 

2. H. Africa australis, Peters, Reise n. Moss. i. p. 170 : ex 
Africa austr. orient. 

3. H. leucura, Sykes (II. hirsutirostris, Brandt; Waterhouse, 
I. c. p. 454 ; H. cristata et //. leucurus, Gray) : ex Asia occiden- 
tal! usque ad Indiam extremam. 

4. H. malabarica : ex India merid. 

* Nat. Hist. Mamm. vol. ii. p. 146 et seq. 
Ann. $ Mag. Nat. Hist. Scr. 3. Vol. xvi 1 5 

210 Zoological Society : — 

b. Species nucha non cristata. 

5. H. Hodgsoni, Gray ; Waterhouse, I. e. p. 461 : ex India supe- 

6. H. javanica (F. Cuv.) ; Waterhouse, I. c. p. 465 : ex Java. 

The Society's collection contains at the present time fine living 
specimens of four of these, namely, H. Africa australis, H. leucura, 
H. malabarica, and H. javanica. 

Notes on the Whales of the Cape ; by E. L. Layard, 
Esq., of Cape-Town, Corr. Memb. With Descriptions 
of Two New Species; by Dr. J. E. Gray. 

Mr. E. Layard, the Keeper of the South African Museum at 
Cape-Town, has most kindly sent me descriptions and drawings, 
made by Mr. Trimen, of the skulls of the Cetacea contained in that 
museum. Amongst these is the drawing of a Porpoise or Grampus 
taken in Kalk Bay (Simon's Bay). Unfortunately the skull of this 
animal was placed in the skin during Mr. Layard' s absence from the 
Cape ; so that it cannot be got at for description ; but, from what he 
saw of the dentition, he believes it is like a Grampus — very like the 
figure of the skull of G. Cuvierii in the ' Catalogue of Cetacea in the 
Collection of the British Museum,' t. 5. f. 1. He says that there is 
a separate skull, greatly resembling that figure, in the South African 

The Grampus (?) prepared with the skull in the skin, mentioned 
above, is represented as having a rounded head, without any appear- 
ance of a beak. " It is entirely deep brown black ; the skin smooth, 
with a few wrinkles behind the chin and on the front edge of the 
pectoral fin. 

" The entire length, from the nose to the end of the tail, 8 feet ; 
from the nose to the front base of the dorsal fin, along the curve, 
3 feet 9 inches; of the dorsal, 10 inches; of the back, from the 
hinder edge of the dorsal fin to the end of the tail, 3 feet 10 inches ; 
width of the tail, 1 foot 1 1 inches. 

" Length from the front of the mouth to the base of the pectoral, 
1 foot 5£ inches ; of the upper edge of the pectoral, 1 foot 5 inches." 

In the South African Museum are two smaller skulls from the 
coast of the Cape, — one apparently of a Steno, with ^ teeth ; and 
the other of a Delphinus, probably the common one of Table Bay, 
which has \ 7 teeth. 


These are probably new species, to be described. 

Mr. Layard observes, " These Cetaceans are constantly in the Bay ; 
but I cannot get the fishermen, who catch plenty of the Delphinus, 
to bring them to the museum. I have offered the market value, be- 
sides all the flesh and the blubber ; but they are so prized as food by 
the men that they are cue up instantly and sold by auction." 

" Two, if not more, species of Whales come into our bays to calve. 
I have never been fortunate enough to see them entire ; but, from 
the remains, I think them to be the " Right Whale" (Balcena) and 

Mr. E. L. Layrad on the Whales of the Cape. 211 

Humpback (Megaptera). By the way, do you know the meaning 
of Pees/cop 1 ! The Dutch are the dirtiest-minded people I ever met 
with : they have heaps of such names for their animals and plants." 

" I have seen off the coast several species of Whale (one near 
Agulhas, with an enormous elongated back-fin ; which could it be ?) 
They are in sight for an hour at least." 

" I send you a drawing, by our friend Mr. Trimen, of the skull of 
a Cetacean which I have taken to be a Ziphius, probably a very old 
Ziphius sechellensis ; but the figure in your ' Catalogue of the Ce- 
tacea in the British Museum,' t. 3. f. 2, does not convey any idea 
how the curious flattened teeth arch over the upper jaw, as shown 
in Mr. Trimen's drawing. I stood by him all the time, so can answer 
for the correctness of the sketch ; and I took the measurements my- 
self." The drawina; shows that it is the skull of an animal more 

a, b. Skull and lower jaw of Ziphius Layardii. c. Teeth of lower jaw, from front. 

allied to Ziphius micropterus than to Z. seychellensis. It differs from 
Z. seychellensis in the lower jaw being elongate, slender, gradually 
tapering in front, like the lower jaw of Z. micropterus. It differs from 
the latter species in the tooth on the side of the jaw being elongated, 
strap-shaped, with a small process* in the front side of the truncated 
apex, and especially in these teeth being arched inwards, forming a 
high arch " over the upper jaw," the crown of the lateral teeth 
being short and triangular in Z. micropterus. It is evidently quite 
distinct in the form of the rostrum of the skull and the shape of the 
teeth from the Ziphius micropterus of the coast of Europe. I 
therefore propose to call it Ziphius Layardii. 

The entire length of the skull, from condyle to tip of the rostrum, 

* The process is not so distinctly shown as it ought to be in the woodcut. 



Zoological Society : — 

3 feet 7 inches ; of the rostrum, from tip to the notch, 2 feet G inches ; 
the width at the widest part of the brain-case 1 foot 6 inches ; the 
length in a straight line, from the tip of the rostrum to the crest 
over the blower, 2 feet 1 1 inches ; the height of the skull, from the 
hinder part of the palate to the crest over the blower, 1 foot 2 inches. 

The entire length of the lower jaw 3 feet ; the length from the con- 
dyle to the hinder edge of the base of the tooth, 1 foot 1 \\ inches ; 
the length of the exposed part of the tooth along the anterior edge, 
9g inches; the width below the teeth of the side of the lower jaw, 
measured from the inner part of their base, 3 inches. 

There is a partial hollow, as if it were the cavity of an old tooth 
that had fallen out, on the margin of the inner jaw, behind the base 
of the elongated arched tooth. 

" In your letter you sent me a sketch of the skull of Ziphius in- 
dicus with two teeth in the front of the lower jaw, and a short 
stumpy head, totally unlike the skull of Ziphius figured in the ' Ca- 
talogue of Cetacea.' " 

" There is a skull in the South African Museum which I have got 
down as a Globiocephalus. It is the skull of a very old animal, 
without teeth ; but 1 think I can trace that it has had two front 
teeth in the lower jaw, if not also along (the edge of) the upper and 
lower jaw. The animal was taken on our coast." 

The figures of the skull which accompany this note appear to 
me to represent the skull of a species of Hyperoodon, which differs 
from Hyperoodon of Europe in having only a low crest on each side 
of the maxillary bones. I would propose to designate the species 
Hyperoodon capensis. 

Skull and lower jaw of Hyperoodon capensis. 

The length of the skull, from the end of the rostrum to the occi- 
pital condyle, is 3 feet ; the height of the skull, from the crest of 
the blower to the condyle, 2 feet ; the greatest width of the brain- 
case 1 foot 7 inches. 

Dr. W. Peters on Platacantbomys lasiurus. 213 

April 25, 1865.— Dr, J. E. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 

Note on the Systematic Position of Platacanthomys 
lasiurus. By Dr. W. Peters, For. Memb. 

Amongst the many interesting objects which have come under my 
observation in the British Museum through the kindness of my 
friends Prof. Owen, Dr. Gray, and Dr. Giinther, is a specimen of the 
curious Rodent shortly noticed by Mr. Blyth (Journ. A. S. B. xxviii. 
p. 289) under the name of Platacanthomys lasiurus. The specimen 
in question is that exhibited by Mr. Sclater at a Meeting of this 
Society in I860*, and subsequently presented by him to the British 

It has always been difficult to me and other workers on the Mam- 
mals to understand how a Rodent with only three molars in each 
jaw could be referred to the Myoxina ; and I was therefore very 
anxious to examine this very interesting form. But the results of my 
observations will show that Platacanthomys does not belong to the 
Dormice, but appertains strictly to the Murine family of Rodents, 
being nearly allied in many respects to Phheomys and Meriones. 

The generic characters of Platacanthomys may stand as follows : — 

Platacanthomys, Blyth. 
Habitus myoxinus. Rostrum acutum, rhinario nudo, labro jisso ; 
oculi mediocres ; auriculce mediocres nudee ; vellus molle, setis 
dorsalibus latis sulcatis ; artus mediocres, palmce plantceque 
pentad actylce, digito primo abbreviato, falculis modicis curva- 
tis, a cutis ; cauda villosa, versus apicem fere disticha. Denies 
primores laves, compressi, acuti, molares utrinque y, complicati- 
Cranium murinum, sed foraminibus incisivis parvis, coarctatis, 
ossibus intermaxillaribus inclusis, palato perforato et processu 
coronoideo brevissimo. Ossa antibrachii sejuncta, crui-is con- 
The resemblance of this genus to the Dormouse, at first sight, 
is very striking, principally on account of the long-haired tail. But 
in other respects, in its smaller eyes, very thin ears, and the well- 
developed, altbough very short, thumb of the fore foot, it more ap- 
proaches several Murine genera of Tropical India. 

The skull is rather broad and flattened behind ; but it is quite 
impossible for any one who knows anything about the craniological 
characters of the Rodentia not to recognize at first sight the typical 
form of the Murines, in the two-rooted zygomatic process of the 
upper jaw, together with the peculiar form of the foramen infra- 
orbitale, which is very high, narrowed, and widened above, and in 
the development of supra-orbital ridges, which form together a lyri- 
form figure. As peculiar and deviating from the typical skull of 
the Murines, are before all to be noted the small and narrow fora- 
mina incisiva formed only by the intermaxillary bones, the imper- 
fect perforate palate, and the very short coronoid process of the 
lower jaw. 

* See P. Z. S. 1860,p. 260. 

214 Zoological Society : — 

The incisors are narrow, compressed, and pointed. The molar 
series are distant from and parallel to each other. The first and 
second upper molars are nearly of the same size, and much larger 
than the third and last. All three are composed of five enamel- 
folds or lamina?, obliquely directed inwards and hindwards : the first 
and second of these are united as well on their inner as on their outer 
side ; the third, fourth, and fifth are united on the inner side ; but 
on the outer side only the first and fifth enamel-folds are united. 
The lower molars are of the same size as the corresponding upper 
ones ; but their enamel-folds are all united on the inner, and sepa- 
rate on the outer side, except in the first (which has six enamel- 
folds) the three anterior ones, and in the second and third (which 
have four enamel- folds) the first and second ones. 

Platacanthomys lasitjrus, Blyth. 

P. magnitudine Muris ratti, auriculis acuminatis, capitis dimidio 
lo?igioribus, vibrissis longissimis ; supra umbrino-fuscus, subtus 
albidus, jugulo pectoreque Jtavescentibus, cauda umbrino-fusca, 
apice albido. 
Long, a rostri apice ad cauda? basin m *138; caudse m *110. 
Hab. India orientalis, prov. Malabar. 

The size of this curious little animal is nearly the same as that of 
the Black Rat. The head is rounded, rather flattened, with pointed 
snout, naked muzzle, extremely long whiskers, eyes of moderate size ; 
ears moderate, pointed, and, with the exception of a few scattered 
hairs on the outer side, entirely naked. The fur is soft, on the upper 
part, from neck to tail, intermixed with flat, longitudinally grooved 
bristles. The limbs are proportionate and of moderate length, the 
anterior shorter than the posterior ones. The fourth toe is the 
longest, but only a little longer than the third ; the second and fifth 
toes are much shorter, and nearly of the same length ; but the first 
is very short, and provided with a well-developed claw. The tail is 
nearly of the same length as the body ; it is thickly covered with hair, 
which is short on its base, and becomes more lengthened and disti- 
chous from its second third. 


Total length 0*248 

Distance from snout to base of tail 0*138 

Length of the head 0*030 

of the ears 0*014 

of the anterior extremity (from the elbow 

to the end of the fourth finger) 0*035 

of the sole of the hand and fingers 0*014 

of the hinder extremity (from knee to the 

fourth toe) 0*050 

of the sole of the foot and toes 0*025 

Total length of the tail 0* 1 10 

Length of the tail without hair 0*080 

The specimen represented was obtained by the Rev. H. Baker, of 

Mr. E. L. Layard on a new Zebra. 215 

Mundakyum, Alipi, in Southern Malabar, who gives the following 
note on the species (J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 289) : — 

" I was ignorant of the existence of this animal till about a year 
ago, when I found it in a range of hills about 3000 feet high. It 
lives in the clefts of the rocks and hollow trees, is said to hoard ears 
of grain and roots, seldom comes into the native huts, and in that par- 
ticular neighbourhood the hill-men tell me they are very numerous. 
I know they are to be found in the rocky mountains of Travancore ; 
but I never met with them in the plains." 

May 9, 1865.— Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 

The following extracts were read from a letter addressed to Dr. J. 
E. Gray by Mr. E. L. Layard, of Cape Town, Corr. Memb. : — 

" I send you herewith figures and descriptions of a new species of 
Zebra. You have had a skin sent you* which you rejected as a 
' stray specimen of E. montanus, which had got down on the plains 
and had been shot by accident 'f. I am sure you will, on perusal 
of these notes, alter your opinion ; and I shall be obliged to you to 
read them at the Zoological Society. I wish to name the animal 
Equus Chapmanni, after its discoverer, my friend James Chapman, 
who has done so much for African discovery, and who has hitherto 
reaped no reward. I send you photographs of a horse and a mare 
of this Zebra in different positions to show the markings, which differ 
entirely from those of E. montanus (vel E. Zebra) in the union of all 
the black stripes with a medial one on the belly ; also on the back, 
in wanting the ' gridiron ' pattern, as Baines calls it, on the rump. 
I also send coloured sketches by Baines to show the colour. This 
new animal also differs from the other Zebras in having the callo- 
sities on the legs far larger and of a more rounded shape, in having 
shorter and more equine ears, measuring only 6£ inches instead of 
il-f-, and in having a shorter and more equine head and tail. The 
hoofs also are flatter than in E. montanus, and not adapted for 
mountain-work. The mane grows several inches down on the fore- 
head, and stands up between the ears, so that when seen in full face 
it stands far higher than them. Chapman and Baines give the di- 
mensions of several individuals ; and all who have seen them here, 
who are competent to judge from knowing the other species well, at 
once detect the differences. I am quite convinced of them mvself ; 
and, if you still doubt, please read this letter and the notes, and ex- 
hibit the drawings, to the Zoological Society in my name. They roam 
in large herds, and are first met with about 200 miles from the 
coast inwards on leaving Walwich Bay, where Equus 7nontanus (or 
rather a variety of that animal) prevails. I add some extracts from 

* The skin sent me by Mr. Baines arrived in bad condition, with scarcely any 
hair on it. It was that of a very young animal, and I could not see any differ- 
ence, as far as I could judge in its very bad state, from that of a young Common 
Zebra.— J. E. G. 

t I have no recollection of having made such a statement as the latter part of 
this quotation — .J. E. G. 

216 Zoological Society : — 

the journals of Mr. Chapman and Mr. Baines relating to this 

" Extract from Mr. J. Chapman's Journal, dated Maij 21, 18G2. 

"The Quaggas here, I think, from ahout Sechellies', though by- 
no means new to me, are different to any we see described in books 
of natural history. The brush of the tail of one I shot to-day, and 
which is rather a young specimen, is a dark grey, while the base is 
white. In older specimens the brush is black, with a few white hairs 
intermixed. It has a head band traversing the middle of the belly, 
from which the transverse bands diverge alternately. The stripes 
are of a very deep rich brown, nearly black ; while the ground-colour 
is raw sienna on the upper parts (back, rump, sides, &c), but gra- 
dually fading into white on the lower parts. It has an erect mane 
of alternate bands of white and black, edged with brown. The ears 
are white, with a dark band near the tip and broader band at the 
base. The muzzle is grey or lead-coloured, and behind the nostrils 
a brown coffee-colour. It has a bare spot on all four fetlocks, with 
a brown crescent-shaped spot on either side of it. A bare patch above 
the knee, on the inside of each fore leg. The pastern joints are brown, 
excepting at the back, where it is divided vertically by a white line 
from fetlock to hoof. The ears are decidedly equine. The mane is 
G inches long on the back ; commencing from about 4 inches down 
the forehead, extends to the length of 1\ feet down the back. The 
markings of it are continuations of the transverse lines which cross 
the back. The white bands on the mane are quite superficial, the 
hair underneath being actually black, edged with brown. Length of 
ears 6 inches. The head measures 2 feet from the top of the skull 
to the point of upper lip. From the root of the mane on the fore- 
head and from top of forehead narrow lines of white and black (the 
latter sometimes streaked with brown in the middle) diverge in a 
triangular manner towards the eyes, where the outside lines, making 
an angle, continue down the face, drawing closer towards the extre- 
mity of the face (the inside lines being straight), where they blend 
and form a dark brown patch behind and above the nostrils, the 
muzzle and the lips being grey. Broader bands emanate from this 
dark muzzle, and cross the chest in a crescent shape, leaving a white 
margin around the eyes, behind which the regularity of the lines is 
interrupted by those of the neck ; and the space from below the eye 
is filled up with markings of a hieroglyphical character. The stripes 
under the chin are light brown. The circumference of the neck is 
2 feet. The dorsal line extends to the brush of the tail, which is of 
a dark grey ; and on the base of the tail, which is white, it becomes 
narrower, and is dotted all the way clown on either side with spots of 
black, edged with brown. The form of the tail approaches nearer to 
that of the Horse in the largeness of the brush than the Zebra or the 
Ass ; but it is still not exactly like a Horse's tail. On the thighs 
the stripes are alternately pale brown and deep brown, horizontal, but 
curving and forming a right-angled triangle on the flank; and an 
acute and more perfect triangle is formed on the shoulder-blades by 

Mr. E. L. Layard on a neiv Zebra. 217 

the junction there of the stripes from the neck and breast with the 
transverse stripes. A longitudinal dark band traverses the whole 
length of the belly, becoming narrower and deeper on the breast, 
around which it winds and continues, forming one of the oblique lines, 
to the centre of the shoulder-blades. From out of this ventral line 
diverge the transverse lines tending towards the dorsal line, but not 
connected therewith. On the legs the stripes gradually assume a 
horizontal direction from the top downwards, but continuing the ob- 
lique direction longer on the hind legs, and are distinctly, though 
sometimes only faintly, visible to the hoofs in this specimen. Others 
are more strongly marked. In some cases the transverse lines do 
run into the dorsal line ; but in no two specimens do the markings 
seem to be exactly alike, the lines sometimes branching into two or 
three as they approach the dorsal line on the flank and the angle at 
the junction of the horizontal or oblique lines, these with the trans- 
verse being sometimes filled up with disconnected hieroglyphical 

" The height of a young male shot in June 1862, at the shoulder, 
was 4| feet, at the rump 5 feet." 

" Notes of a sujiposed new variety of Quagga observed on the ele- 
vated flats between the Botletle and Zambesi Rivers during the 
late journey of J. Chapman and T. Baines. By T. Baines. 

" Extract from my diary : — 

" 20th May, 1862. — Chapman had shot a Quagga answering most 
nearly to the Bonte Quagga or BurchelPs Zebra, which is striped 
over the neck and body, the legs only, from the knees and houghs, 
being white ; in this, however, faint markings were continued all the 
way down, and a peculiar line was run along the centre of the sto- 
mach, making me think it must be a new variety. Unfortunately it 
is already cut up by Damaras and Bushmen. 

"As nearly as I can remember, Chapman, on returning, remarked, 
' The Quaggas here are not like those of Vaal River ; they have stripes 
on their legs ;' then said, 'and if they are not Zebras they must be 
new, for only two kinds are described — the common one of Kafirland 
with no stripes on the rump or legs, and E. Burchellii, the Bonte 
Quagga, with no stripes on its legs' *. Chapman considered they were 
not Zebras (as the animal is called here), E. montanus having longer 
ears and asinine head and tail, whereas the head and ears of these 
were more like those of a Horse, and the tail more bushy. Besides 
this, E. montanus is strictly confined to hills and broken ground, 
while these live in immense herds on the flat, with no mountains 
within many days' journey. We determined on further investigation. 

" Latitude of the camp 20° 5' 55" south. 

" June 26th. — Chapman shot a Quagga strongly marked, like the 
former ones, on the parts of the legs that are usually white ; he sent 

* This passage reads obscurely. Baines means only two kinds of Quagga: the 
hunters call E. quagga and E. Burchellii " Quaggas," while E. montanus they call 
" Zebra."— E. L. L. 

218 Zoological Society :- 

to let me know ; but John, who has no idea of anything that has 
not a market value, had called the Damaras to cut it up. 

" 30th. — The head and legs of a Quagga were brought in, the 
latter being, as before, strongly marked quite to the hoofs, the re- 
currence of this peculiarity showing that it cannot be a mere indi- 
vidual accident, such as is seen in difference of colour in domestic 

" July 10th. — Chapman shot a Quagga and Sable Antelope at a 
distance from the waggons. I sketched from the skin and horns of 
the latter, and the legs and ears of the Quagga. This had been a 
smaller animal, but of stouter and more compact build than those 
hitherto seen. 1 have already mentioned those at the Salt-pan with 
decided markings on the legs below the knees and houghs, while the 
two described species are perfectly white ; and now this animal, 
besides being stouter and shorter of limb, is more strongly marked, 
the colours being distinct and pure black and white, the black spread- 
ing almost half over the pastern-joint and fetlock, and having a small 
white edging between it and the hoofs ; the ears are strongly handed 
and slightly tinted with brown. 1 thought at first it might be a 
Zebra ; but Chapman considered it a true Quagga, and I am inclined 
to think so too. 

"This was at Daka (lat. 18° 40' 1"). After coming down off the 
elevated plain into the mountainous valley of the Zambesi system, 
we were encamped on one of the spruils of the Luisi, the first run- 
ning water we had seen since leaving the Botletle river. 

" Thursday, 1 7th, Matietue River. — Chapman had shot a Quagga 
mare ; and, hastening to the spot, I found an eager group of natives 
with difficulty restrained from rushing at once upon the prey. In 
this case we had to omit the measurement ; but I sketched the stripes 
carefully, and the camera of course cannot be gainsaid. The general 
colour was a yellowish or raw-sienna brown on the upper parts, and 
deepest on the rump, fading into white on the neck, belly, and legs ; 
the stripes were of the deepest brown or nearly black, and the dif- 
ference between this and the known varieties consisted in their being 
continued quite down to the hoof on all four legs, slightly fainter on 
the inside ; the belly was marked by a broad black band along the 
centre, to which all the side stripes were joined ; on the back was a 
similar black line, but only the stripes above the shoulder were con- 
nected with it ; the mane was upright, as usual (the neck-stripes 
being continued vertically through it) ; the ears small and equine, 
and a bare spot (rather small) was observable on the inside of the 
fore legs only, the Zebra, I believe, having it on all four, as well as 
large ears. 

" I made two sketches of this, and Chapman two photographs. 
There are intermediate brown stripes between the black ones on the 
hind legs above the hough. 

"Saturday, July 19th. — We proceeded about a mile north-east 
by north, when, near the small conical hill on our left, Chapman 
brought down a fine young Quagga stallion of the same kind as 
the mare previously killed ; but age, I suppose, not having deepened 

Mr. E. L. Layard on a new Zebra. 219 

the colours, its whole body was of the purest white, marked with 
jet-black bands down to every hoof, in the manner of the other, but 
slightly fainter on the inside of the legs, and also where the stripes 
of the sides joined to the longitudinal line of the belly, some of 
those on the flanks having these points so faintly marked that the 
junction could not be called complete ; like the other, a central stripe 
ran along the back, with which two or three of the shoulder-stripes 
(on each side) were connected, the broad stripes of the hinder parts 
originating near the central line about the insertion of the tail, and 
diverging laterally over the hip, flank, and side till they completely 
or nearly reached the ventral line, the longest of them meeting on 
their way the ventral stripes of the sides, and forming the most 
beautiful possible combination of curves and angles, even the slight 
variation of regularity on either side conducing to the effect ; the 
ears were small, and banded and tipped with black and dark brown ; 
the head well shaped, with a little sienna-brown towards the nose ; 
and the whole form lighter and more elegant than in the older spe- 

" Sunday, September 14th. — I shot two, which at first I took 
for Mountain-Zebras ; but on comparing notes with Chapman, I came 
to the conclusion they were also Quaggas. The stallion fell at a di- 
stance, and was cut up while I was sketching and observing the mare. 
She was full-striped, somewhat smaller than most of those Chapman 
had killed ; ears, if anything, shorter and more equine. Callosities 
or small bare patches of skin on the inside of the fore legs only, and 
not on the hinder legs ; striped right down to the hoofs ; inside more 
faintly marked than the outer. Dokkie and others thought it like 
the Wilde Paard of Ozembengue, and different to the Quacha of the 
plains. I believe they would have said anything, so that I would 
have done talking and let them begin to cut it up. 

" Sunday, December 7th. — Went out from Logu Hill, Zambesi 
River ; tracked spoor several hours ; wounded a mare, which was run 
down late in the afternoon, and killed with a stone. Fully striped, 
as before, down to the hoofs, all four legs, the inside of the forearm 
and thighs being more faintly marked ; the ears small and tipped 
with black ; the stripes on the sides extended from the dorsal line 
to the ventral, which last, reaching from between the fore legs to the 
hinder, was of not quite so deep a black ; the ground-colour was light- 
yellowish brown on neck, back, and sides, passing into white on the 
cheeks, throat, and under parts of body ; the teats, two in number, 
were situated in the after part of the black ventral line. She had 
warts or callosities on the inside of the forearms only, and none on 
the inside of the thigh. 

" I sketched carefully, and took the skin home, attempting to pre- 
serve it ; but the weather was so damp that, even in a hut with a 
fire in it, I could not dry it. 

" Tuesday, 14th April, 1863 (after our return to the salt-pan on 
the elevated plain between the Zambesi and Botletle rivers). — A 
few Quaggas were standing on the further plain, and creeping behind 
a point at 300 yards' range. I shot one through the neck and fore- 

220 Zoological Society. 

head : it proved to be a well-grown, handsomely marked filly of the 
first year ; and as the rest retreated, I noticed that the mare hung 
back and looked frequently round for her lost little one, returning 
when the others were out of sight and gazing wistfully at the spot 
where it lay. 

" I had no means of measuring the beautiful little creature on the 
spot ; and for convenience of carrying I had only my small sketch- 
book, so carefully outlined one of the fore legs. I sent Pompey 
back for assistance, and in the interval sketched on a small scale, and 
stripped off the skin, which is a good size for a small museum, and, 
as carriage is a consideration, suits me better than a large one. 

" It is perfectly marked after the manner of Quaggas in this loca- 
lity, but not so fully as those of Daka and the Zambesi, and is most 
certainly an intermediate link between already described varieties 
and the Zebra. The chief points worthy of note are that the legs, 
instead of being white as in the Bonte Quagga (E. Burchellii) from 
the houghs and knees, are marked with transverse bands, not so dark 
as those on the body, quite down to the hoofs ; there is a dark stripe, 
commencing between the fore legs and extending along the belly to 
between the hinder, where it becomes broader and somewhat fainter ; 
the first three stripes behind the shoulder are joined to this ; the 
dark stripes on the rump are alternated with others of a medium 
brown, but those on the fore part of the body and neck are of a full 
deep black ; there are callosities on the inside of the fore legs only, 
and none on the hinder. 

" Chapman killed two Quaggas during the day. I believe they 
were very faintly marked on the legs ; but the vultures and Damaras 
destroyed them. The skins are quite worthless, which is much to be 
regretted, as we think it certain they are true Quaggas undescribed 
in any work we know of, and, as a new variety, would have been a 
handsome gift to any museum. 

" Pereira told me subsequently, the Quagga of Damaraland has 
legs very nearly white ; there are faint stripes, but not visible till you 
come close to them ; there are warts on the fore legs only. The 
"Wilde Paard is darker, the stripes blacker; the head is larger, and 
the ears also ; they stand up so as to be visible above the mane. The 
Wilde Paard goes in the hills, the Quagga on the flats. 

" I sent down the skin of the filly to Mr. Logue in Cape Town, 
and he forwarded it to the British Museum." 

"With reference to this communication, Mr. Sclater remarked that 
the female Zebra in the Society's Gardens (presented to the Menagerie, 
May 26th, 1801, by H.E. Sir George Grey), which he had hitherto 
referred to Equus Burchellii, appeared to answer the description 
above given in every way, and must probably be referred to Equus 
Chapmanni if that species were allowed to stand. 



On the Chilian "Anguilla." By Dr. R. A. Philippi. 

Dr. Philtppi has succeeded in obtaining a specimen of the fish 
known under the name of "Anguilla" in Chili : it is a new species 
of Lamprey, which the author describes under the name of 

Petromyzon acutidens. 

It is much darker than the three other Chilian freshwater Lam- 
preys ; above and on the sides blackish grey, with a violet and rusty- 
brown lustre, the latter especially on the tail. Each branchial ori- 
fice stands in the middle of a whitish spot. The ventral surface is 
grey, yellowish beneath the branchial orifices. The caudal fins are 
blackish grey ; the two dorsal fins rather light grey. Seen from the 
side, the muzzle appears rather acute, the mouth being almost in a 
line with the belly ; its hinder end projects somewhat, and is sepa- 
rated from the gular region by a transverse fissure, nearly 3 lines 
broad, which leads into a sort of shallow pouch. This does not form 
a sac, as in Petromyzon ? Anwandteri and Velasia chilensis, but is 
somewhat inflated. The total length is 14 inches ; the depth at the 
last branchial orifice is 9 lines, at the first dorsal ~ 4 \ lines, and at the 
anus 5 lines. The eye is 12 lines from the apex of the muzzle, and 
2 lines in diameter ; the orifice of the mouth is 11^ lines long ; the 
first branchial orifice is 19 lines from the tip of the snout, and the 
last nearly 3 inches. The first dorsal commences 7 inches from the 
tip of the snout, and is 13-14 lines in length and 2h lines in height. 
The second dorsal is of the same height, but more than 2 inches 
long ; the interval between them is 1^ inch. The caudal fin is 
acutely rhomboidal ; its dorsal margin is 1£ inch long; its ventral 
portion runs, gradually diminishing, nearly to the anus, which is 
2 inches 4 lines from the extremity of the tail. 

On each side of the head there are three rows of mucus-glands : 
one runs fromthe snout towards the lower margin of the eye, but with- 
out attaining the latter; the second forms an oblique line close to the 
anteroinferior margin of the eye ; and the third commences below 
the first, halfway between the apex of the snout and the eye, and is 
continued to the throat, where it terminates between the hinder 
margin of the mouth and the first branchial orifice. 

The mouth forms an ellipse, or, when fully extended, a broad 
oval, and has double lips, the outer grey, with a row of small warts, 
the inner white, short, and entire at the margin. The teeth are 
remarkably acute. In front of the two inner lingual teeth there 
stands a transverse row of eight teeth ; on the palate there are two 
groups, each consisting of three acute teeth ; and, lastly, there are 
about four concentric series of acute denticles, gradually diminishing 
in size from the gullet to the margin of the lips. 

In the two groups of three teeth, and the lips destitute of fringes, 
the species resembles P.I Anwandteri, which, however, has a row of 
large teeth in the external circumference of the mouth, and is further 

222 Miscellaneous. 

distinguished by a large gular sac (as in Velasia) and by the different 
form of the caudal fin. The fish inhabits the brooks of some parts 
of Chili, and is thrown away by the fishermen, who regard it as 
unwholesome. — WiegmantCs Archiv, 1 8G4, p. 107- 

On the Parasitic Nature of the Mistletoe. 
By Joseph Boehm. 

The author divides plants in general into the two following groups: — 

1. Chlorophyll-bearing, which assimilate the inorganic substances 
drawn up by tbe roots from the soil, and thus become the ancestors 
of all tbe rest of living nature. 

2. Chlorophyll-free, which either extract the assimilated juices 
from other organisms, or nourish themselves from dead organic 
matter. The latter plants alone, which live in the manner of ani- 
mals, are regarded by the author as parasites. 

The Mistletoe has always been regarded as a plant which extracts 
the organic juices from the plant on which it grows, and consequently 
leads a parasitic existence. Boehm calls attention to the following 
circumstances, which are particularly adverse to this view : — 

1 . The mode of insertion of the roots of the Mistletoe into the 
wood of the tree on which it grows. 

2. The occurrence of the plant in question upon more than thirty 
species of trees, all, however, of indefinite growth (Endumsprosser) . 

3. The different results of the analysis of the ashes of the Mis- 
tletoe and its supposed nutritive plants. 

4. The comparative size of the branches bearing Mistletoe above 
and below the insertion of the apparent parasite. 

Recent investigations, repeated by Boehm, have placed it beyond 
a doubt that, in trees with indefinite growth, the ascent of the crude 
nutritive material takes place in the wood, but the assimilated forma- 
tive juices descend in the bark. Even Knight was aware that when 
annular strips are removed from the branches of these plants, the 
latter become thickened only above the annular wound. 

This circumstance enabled the author to decide with absolute cer- 
tainty that the Mistletoe has precisely the same relation to its nutri- 
tive plant as a twig to its parent branch, or the graft to the stock. 
From thirty branches bearing Mistletoe (on Acer, Populus, and 
Quercus) the terminal twigs above the attachment of the Mistletoe 
were cut away and the branches ringed below the Mistletoe. Whilst 
in Acer and Quercus the branches thus treated usually died soon, 
the Mistletoe plants on the Poplars not only continued their normal 
growth, but a thickening of the branch above the annular wound 
took place. This can only have occurred at the expense of the 
juices assimilated by the Mistletoe. 

The fact that the development of the branches above the insertion 
of the Mistletoe is hindered has, in the author's opinion, nothing to 
do with the parasitic nature of that plant. The Mistletoe acts only 
in the same way as any branch of the tree of which the development 
is in advance of its neighbours. The injurious effect of the presence 

Miscellaneous. 223 

of Mistletoe upon the growth of the twigs below it is to be ascribed 
partly to the aborted condition of the terminal shoots, and partly to 
the fact that the juices assimilated by the Mistletoe are chiefly ap- 
plied to its own increase, and may be less fitted for the development 
of the tree on which it grows. — Bericht der Akad. der Wiss. in Tfien, 
June 30, 1865, p. 113. 

On a Fungus ivhich is developed in Ivory and Bone. 
By Professor Wedl. 

In examining some sections of human teeth which had been 
macerated for a few days in water, Professor Wedl found that the 
cement and the peripheral layers of dentine were furrowed by micro- 
scopic channels. He soon recognized in these channels small parasitic 
plants, closely resembling those which perforate the shells of Mol- 
lusca. A careful examination of the water in which the sections had 
been macerated furnished numerous small cells, which might be re- 
garded as the spores of the Fungus. Fragments of normal teeth 
placed in the same water were soon infested by these little parasites, 
the operation of which is, however, confined to the cement and 
dentine, and never extends to the enamel. The Fungus also 
attacked fragments of bone macerated in the water. 

These little Fungi seem to be developed at the expense partly of 
the organic and partly of the inorganic matter of the ivory and bone ; 
and the conditions of their multiplication doubtless frequently occur 
in nature. They do not, however, appear to attack teeth until 
after death ; so that they have nothing to do with caries. Pro- 
fessor Wedl has ascertained that these parasites have been in action 
from a high antiquity, many teeth of fossil Fishes and Mammalia 
exhibiting unequivocal traces of their action. — Sitzungsber. Akad. 
Wiss. in Wien, July 14, 1864; Bibl. Univ. 1865, Bull. Sci. 
p. 231. 

Note on the Ammobroma Sonorse. 

This (the literal translation of which is " sand food of Sonora") is 
the name of an extraordinary root-parasitic plant, of the region at 
the head of the Gulf of California, which Dr. Torrey has just de- 
scribed and figured in the eighth volume of the ' Annals of the 
Lyceum of Natural History of New York.' It has been briefly 
noticed before (but never fully characterized) as a new genus allied 
to the rare Mexican Coral lophy Hum of Kunth (or Lennoa, Lexarza), 
and still more to the Californian and hardly better known Pholisma 
of Nuttal. It hardly throws any new light upon the affinity of 
these strange plants, which, though justly thought to be rather 
Monotropaceous than Orobanchaceous, are still obscure. This 
plant, growing in a forlorn sandy desert, almost covered by the sand 
in which it lives, was found by its discoverer, the late Col. A. B.Gray, 
to form a considerable part of the sustenance of the Papigos Indians 
of the district, and is said to be very luscious when first gathered 
and cooked, resembling in taste the sweet potato, only far more de- 
licate. — Silliman's Journal, Julv 1865. 

224 Miscellaneous. 

On the Intercellular Matter and the Vessels of the Latex in the 
Root of the Dandelion. By Dr. A. Vogel. 

The back of the root of the Dandelion is traversed by a great 
number of lactiferous vessels containing a very abundant bluish- 
white milk. These vessels form a great number of larger or smaller 
bundles disposed in a tolerably regular concentric manner, and 
united to each other by numerous ramifications. The ramifications 
are always parallel to the surface of the root, so that the bundles 
form concentric sheaths independent of each other. The outermost 
peridermic layer of the bark, however, is destitute of lactiferous 
vessels, which exist chiefly in the inner portion. The cellular paren- 
chyma of these two parts of the bark contains a great quantity of 
intercellular matters, especially in the vicinity of the lactiferous vessels. 

According to the author, the lactiferous vessels originate by the 
union of conductive cells (Leitzellen), of which the adjacent septa 
become gradually converted into pectose, and finally disappear. He 
has detected many intermediate stages, which leave him no doubt as 
to this mode of formation of the vessels. According to him, the 
lateral walls of these same cells likewise finally become converted 
into pectose ; so that the fully developed lactiferous vessels are not 
formed by a cellulose membrane. 

It was by observing the action of iodized liquids, acids, and alka- 
lies upon the substance forming the envelope of the lactiferous ves- 
sels, that Dr. Vogel was led to regard it as cellulose in progress of 
conversion into pectose. He arrived at the same results by setting 
the same reagents in action upon the intercellular matter of the 
Dandelion-root, which he also regards as pectose produced by the 
gradual transformation of the membrane of cells. — Bericht Akad, 
Wiss. in Wien; Bibl. Univ. 186*5, Bull. Sci. p. 239. 

On the Structure of the Luminous Organs in the Male of Lampyris 
splendidula. By M. Schultze. 

The author has found that the numerous branches of the tracheae 
in the luminous organs of Lampyris splendidula terminate each in a 
small cell of stellate form. Under the action of osmic acid these 
cells rapidly acquire a black tinge, whilst the cells of the parenchyma 
remain uncoloured. These cells therefore readily reduce the osmic 
acid by absorbing its oxygen ; and the author attributes to them an 
important part in the production of the phenomenon of phosphores- 
cence by this insect. — Sitzung der Niederrhein. Ges.fiir Natur- und 
Heilkunde zu Bonn, 1864 ; Bibl. Univ. 1865, Bull. Sci. p. 232. 

De Jeude's Collection of Mollusca. 

The fine collection of Mollusca formed by the late Prof. Lithe de 
Jeude, for many years Professor of Zoology in the University of 
Utrecht, has been purchased by Mr. Damon (of Weymouth). The 
collection, rich in the rare shells of the Moluccas, was displayed in 
1 10 glass cabinets, and formed one of the chief scientific attractions 
in the city of Utrecht. 




No. 94. OCTOBER 1865. 

XXVII. — On Ammonites from the Cambridge Greensand. 

By Harry Seeley, F.G.S., of the Woodwardian Museum, 


[Plates X. & XL] 

Ammonites (Scaphites) aqualis, Sow. 

Shell much inflated, convex, with a wide back, and the convo- 
lute portion so coiled as not to produce an umbilicus : this part 
forms about half the length of the shell, and is always half the 
width of the back, or wider. The back is about twice as wide 
as the side, and less convex. When the whorl recurves and 
forms the mouth, it contracts. 

Both spire and hamus are marked with fine elevated ribs, 
which are most elevated on the sides, and bifurcate before cross- 
ing the back. On the spire they are curved slightly away from 
the mouth, so that the lines are concave in front ; on the hamus 
they pass over straight, and are separated by wider concave 

The symmetrical septa consist of a rather small square dorsal 
lobe, with two small notches on each side, and two digitated 
terminal branches. The dorsal saddle is enormously wide, ex- 
tending to the limit of the back, where the ribs bifurcate ; it is 
centrally cleft by a branch half as large as the dorsal lobe. The 
superior lateral lobe is as wide as half of the dorsal saddle, has 
one small notch on each side, and terminates in two large 
branches, which bifurcate, are digitated, and are near together. 
The inferior lateral lobe is small, and at the base of the side. 
On the ventrum are the ventral lobe and four pairs of acces- 

The Scaphites of the Cambridge Greensand are abundant in 
individuals, though few in forms. Authors have generally, and 
perhaps rightly, referred similar fossils to the S. cequalis of 

Nearly all the specimens found are the last chamber, or 
Ann. fy Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. xvi. 16 

226 Mr. II. Sccley on Ammonites 

hamus, which may indicate that, after these had become filled 
with phosphate of lime, the partitioned part was broken off and 
floated away at the surface, much as the recent Spirilla is found 
drifting. Perfect shells are rare, and young ones never found. 

There are three variations from this form : one, which is 
ornamented with a row of tubercles on each side, is also found 
in the Gosau Chalk. 

Ammonites rostratus, Sow. 
Ammonites rostratus, Sow. A. symmetricus, Sow. 

Numerous citations have been given by Continental writers, 
to whom the species seems scarcely known, being regarded as 
synonymous with A. inflatus, Sow. 

Shell keeled, few-whorlcd, with a flat back, flat sides, quadrate 
mouth, and umbilicus becoming relatively smaller with age, but 
never less than the height of the body-whorl ; not very deep, it 
is angular, though not making a sharp angle with the side. 
The back is generally a little narrower than the side is high ; 
out of its middle arises the narrow keel, from each side of which 
the ribs are directed backward and outward at an angle of 45°, 
then descend straight, elevated, perpendicular, and separated by 
wide spaces, and terminate, generally separate, in tubercles at 
the base. On a whorl there are from 25 to 35 ribs, each 
having a tubercle above the middle, and another where they 
reach the back. The wide intercostal spaces are smooth. When 
full-grown, the last two or three ribs incline frontwards; the 
keel and adjacent lateral parts of the back become elevated, and 
are directed upward and forward in a curve to form the rostrum, 
which is hollow and rhomboid in section ; for the last rib but 
one, instead of dying away on nearing the keel, as those behind 
it do, is continued up its side, becoming less and less distinct. 
The whole whorl becomes narrow. This rostral prolongation is 
open in front, and in its upper third curved slightly down. 

The septa are symmetrical. The dorsal lobe is longer than 
wide, extending between two tubercles, and being margined by 
the I'ising of the ribs. It has three notches on each side, the 
two terminal of which become with age digitated branches. 
The dorsal saddle is relatively very wide, extending down to the 
lateral tubercle ; it is doubly cleft, the upper accessory being 
much the larger, above the middle, and in a line with the dorsal 
tubercles. The upper lobe gets relatively wider with age, and is 
from a third to more than half the width of the dorsal saddle ; 
it has a branch on each side, and two terminal branches digi- 
tated with age. The lateral saddle is slightly wider than the 
superior lateral lobe. The lower lateral lobe is on the ventral 
angle, and very small. 

from the Cambridge Greensand. 227 

Besides this, there are four rare forms varying from the type 
chiefly in the degree of development or suppression of the ribs 
and tubercles. 

This Ammonite is found on every digging along a line of 
thirty miles, and is the most abundant. The whorls are always 
coiled on the dorsal tubercles or the homologous thickenings of 
the ribs ; so that the size of the umbilicus depends on the rate 
of increase in the height of a whorl. As a general rule, the 
more compressed the shell, the closer the ribs. 

In a very young state, the whorls are smooth and round, and 
continue so for three or four whorls, and then rapidly assume 
the typical form ; and as this part appears devoid of septa, it 
might have been formed in the egg. 

Large specimens are very rare, and the largest found are 
much inferior in size to those of the Gault at Folkestone or the 
Upper Greensand of the Isle of Wight and Devizes, though 
there can be no doubt that some Cambridge specimens reached 
a diameter quite as great as that of their southern brethren. 
Part of a whorl with the rostrum attached is only 1^ inch high. 
Broken rostra are comparatively common j and it can only be 
supposed that the large shells to which they belonged, having 
but weak septa and being filled with phosphate of lime, were 
broken up before fossilization. The result was not the production 
of the numerous small examples ; for, as the last half whorl is 
almost invariably devoid of partitions, these died small if not 
young, and there is no evidence that a rostrum was ever formed. 

It is probably the true A. symmetricus of Sowerby; but that 
type is seemingly now lost. 

Ammonites pachys. PI. XI. fig. 4. 

Keeled, few-whorled ; whorls flattened on the sides and back, 
so as to appear in section nearly quadrate [about half- em bracing]. 
Umbilicus as high as the back is wide, and higher than the side 
of the last-formed chamber ; it is deep, with the ventrum nearly 
at right angles with the side of the whorl, where it is rounded : 
this space is marked (at a diameter of 2^ inches) with about 
twenty-two strong rounded ribs descending from as many large 
spinous tubercles which margin the base of the side. From 
each tubercle two ribs (rarely three) ascend the side of the 
whorl, at first but little elevated, but higher and wider near the 
back. The interspaces are never wider than the ribs, and on 
the back are narrower ; on the sides, owing to a curve in alter- 
nate ribs, they are equal. On the dorsal surface the ribs are 
curved anteriorly, and become obliterated near the keel. On the 
back (and in old specimens on the sides too) the ribs are crossed 
transversely by small elevated lines placed rather close together. 


228 Mr. II. Seeley on Ammonites 

The back is ,1 little inflated. The keel is round, wide, moderately 
elevated, with the smooth spaees on each side slightly depressed. 

The mouth is a little wider than high. 

Septa very like those of the southern forms of A. rostratus (to 
which the form is nearly related), but with the lobes deeper, and 
with finer digitations. The dorsal, lobe is as long as the back 
is wide, extends in width to the line where the ribs arise, has 
two rather narrow branches on each side, and terminates in two 
acute branches conspicuous in having no digitations on the 
inner side. The lateral lobe is in the middle of the side, not 
quite so long as that of the back, with two branches on each 
side, and terminating in three, of which the middle one is much 
the largest. At a diameter of If inch the distance between two 
septa where they cross the keel is fths of an inch. In examples 
of the southern form of A. rostratus, at a diameter of 2-j? inches 
the interseptal space on the keel is only half an inch. 

Much as it differs, I incline to regard this as a constituent 
variety of A. rostratus, with near affinities to A. inflatus. 

Ammonites Timotheanus, Pictet, Gres Vert, pi. 3. figs. 1 & 2. 

Few quadrate whorls, enlarging rather rapidly, two-thirds 
embracing, gibbous ; with a flat back, flattened sides, and flat 
ventrum. The sides, very slightly inflated, round into the um- 
bilicus and into the back, slightly converging, so that the back 
is narrower than the base. The mouth is nearly a fourth wider 
than high. The umbilicus is not shallow, and is half as high as 
the mouth is wide. The cast is perfectly smooth, and only 
marked with the elegant foliations of complex septa. 

The siphuncle is unusually wide, being of the width of the 
dorsal lobe. The septa are almost exactly the same as in A. 
latidorsatus (Mich.). The dorsal lobe is relatively a little deeper 
by the terminal branches being separated for only half as far; 
these and the preceding branch on each side are bifid. The 
superior lateral lobe is deeply cleft, making the two bifid ter- 
minal branches large. The superior lateral saddle is not deeply 

I have seen but two specimens of this form, both collected by 
Mr. Carter. So far as figures and descriptions enable me to 
judge, it might be classed as a variety of A. latidorsatus, differing 
chiefly in the flatness of the back, and perhaps in the rate of 
enlargement; but it appears, from Miehelin's figure, that the 
young states are sufficiently unlike to justify a distinction. This 
form always had a flat back and trapezoidal mouth, &c, while 
the other has a round back and lune-shaped mouth. It exactly 
corresponds with the Ammonite figured by Prof. Pictet in the 
'Gres Vert' (pi. 2. fig. 0) as A. Timotheanus ; but it does not 

from the Cambridge Greensand. 2.29 

correspond with his description and the figure answering for 
Mayor's MS. species. That form is spoken of as "ornee de 
cinq a six sillons qui partent de l'ombilic dans la direction 
qu'auraient des tangentes au cercle ombilical." This character 
may perhaps not be sufficient to distinguish a species ; but it 
certainly makes a well-marked form, indicating an animal which 
formed periodic varices. 

Ammonites latidorsatus, Mich. 
A. latidorsatus, D'Orb. Paleont. France; Pictct, Gres Vert, pi. 3. fig. 5. 

Few-whorled, much inflated, whorls two-thirds embracing, a 
little wider than high, with nearly parallel flat sides, and a 
rather depressed round back, which rounds into the sides. The 
body-chamber is half as high again as the whorl at the opposite 
side of the shell, than which the umbilicus is slightly narrower. 
The umbilicus is deep, with the flat and almost horizontal ven- 
trum making a sharp angle with the side, though the line of 
meeting is just rounded. The cast appears perfectly smooth, 
but is marked by shallow and narrow sulcations arising in the 
umbilicus and passing over the back, where two are separated 
by interspaces narrower than the height of the whorl. The 
mouth is lunate. 

The septa are like those of A. planulatus, the only difference 
being that the inferior lateral lobe is not cleft so deeply. 

This is a very rare fossil ; and the only specimen known to 
me was detected in the collection of the Rev. J. F. Blake, who 
has presented it to the University Museum. The diameter is 
1^ inch, and the last fourth of the outer whorl is devoid of 
chambers. It corresponds with the Continental figures and 
description, though this sulcated form, which cannot be con- 
sidered typical, is a variety distinguishable from Michelin's 
smooth shell. 

Ammonites Mayorianiis, D'Orb. 

A. planulatus, Sow. Min. Con. ; Sharpe, Chalk Moll. pi. 12. fig. 4. 
A. Mayorianus, D'Orb. Paleont. France, T. C. 
A. octosulcatus, Sharpe, pi. 19. fig. 3. 
A. Grijfithsii, Sharpe, pi. 11. fig. 3. 

Inflated, with few whorls, more than half embracing; mouth 
as wide as high. Sides a little inflated, and passing impercep- 
tibly into the round back. Umbilicus about as high as the 
body-whorl, with the horizontal but inflated ventrum rounding 
into the side. The depth of the ventrum exposed is about the 
same as the width of the unembraced part of the adjacent whorl, 
with which it forms a right angle. The cast commonly shows 
very fine depressed ribs, arising about the middle of the side, 
and passing over the back; they are close together, and on 

230 Mr. II. Sceley on Ammonites 

nearing the back arc curved mouthwards. In the umbilicus 
arise four or five more or less deep, wide sulcations, which are 
mostly fiexuous, being first directed a little forward, then 
perpendicularly upward, and finally curved forward on the back 
to the siphuncle, the two sides meeting there in a broad V-shape 
and dying away without impressing it. Between each two sulci 
there arc commonly from twelve to eighteen ribs. 

The septa consist of the dorsal lobe, three lobes on each side, 
and one or two in the umbilicus, all except the last much 
branched, digitated, and close Jtogether. The dorsal lobe is 
longer than wide, has three notches on each side, and terminates 
in two large branches, which are cleft laterally, the parts which 
continue backward being also cleft. The superior lateral lobe 
has two or three small notches on each side, and terminates in 
three large branches, which are trifurcate and digitated. The 
dorsal saddle is larger than the lobe; it is centrally cleft, and 
has a few notches, besides each half being cleft. The inferior 
lateral saddle is much smaller, but similar. 

This form, which differs a little from those most common at 
Cambridge, has been described first, because one of the types of 
it is the identical specimen figured by Mr. Daniel Sharpe as A. 
planulatus, and, moreover, it is the most inflated modification 
that occurs. The example figured, Pakeont. Monogr. Cret. Mol. 
pi. 12. fig. 4, had septa to the end ; and so has one of 4 inches 
diameter, the largest I have; but fragments with the shell pre- 
served occur, showing the back of a whorl to have been from 4 
to 5 inches wide. The small line-like ribs passing over it are in 
this large size a quarter of an inch wide, though but little ele- 
vated, being separated by narrow shallow grooves. The sulca- 
tions go on deepening and widening. 

On comparing small examples with corresponding specimens 
of A. Mayorianus, D'Orb., from the Upper Greensand of the 
Perte du Rhone, I fail to notice any distinction : compare them 
as we may, there is no character they have not in common ; 
consequently no hesitation is felt in regarding our form as iden- 
tical with those of France and Switzerland; but it is not so 
absolutely identical with the Chalk fossil known as A. planu- 
latus. I know that form from a beautifully distinct cast of the 
umbilicus partly formed by an Exogyra growing attached to the 
specimen ; it is from the lower Chalk of Burwell in Cambridge- 
shire. The umbilicus measured not less than 4 inches across, 
and was shallow. The umbilical part of the whorls is flat, and 
the depth of the ventrum exposed only one-fourth the width of 
the uuembraced part of the side. On the Exogyra are the 
foliations of the septa. And this enables me to state that the 
sulci, which were straight on the sides, were not a sixth of the 

from the Cambridge Greensand. 231 

width or depth of the internal casts of those in A. Mayorianus, 
and did not bend into the umbilicus, but terminated at the base 
of the side. The ribs on the back are more elevated and wider 
apart; the number of whorls fewer. The sulci are arranged 
relatively to each other like those figured in ' Cret. Mol/ pi. 12. 
fig. 3. It will be readily seen, on referring to that plate, how 
much better the above description coincides with the Lewes 
Chalk fossil than with the ancestral race figured beside it. 
Hence Sowerby's name, specially used, should be restricted to 
the Chalk form to which it was originally given ; while D'Or- 
bigny's would with more propriety be preserved for the Conti- 
nental fossil, with which ours corresponds. 

In the variations from A. Mayorianus, the whorls gradually 
become more compressed, with flatter sides rounding into the 
umbilicus, which is relatively smaller. There are from five to 
eight sulci. These specimens frequently occur with part of a 
whorl devoid of septa at a diameter of an inch and a half. In 
the young state (diam. f inch) the sides are flat, and a little 
converging to the back ; and as the sulcations are scarcely im- 
pressed, the shell has the aspect of A. Beudantii. 

Some specimens, which died small, exactly correspond with 
Mr. D. Sharpens figure of A. octosulcatus in the number of sul- 
cations, their relative size, and the way they pass over the back : 
though the form of the whorl is not quite the same, yet so near 
are the two, that I have no doubt of the propriety of regarding 
A. octosulcatus as a slight variety of A. Mayorianus. 

There are no specimens at Cambridge of A. Griffithsii; but, 
judging from Mr. Sharpens figure and description, it cannot be 
regarded as other than a variation from A. Mayorianus. 

The type of shell here discussed is one of the more abundant 
of the Greensand Cephalopods, occurring in this neighbourhood 
wherever that deposit is worked. 

Ammonites TFeistii, Sharpe, 'Chalk Mollusca/ pi. 21. fig. 3. 

Few-whorled, inflated; back round; mouth semilunar, much 
wider than high; umbilicus moderately open, with its deep 
border forming a large angle with the side of the shell. 

Ornamented with about twenty-two wide, straight ribs, nearly 
all of equal length ; every third rib is somewhat thickened on 
the sides as it nears the umbilicus, while the ribs between these 
thickened ones frequently become obliterated before reaching 
the edge of the umbilicus. 

Septa simple, consisting on each side of three lobes. Dorsal 
lobe marked on each side with two simple digits. The dorsal 
saddle, half as wide again as the dorsal lobe, is indicated by a 

232 Mr. H. Seeley on Ammonites 

small accessory. The superior lateral lobe is about half the 
width of the dorsal lobe, and much shorter ; the terminal 
branches are similar, only less developed. 

Only two specimens of this Ammonite have come under my 

The exact affinities of A. Weistii are not quite clear. Speci- 
mens of A. navicularis come very near to it, but have not the 
constant greater elevation of occasional ribs ; rather in this it 
approaches A. peramplus, which, however, has spines in the 
young state at their umbilical termination. 

Ammonites navicularis, Mant., var. 

The flattened back is slightly inflated, and rounds into the 
side j the flattened side, which is also a little swollen, rounds 
into the umbilicus. The mouth is higher than wide. The few 
whorls are almost entirely embracing, forming a deep and small 
umbilicus about half the diameter of the whorl opposite to the 

Ornamented with about (thirty to) forty wide rounded ribs, 
which are straight, strongest where they pass over the back, 
and separated by spaces of not more than their own width. 
About half the ribs arise in the umbilicus, the remainder near 
the middle of the side. 

There are three lateral lobes on each side. The dorsal lobe 
is wide and square, with three branches on each side, the lower 
of which have five digits. Dorsal saddle rather wider than the 
lobe. Superior lateral lobe half as wide as the dorsal saddle, 
and deeper than the dorsal lobe; it has two branches on each 
side and a large terminal one which bifurcates. Lateral saddle 
like dorsal. 

The few specimens found show considerable variation in the 
form of the mouth, which is sometimes as wide as high. They 
are more flattened than is usual in examples of A. navicularis 
from the Chalk, and differ in never having any tubercles ; the 
umbilicus is also commonly smaller. The Warminster Upper 
Greensand contains similar shells; but they have tubercles on 
the back. 

It may be necessary to separate the Cambridge shell as a 
variety; for it is intermediate between A. Weistii and A. navicu- 
laris, and may be an extremely compressed variety of the former. 
But A. Weistii can scarcely claim to be more than a well-marked 
variety of A. navicularis, connecting it with A. peramplus. Our 
fossils also nearly resemble A. vectensis, Sharpe, and cannot be 
distinguished as more than a variety, the only differences being 
that the ribs are straight (seemingly more elevated), the back 
slightly flatter, and the umbilicus commonly larger. This being 

from the Cambridge Greensand. 233 

so, confusion may be avoided by marking Cambridge specimens 
A. navicularis, var. nothus. 

Diam. 2^ inches, with septa to the end. 

Ammonites rhamnonotus. PI. XI. fig. 7. 

Few-whorled, flat, with a round back and small umbilicus. 

Ornamented with about thirty-six radiating ribs, which con- 
tinue uninterruptedly over the back, and are alternately long 
and short. The long ribs mostly arise in the umbilicus, and the 
shorter ones at a third or half the width of the whorl from the 
back; they are nearly straight, elevated, and become tumid 
where the side rounds into the back, but are most elevated in 
the middle of the side. On the back the ribs are rather less 
distinct, bend slightly towards the mouth, and each bears in its 
centre a small sharp tubercle. In a younger state there are 
also tubercles at the extreme edge of the back, which seem to 
disappear with a diameter of twelve lines. These are, moreover, 
the only tubercles in specimens of five lines diam., the back being 
till then smooth and rounding. 

Mouth twice as high as wide, forming more than half the 
diameter of the shell. # 

Septa complicated, divided on each side into four lobes. The 
dorsal, which is wider and shorter than the superior lateral, is 
ornamented with two branches on each side ; the lower of these 
has three digits. The saddles are all half as wide again as the 
lobes they correspond to, and divided by an accessory lobe into 
two unequal parts. The superior lateral lobe, which is long and 
narrow, has on each side two branches, of which the lower has 
three digits, and in the middle a branch which bifurcates. In 
the inferior lateral lobe the terminal branch does not bifurcate, 
but terminates in three digits. 

Height of shell If inch ; height of umbilicus less than £ inch. 
Height of mouth 1 inch, width \ inch. 

It nearly resembles A. sexangulatus \ but the much more 
numerous and finer ribs, differently arranged, and the absence 
of lateral tubercles from the back, readily distinguish it. The 
A. Itierianus, D'Orb., has a very distant resemblance. Essen- 
tially the shell is a compressed form of A. Mantelli, with a me- 
sial row of dorsal tubercles instead of two lateral rows. 

Loc. Cambridge. Coll. University Museum. 

Ammonites sexangulatus. PI. XI. fig. 1. 

Few-whorled, discoidal, compressed, with an angular tuber- 
culated back and small umbilicus. 

Ornamented with about twenty-five wide, rounded, radiating 
ribs, which are somewhat wavy, being for the most part bowed 

234 Mr. H. Seeley on Ammonites 

a little forward on the middle of the side : they are separated 
by spaces never narrower than the width of the ribs. Less than 
half of the ribs reach the umbilicus, two commonly uniting in 
a fork at about a third the width of the whorl from it, and a 
single free one (which dies away at the same distance) sometimes 
occurring between pairs of forks. 

The sides, which are parallel, slope into the umbilicus, and 
make a large angle with each half of the back, by tubercles 
being developed on the ribs at the line where the back would 
begin to round. The ribs are prolonged, somewhat widening 
and curving forwards, to the centre of the back, where they ter- 
minate in prominent tubercles. Thus the back is ornamented 
with three rows of tubercles. 

The mouth is six-sided, with the sides opposite and parallel. 
It is half as high again as wide, and nearly half the height of 
the shell. 

The septa appear to consist of three lobes on each side. The 
dorsal is wider and shorter than the superior lateral ; they both 
have three small branches on each side, and at the end two 
larger ones trifurcate. The dorsal saddle, which is about as 
wide as the lobe, is cut into by two very small accessory lobes. 

In a young state (diameter f inch) the sides are perfectly 
parallel ; only one or two of the ribs reach the umbilicus, and 
all the others are much shorter than the short ones in the larger 

Height If inch; width of umbilicus ^ inch. Height of 
mouth -fjf inch, width -fV inch. 

Loc. Cambridge. Coll. University Museum. 

This form belongs to the small series with trituberculated 
backs, typified by A. papalis. I am not familiar with any form 
which closely resembles it. A. Itierianus, D'Orb., has some 
likeness to the young form ; but the much more numerous ribs, 
smaller umbilicus, &c, easily identify the shell described. A. 
Brottianus is nearly related. 

Ammonites acanthonotus. PI. XI. fig. 5. 

Few-whorled, compressed, with the sides gently inflated; 
back rounded, bearing a mesial row of spines; umbilicus as 
high as the whorl at the opposite side of the mouth. 

The umbilicus is shallow, with the lower third of the side, 
which it includes, gently bevelled down to the preceding whorl ; 
it is marked with radiating ribs, each terminating under the 
succeeding whorl in a small tubercle. 

On the side of a whorl there are about twelve tubercles, from 
which its upper two-thirds inclines inwards, rounding gently on 
Hearing the back. From each eminence diverge two ribs (in 

from the Cambridge Greensand. 235 

the young state, sometimes three); and there is a free rib not 
descending quite so far as these, intermediate between each two 
tubercles. The ribs, parted by spaces of about twice their width, 
are rather small and obtuse, becoming relatively less elevated 
and narrower with age. At a third of the width of the side from 
the back all the ribs are parted by regular distances, but from 
about that point two of them converge towards a tubercle on 
the back. The intermediate ribs, which do not pass over the 
back, terminate where the back and side pass into each other. 

The back is about half as wide as the umbilicus is high, and 
supports on the last whorl a row of spines one-fourth more nu- 
merous than the lateral tubercles. They are short and large, 
having for the base the whole width of the back, are directed 
forward, and get steadily higher. They are an adult character, 
the ribs passing over the back till the specimen gets of more 
than nine lines diameter. 

The mouth, less than half the shell's diameter, is about a 
fourth higher than wide. 

The septa are obliterated ; they were simple, with a small 
inferior lateral lobe, and below it three small accessory lobes. 

A slight inflation extends all round one side of the whorl ; 
but, from the near resemblance the shell has to Ammonites 
glossonotus, I am not inclined to give that weight to the distor- 
tion it otherwise would have. 

The late Dr. S. P. Woodward, in 1862, regarded this shell as 
a monstrosity of Ammonites lautus, Sow., — a view with which I 
cannot agree. 

Ammonites glossonotus. PI. X. fig. 4. 

Few-whorled,discoidal, moderately compressed ; back rounded; 
umbilicus moderately large. 

Around the umbilicus are (about ten) prominent tubercular 
spines, from each of which commonly arise two ribs, and an- 
other is generally placed in each of the hollow spaces inter- 
mediate between the tubercles. These ribs are elevated, narrow, 
and not nearly so wide as the spaces between them, which are 
of about equal width. Two of the ribs ascend the side of the 
shell, nearly parallel to each other,* for two- thirds of its height, 
when the hinder one bends rather suddenly forward so as to 
unite, on the side of the back of the shell, with the front one, 
which curves forward slightly ; united, they pass over the back 
as a thick, elevated, tongue-like fold extending forward. Rarely 
a rib passes over the back singly. 

The mouth, about three-fourths as wide as high, is shaped 
like an ass-shoe. 

The septa are obscure, but appear to be unsymmetrical. The 
dorsal lobe is short, nearly square, and has a branch on each 

236 Mr. H. Seeley on Ammonites 

side, which bifurcates. The dorsal saddle is unequally divided. 
The superior lateral lobe has a few digits on each side, and two 
terminal trilobed branches. 

Height If inch; width of umbilicus | inch. Height of 
mouth | inch; width nearly f inch. 

This is one of those remarkable Ammonites which undergo a 
transformation of ornamentation. The characters described are 
only those of the adult state. In a younger condition, the ribs 
appear to have been alternately long and short, and to have 
each passed over the back without a forward curve. 

The example figured is the only one I have seen. There is 
no cretaceous shell that can be compared with it ; and one of 
the few Ammonites having two ribs united to pass over the back 
is a species from the Lias of Amberg, described by Minister as 
A. Fischeri. That, however, has no umbilical tubercles; the 
ribs are wide and obtuse, and fewer, and the aspect more 

Loc. Ashwell. Coll. University Museum. 

Ammonites Woodwardi. PI. XI. fig. 3. 

Few-whorled, inflated, with convex sides bearing spines, and 
a round back. Umbilicus mostly higher than the whorl oppo- 
site to the mouth, and appearing relatively high from the half- 
embracing whorls enlarging but slowly : it is quite smooth and 
rather deep; but the sides are inflated, and round imperceptibly 
into the sides of the whorl. 

Around the side of the whorl, midway between the back and 
the umbilicus, is a row of some ten or eleven rather elevated 
spines, from which slight inflations descend to the umbilicus, 
and strong round elevated ribs arise to pass over the back. In 
each tubercle are collected three ribs, but only two of them pass 
over to the corresponding tubercle ; for the spines of one side 
are placed a little between those of the opposite side, rather 
than facing them, so making a zigzag, which does not, however, 
strike the eye. The ribs, separated by spaces fully as wide, in 
the more compressed forms, where the tubercles are a little be- 
low the middle of the whorl, pass straight over the back ; but 
in inflated forms the costse are noticeably arched forward ; 
and in this variety the tubercles are above the middle of the 
side ; and consequently the back, which is very much broader, 
is much less convex than in the less inflated form. There is no 
area that can be named a side, the lateral spines dividing the 
umbilicus from the back; thus defined, the back will be nearly 
as wide as three-fourths the height of the umbilicus. 

The mouth is wider than high, shaped like a moon entered 
on her fourth quarter. 

from the Cambridge Greensand. 237 

The septa are simple, the dorsal lobe being square, with two 
small terminal branches. There are two lateral lobes, one above 
and one below the spines. 

Diameter lg- inch, with septa to the end. 

It also occurs in the Gault of Folkestone; and is not easily 
distinguished from one described by Von Hauer, from the Lias, 
as A. spinescens. 

The name has for some years been associated with that of the 
late Dr. S. P. Woodward, under whose friendly guidance it was 
my privilege to gain a knowledge of shells. 

Ammonites coelonotus. PI. X. figs. 2 & 3. 

Few-whorled, much compressed, with nearly flat though 
slightly inflated sides ; back rounding, with a deep mesial 
groove ; umbilicus as high as the whorl at the opposite side to 
the mouth. 

The umbilicus is shallow, but well defined, its narrow hori- 
zontal spiral boundary forming right angles with the vertical 
sides. Around this umbilical angle are about twenty-five little 
eminences — the thickened origin of the ribs. From these points 
the ribs ascend towards the back, being directed forward at a 
considerable curve for about one-fourth- of their length. Each 
rib then, on the side towards the mouth, gives off a branch, 
and these bend back a little, so as to be for about half their 
length perpendicular, and then again curve forward in a small 
arc, passing on to the back, where they continue to be directed 
towards the mouth till terminating on the margin of the dorsal 
groove at the distance of the fifth rib in front of their own 
straight part. The ribs are wide, rounded, and depressed, and 
separated by sulcations of about half their width, w r hich taper 
gradually both towards the back and umbilicus. 

The back is half the width of the umbilicus, with a deep 
mesial groove, towards which the sides gently round ; the sides 
of the sulcation make a sharp angle with the back. 

The mouth at its base is two-thirds as wide as high ; at its 
upper part, where the sides begin to round into the back, it is 
half as wide as high. 

The septa of this shell are remarkable for the small size of the 
dorsal lobe, which is contained in the dorsal groove, and bifur- 
cates. There are two lateral lobes : the superior lateral is twice 
as wide and half as long as the dorsal lobe ; there are two 
notches on each side of it, and at its termination three branches, 
the central of which has three digits. The dorsal saddle, which 
is more than twice as wide as the superior lateral lobe, is divided 
into two subequal parts. 

This is one of the less common forms ; but the few specimens 

238 Mr. II. Sceley on Ammonites 

I have seen (perhaps twenty-five) show a wide amount of varia- 
tion. The fossil figured (PI. X. fig. 2) is one of the most com- 
pressed forms; and from it the umbilicus gets higher, the whorls 
thicker, the ribs more numerous and less elevated, till at last, 
to judge from fragments, the section of a whorl must have 
been wider than high. In the form described the dorsal channel 
is a third the width of the back, but in the widest form it is 
only a ninth. 

A variety occurs in which the whorls are nearly half-embracing 
(PI. X. fig. 3), flattened on the sides, rounding on the back, and 
step-like around the umbilicus, ornamented with about thirty- 
two rather elevated wide ribs separated by sulcations of about 
equal width. The ribs are generally alternately long and short, 
and terminate in fifteen umbilical tubercles. Aperture rather 
higher than wide. Diameter 1^ inch minimum. 

MM. Pictet and Campiche, in their work on the fossils of Ste. 
Croix, pi. 27. f. 2, have referred this type to A. falcatus of Mantell. 
But at Cambridge no specimen of A. falcatus has ever occurred, 
nor do the ribs vary in the least so as to approach that fossil 
more than is seen in the specimen figured. The roundness of 
the back and every feature of the ribs are matter for distinction ; 
hence, and especially as the distribution is different, the forms 
are separated. It is, no doubt, nearly related to A. falcatus, 
having a channelled back and ribbed sides. 

Diam. 2j inches; septa to the end. 

Ammonites splendens, Sow. 

A. s/)Zewr7ws,Sow.M.C.t.l03; Pictet, Gres Vert, pi. 6. fig. 6; D'Orb.pUtf. 

A. Yittoni, D'Arch. 

A. auritus, D'Orb. T. C. vol. i. pi. 65. figs. 3 & 4. 

Shell compressed, with a small umbilicus, high, flattened 
sides, and a very narrow flat back. The umbilicus, about as 
high as the mouth is wide, and never more than a third the 
height of the whorl, is shallow, with the horizontal ventrum, 
which rounds into the side, not much deeper than the unem- 
braced part of the whorl on which it abuts. The sides of the 
whorls are very slightly inflated, and converge, so that the back- 
is only half as wide as the base. The mouth is less than half 
the height of the shell. The sides of the cast are smooth, 
or marked only with a few broad flexuous ribs scarcely elevated. 
The dorsal angles are each crenated, with a row of minute tu- 
bercles, which send slight thickenings a short way down the 

Commonly in larger specimens the lower half of the side is 
slightly inflated, so that the upper half looks more compressed : 
the same peculiarity occurs rarely in specimens from Folkestone. 

from the Cambridge Greensand. 239 

Septa commonly unsymmetrical, though the degree of in- 
equality varies. The dorsal lobe is square, with two digitated 
terminal branches, and two or three small notches on each side. 
The dorsal saddle is half as wide again as the lobe, and mesially 
cleft, though not deep. The inferior lateral lobe is almost as 
large as the dorsal saddle : it terminates in three large branches, 
all well digitated, the lateral ones bifurcating in full-grown 
forms, but not into equal parts. There are three other lobes, 
which are mere notches. The septa are very close together. 

I have referred this fossil to the A. splendens of Sowerby 
rather than to the A. Fittoni of D'Archiac, because it is quite 
identical with typical specimens from Folkestone, though, were 
Sowerby' § figure followed, no doubt it should be named A. Fit- 
toni. But for the mineralization, it might have been supposed 
that ours were southern Gault fossils, the only difference being 
that, from the smaller size of the crenulse, the back is commonly 
a little convex instead of being slightly concave. Nothing ap- 
pears to be gained by separating A. Fittoni from A. splendens-, 
for it is not a well-marked variety, and our specimens are 
slightly intermediate. It is a common fossil, and abundantly 
represented in all collections, particularly those of the University 
and Mr. Carter. 

One variety, for which I am indebted to Mr. C. S. P. Darroch, 
of Trinity College, has the septa at first slightly unsymmetrical, 
and afterwards symmetrical. The shell is inflated, the mouth 
being two-thirds as wide as high. The rather deep umbilicus 
is bordered at the ventral angle with sixteen round tubercles. 
The dorsal tubercles are larger than those at the umbilicus. 
The back is round. The sutures are the same as in A. splendens, 
except that there are three small lobes in the umbilicus instead 
of two, while the lateral lobes are relatively only half as wide. 

There are many variations of A. splendens, through which the 
smooth forms pass into others having a sharp and elevated 
flexuous rib descending from each small dorsal crenulation to 
the base of the side, where two commonly unite to form a slight 
thickening ; between each two is a free rib, commonly not 
descending so far. Occasionally two ribs unite in one dorsal 

Some specimens reach as large a size as those from the Gault, 
and must have had a diameter of 7 or 8 inches, but are only 
found in fragments. 

Passing on from these forms, the ribs gradually get less 
sharp and wider apart, the umbilical thickenings more elon- 
gated, and unite three ribs with intermediate free ones. Two 
unite more commonly in each dorsal tubercle, which becomes a 
trifle larger. The whole shell gradually thickens, the umbilicus 

240 Mr. H. Seeley on Ammoniies 

enlarges, the ribs strengthen, the umbilical tubercles, as well as 
those bordering the back, are more elevated ; and thus A. 
splendens varies into a new form, which it may be useful to dis- 
tinguish as A. cratus. 

Ammonites cratus. PI. XI. fig. 2. 

Form inflated, with half-embracing whorls, and a mouth nar- 
rower than high, though wider than the umbilicus. The sides 
are convex. The fiat back is less than half as wide as the 

Around the umbilicus is a row of twelve large and elevated 
spines, separated by spaces wider than their bases : they send 
thickenings down the umbilicus, into which the most convex 
part of the side rounds, abutting on the embraced whorl. They 
also give rise to extremely elevated narrow ribs, separated by 
wider, deep, concave channels, curving moderately mouth ward. 
Three ribs are collected in each spine, and there is a free one 
between each two bundles. About one half reach the back single, 
and terminate each in a strong, elevated, tubercular thickening, 
which extends obliquely forward into the middle of the back; 
the remainder unite in twos at the dorsal angle, and form similar 
tubercles. These tubercles are so arranged as to give a slightly 
dendritical aspect to the back. 

Septa symmetrical, consisting of the dorsal lobe and, on each 
side, three (? or more) lobes. The dorsal lobe is rather longer 
than wide. The dorsal saddle, much wider than the lobe, is 
centrally cleft. The superior lateral saddle is as wide as the 
dorsal, has a single notch on each side, and terminates in three 
large trifurcate branches. The other parts of the suture have 
the same structure as those described, but get rapidly smaller. 
As the forms depart from the original series, and the whorls 
get more inflated, the septa become less and less unsymmetrical. 

This extreme form is not common. The largest example in 
the University Museum measures 3| inches high, and has septa 
to the end. 

Another branch of the series now passes on rapidly to A. au- 
?itus > Sow., with which should be united A. Guersanti, Pict. 
(not D'Orb.); for our specimens are almost identical with fig. 7, 
pi. 5 of the ' Gres Vert/ differing only in having rather fewer 
tubercles on the back — a character which is the only one to 
show that the figure is not copied from D'Orbigny's A. auritus, 
pi. 07. vol. i. 'Terr. Cret.' 

Ammonites leptus. PI. X. fig. 5. 
Few-whorled, greatly compressed; sides nearly flat; back 

from the Cambridge Greensand. 241 

very narrow; umbilicus rather more than half the height of the 
last whorl. 

The umbilicus, which is angular, is bordered on the side 
by about fifteen (somewhat elevated, but not very large) tubercles, 
separated from each other by fully the width of their bases. 
To each of these tubercles converge three or four ribs, two or 
three of which generally die away on reaching the eminence. 
The ribs are round, very gradually widen, and are separated by 
sulcations about equally wide ; for the lower two-thirds of their 
length they are straight, and then gracefully curve forward, 
dying away either separately or uniting in twos in large expanded 
dorsal tubercles, which occupy the whole of the back, bend a 
little outwards, and (probably) somewhat resembled those of A. 
auritus ; they numbered about thirty on each side, and were 
neither opposite nor regularly alternate. 

The mouth is high and narrow, with the sides converging not 
unlike an Egyptian doorway; it is more than twice as high as 

Height 2^ inches ; width of umbilicus -^ inch ; height of last 
whorl 44 inch ; width of base of mouth -^j- inch. 

The specimen described is the only one I have seen. Though 
the shell is otherwise well preserved, the dorsal tubercles are all 
broken off quite at their bases. A line of the last whorl, broken 
away, extends two-thirds round the shell ; so that perfect speci- 
mens were probably not less than 4 inches in diameter. 

The affinities of this form are very near to A. splendens, Sow., 
very evident with A. serratus, Park, and not too distant to 
recall the idea of A. auritus, Sow. The close ribbing, large dorsal 
tubercles, and compressed aspect sufficiently and severally dis- 
tinguish it from all of them. 

Loc. Ash well. University Museum. 

Ammonites auritus, Sow. 

u. A. auritus, Sow. M. C. vol. ii. pi. 134 ; D'Orb. T. C. vol. i. pi. 65. 

A. Guersanti, Pictet (not D'Orb.), Gres Vert, pi. 5. f. 7. 
0. A. Raulinianus, Pictet & Campiche, T. C; Ste. Croix, pi. 29; D'Orb. 
pl..68. T. C. ; Pictet, Gres Vert, pi. /• fig. 2. 

As has already been seen, A. Fittoni passes into A. auritus ; 
and similarly A. auritus passes into the fossil figured by Pictet 
and Campiche as A. Raulinianus, which is only a variety of the 
A. Raulinianus of D'Orbigny. The A. auritus figured by 
Sowerby is a more robust form than that of D'Orbigny, more 
intermediate in the series, and consequently a convenient type 
for our forms. 

The first form is a compressed shell, with the umbilicus half 
as high as the mouth, which is nearly two-thirds as wide as 

Ann, % Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. xvi. 1 7 

24.2 Mr. H. Seeley on Ammonites 

high. The sides are very slightly inflated, and converge so that 
the back is only half as wide as the lower part of the mouth ; 
they round into the umbilicus, bordering which are ten slightly 
elevated tubercles, forming the boundary for the embracing 
whorl. The flat back has on each dorsal angle a row of eighteen 
or nineteen tubercles, which alternate, are larger than those of 
the umbilicus, and are directed slightly upward, though scarcely 
rising above the back. From the tubercles arise flexuous ribs 
twice or three times as numerous as the dorsal tubercles, at which 
they meet commonly in twos, sometimes in threes, with usually 
a free rib between each two tubercles; they are similarly col- 
lected at the umbilicus. The degree of elevation of the ribs, 
which are sometimes indistinct, varies much, as does the degree 
of flexure. 

The septa are unsymmetrical, with a square dorsal lobe 
having two branches on each side, and two terminal branches, 
between which are a row of dorsal tubercles. The dorsal saddle, 
wider than the lobe, is cleft mesially by a branch in a line with 
the other row of dorsal tubercles. The superior lateral lobe is 
longer than the dorsal, has on each side two lateral branches, 
and terminates in three branches larger than the others. There 
do not appear to be any accessory lobes. 

From this, forms diverge having the septa variously sym- 
metrical and unsymmetrical, in which the whorl is thicker, while 
the umbilical tubercles are elevated into spines, and those of the 
back become higher and wider. These are more typical forms of 
A. auritus, about intermediate between the figures of Sowerby 
and D'Orbigny. 

Ammonites Raulinianus, var. 

This is quite inseparable as a species from A. auritus. 

Shell inflated, with a flat back tubcrculatc at the sides ; 
whorls half-embracing. Umbilicus nearly as high as the mouth, 
and bordered with spines. 

Mouth as wide as high, with the sides slightly converging to 
the back ; in their lower third they round into the umbilicus, 
and on its margin support a row of nine or ten spines, generally 
large, but varying. The back has about eighteen tubercular 
spines, larger than those of the umbilicus, sometimes directed 
upward, sometimes outward. The rows on the two sides are 
alternate, so that the ornament of the back is zigzag. The ribs 
are commonly strong and obtuse, and slightly curved forward. 
Three always diverge from each umbilical spine, and two always 
meet in each dorsal tubercle. Occasionally a dorsal tubercle 
sends down a free rib. 

Septa nearly symmetrical, with a square dorsal lobe, narrower 

from the Cambridge Greensand. 243 

than the back, with two notches on each side, and terminating 
in two small branches. The dorsal saddle is considerably wider. 
The upper lateral lobe is long and narrow, terminating in three 
small branches, and having one branch on each side. The lower 
lobe is very small, and in a Hue with the umbilical tubercles. 

It is unwillingly that this form has been described separately 
from A. aaritus, of which it is a badly marked variety, differing 
chiefly in a different inflation of the shell. It has been classed 
by the Swiss naturalists with A. Raulinianus ; but in this series 
names nowhere mark real boundaries or breaks. 

The young shell so nearly resembles A. Studeri that I am 
unable to discover any character not common to the two forms. 
This circumstance in no way invalidates the conclusions arrived 
at on the affinities of this shell ; for all the forms, from A. Fit- 
toni to the most extreme variation of A. Studeri, have round 
backs in the young state ; and if this shell is more inflated than 
usual, that is because the adult is one of the most gibbous of the 

There are many variations from this form, in one of which 
the ribs disappear; in another the dorsal tubercles gradually 
become obsolete, while the back gets narrower and the sides 
more convex, till at last the back as a flat region becomes obso- 
lete, and the alternate ribs almost meet in alternate thickened 
terminations along its middle. The ribs curve much toward the 
mouth as they near the back. This small shell with a dendrous 
back is probably immature. 

Ammonites Salteri, Sharpe, Cret. Moll. pi. 23. figs. 5 & 3, is 
a variation including those more compressed forms in which the 
dorsal spines are reduced to tubercles and the umbilical spines 
are small and the ribs slightly elevated. 

In a variety which may be named A. tetragonus the shell has 
flat sides and a flat back, and the mouth nearly quadrate. On 
the lower third of the side is a row of ten or eleven small spines, 
which are moderately elevated and separated by wide intervals. 
At each dorsal angle is a row of about eighteen tubercular spines, 
larger than the umbilical row, and, though short, directed late- 
rally, which widens the back. These spines are connected by 
ribs, which on the last half-whorl are very slightly elevated, and 
ultimately become obliterated. Three appear to have always 
diverged from each umbilical spinous eminence. The last half- 
whorl is devoid of septa. Diameter 2 inches ; width of mouth 
f inch. 

Another shell (PL XI. fig. 6) of the same group scarcely differs 
as a variety from A. Renauxianus, P. & C. Ter. Cret. Ste. Croix, 
pi. 31. figs. 2-5 ; D'Orb. T. C. vol. i. pi. 27. Shell compressed, 
with very few whorls, one-third-embracing, and enlarging very 


2-11 Mr. II. Seelcy on Ammonites 

slowly. The flat sides, so slightly converging as to be almost 
parallel, are half as high again as wide. The ventrum is hori- 
zontal, and rounds into the side. The shallow and open 
umbilicus shows that, up to the first, the whorls were smooth. 
Here there are fourteen thickenings, which rapidly become 
moderately elevated tubercles. A rib given off from each of 
these bifurcates a little way up the side, but is very little 
elevated. One or both of the branches reach the back, ter- 
minating in a tubercle not larger than that at the umbi- 
licus, lu the last quarter- whorl the ribs are curved towards 
the mouth, and are obliterated in the upper part of the whorl. 
The dorsal tubercles in the same space rapidly get smaller, be- 
coming oblique thickenings; they form a row of twenty-five. 
The last half-whorl is devoid of septa. These shells are as un- 
syminetrical as any in the young state, but become finally nearly 
symmetrical. The square dorsal lobe, more than half the width 
of the back, has a notch on each side and two small terminal 
branches. The dorsal saddle is of the same width, and mesially 
cleft. The upper lateral saddle is rather narrower, with a notch 
on each side and three terminal branches. The other parts are 
similar, but much smaller. There are two small accessory 

The dorsal tubercles are alternate, and the back slightly convex. 
There are other specimens, one-fourth larger, with the mouth 
perfect and as wide as high, with the shell inflaled. The dorsal 
angle is obtuse and rounded; the side rounds more noticeably 
into the ventrum. 

I believe these shells to be variations from A. auritus. 

Ammonites Vraconensis, Pictet & Campiche, T. C. Stc. Croix, 
pi. 31. fig. 1. 

Inflated, few-whorled ; whorls two-thirds-embracing, with 
(diam. 2 inches) flat sides and a nearly flat back. The sides 
converge, giving the mouth something of the outline of an in- 
verted flower-pot. At one-third up the side is a row of eight or 
nine large elevated spines, the space interior to which rounds 
down to the whorl it embraces, and is smooth. From each 
spine commonly arise (three or) four ribs, which extend up the 
side to the margin of the back. At the angle where the side 
and back meet is a row of tubercles about three times as nu- 
merous as the umbilical spines, and in these the ribs terminate, 
commonly two, sometimes but one, in each ; so that there are 
generally one or two free ribs between all the spines. Many of 
the ribs are straight ; but the hinder one of the two, meeting in 
a dorsal tubercle, necessarily has a bend in its upper third. The 
dorsal tubercles of the two sides are not opposite, but alternate, 

from the Cambridge Grecnsand. 2 15 

and, compared with the umbilical spines, small. The umbilicus 
is deep, and about as high as or higher than the whorl opposite 
the mouth. 

Ammonites Studeri, Pictet & Campiche. 
A. Studeri, P. & C; Ste. Croix, pi. 30. 

Few-whorled, more than two-thirds-embracing, greatly in- 
flated, with a flattened back, and umbilicus as high as the whorl 
opposite the mouth, and bordered by a row of large spines. 

The mouth is rather wider than high, and nearly twice as 
wide as the back. The exposed part of the ventrum is inflated 
and nearly horizontal ; but quite on its border, where the side 
rounds into it, is placed the row of ten massive tubercles ; these 
are much-elevated cones, with bases a fourth the height of the 
side ; above them the sides are flat, and converge to the back. 
From each spine arise two or three ribs, which are slightly 
curved mouthward, obtuse, and not much elevated till reaching 
the margin of the back, where they terminate each in a thick- 
ening which can scarcely be termed a tubercle, and which extends 
a short way on to the back. Those of the two sides are alter- 
nate, so that the slightly convex back presents a distant approach 
to the kind of zigzag ornament which marks the back of A. 

In the most typical specimens the septa are almost effaced ; 
they appear nearly, if not quite, symmetrical. The dorsal saddle 
is wide and unequally cleft by a small branch. The superior 
lateral lobe is long, with two small notches on each side, and 
terminates in three trifid branches. The inferior lobe is small, 
and in the line of the tubercles. 

Specimens identical with those figured in the ' Paleontologie 
Suisse ' are rare; but small specimens having all the characters 
of ornament the same, and differing only in being relatively 
much less inflated, arc by no means uncommon. But it is with 
doubt that I have cast these in with A. Studeri; for the young 
state of A. Raulinianus is identical. 

The adult shells of this type vary much in the degree of ele- 
vation and number of the ribs, as well as the way in which they 
are gathered in the tubercles. 

I believe the facts given in this paper compel the union under 
one specific type of every shell it describes after Ammonites ccelo- 
notus. Throughout the series the variations in the septa arc 
insignificant. Every variety of shape is nothing but an inflated 
form of Ammonites splendens modified by the different develop- 
ment of crenulpe and ribs. The four chief species, Ammonites 
splendens, A. auritus, A. Raulinianus, and A. Studeri, are in- 
separably linked together by intermediate forms; while the 

246 Mr. H. Seeley on Greensand Ammonites. 

young of A. auritus is the species A. splendens, and small shells 
like A. Studeri become with age the species A. Raulinianus. 

Yet the other forms all have a value, though for convenience 
they may be regarded as varieties of these types, which are but 
subspecies of a larger group now named Ammonites permutatus. 

Ammonites (Crioceras) occultus. PI. X. fig. 1. 

Moderately compressed, flattened, with few whorls, which 
rapidly enlarge, and are so closely coiled that, while the whorls 
do not appear to have actually touched, the tubercles of the 
back have impressed themselves into the underside of the suc- 
ceeding whorl. The transverse outline of the last whorl is four- 
sided. The back is flat, and the base is a little concave. The 
sides round into the base, and approximate each other with in- 
creasing rapidity as they near the back, into which they also 
gradually round. The back is half as wide as the base, and one- 
third the height of the side. In the earlier whorls the back 
appears to have been more round. 

The shell is ornamented with a great number of moderately 
elevated rounded ribs, which, below the middle of the side, are 
slightly inflected forwards, as they are on nearing the back. At 
the base of the side the ribs are collected in twos and threes, 
forming elongated, elevated, obtuse tubercles ; they ascend the 
side at about equal distances apart, and so pass over the back ; 
but, at the angles which the sides make with the back, every 
third or fourth rib developes a large elevated tubercle, the base 
of which is at least as wide as the space between the ribs : the 
tuberculated ribs are often stouter than the others. On the basal 
side, where the ribs are bent forwards, are two impressed lines 
marking the width of the back of the preceding whorl; the 
space between the lines is rather more than a third of the width 
of the base. 

The septa are indistinct. The dorsal lobe is twice as long as 
wide, and extends over three ribs ; it has two large, bifurcating, 
many-digited, terminal branches, and two branches on each side, 
the lower one being large. The dorsal saddle is as wide as half 
the height of the side, divided by one large and many smaller 
branches. The superior lateral lobe is about as large as that on 
the back, but longer; it terminates in a trifid branch, the cen- 
tral ramus of which has three digits. The inferior lateral lobe 
is short ; the basal lobe minute. 

This remarkable Crioceras was obtained by the Rev. Dr. Cook- 
son from near Hunstanton. But I suspect that both it and 
the Trigonia formerly named T. Hunstantonensis have been ob- 
tained from the Drift. It has been liberally presented to the 
University Museum. 

•Mr. J. S. Baly on new Genera and Species of Gallerucidse. 247 

For the drawings which illustrate this paper I am indebted 
to the kindness and skill of the accomplished artist, Mr. Robert 


[All the figures are of the natural size.] 
Plate X. 

Fit/. 1 . Crioceras occultus, Seeley : a, lateral view ; b, ventral view, showing 
how the dorsal spines indented the succeeding whorl ; c, a section 
and septum ; d, dorsal view. 

Fig. 2. Ammonites cozlonotus, Seeley. 

Fig. 3. , var. 

Fig. 4. glossonotus, Seeley. 

Fig. 5. leptus, Seeley. 

Plate XL 

Fig. 1. Ammonites sexangulatus, Seeley. 

Fig. 2. cratus, Seeley. 

Fig. 3. Woodwardi, Seeley. 

Fig. 4. pachys, Seeley. • 

Fig. 5. acanthonotus, Seeley. 

Fig. 6. Var. of A. Renauxianus, Pictet & Camp. 

Fig. 7. A. rhamnonotus, Seeley. 

XXVIII. — Descriptions of new Genera and Species o/Gallerucida?. 
By J. S. Baly. 

Fam. Galleracidae. 

Snbfam. HALTiciNiE. 

Genus Sim^ethea. 

Corpus elongatum, parallelum, subcylindricum. Caput exsertum, 
fere perpendiculare, pone oculos constrictum ; oculis orbitu circum- 
datis, prominentibus, integris ; facie inter antennarum insertiones 
elevata ; encarpis triarigularibus, supra fossa transversa profunda 
terminatis ; antennis corporis longitudini fere rcqualibus, filiformi- 
bus, articulis cyliiidricis, primo breviter curvato, a basi ad apicem 
paullo incrassato, secundo brevi, obconico, tertio adprimi longitudinem 
yequali. Thorax transversus, ba?i vix transversim sulcatus, disco 
convexus, lateribus anguste marginatis, rotundatis, angulis anticis 
dente obtuso armatis. Elytra thorace paullo latiora, parallela, apice 
subacute rotuudata, supra convexa, regulariter punctato-striata. 
Pedes robusti ; coxis anticis non contiguis, suberectis ; femoribus 
paullo, posticis magis incrassatis, bis subtus non sulcatis ; tibiis 
omnibus apice spina acuta armatis ; tarsorum posticorum articulo 
jiriino duobus sequentibus paullo breviore ; unguiculis appendieu- 
latis. Prosternum distinctum sed angustissimum. 

Type, Simcethea Laportei, Baly. 

Simathea must be placed in close proximity to Podagrica. In 

248 Mr. J. S. Baly on new Genera and Species of Gallerucidse. 

addition to its much greater size, it may be at once known by 
the absence of the short perpendicular grooves present at the 
base of the thorax in Podagrica ; it presents also an abundance of 
other distinctive characters. 

Simathca Laportei. 

S. elongata, parallels, subcylindrica, nitida ; ore, pectore femoribusque 
piceis ; tibiis tarsisque fusco-fulvis ; antennis flavis, apice paullo 
infuscatis ; tborace profunde sed remote punctato ; scutello rufo- 
picco ; elytris sat promnde punctato-striatis, rufis, apice nigris. 

Long. 4 lin. 

Hab. Tringance. 

Epistome triangular, the lower part of its surface plain, the 
apical portion obliquely elevated ; face thickened and elevated 
between the insertions of the antennae, but without forming the 
usual facial ridge ; encarpce contiguous, large, subquadrate, the 
lower and inner angle of each produced downwards ; bounding 
the encarpae above is a deep transverse groove, the upper edge 
of which is oblique, and gradually lost on the surface of the 
front ; running upwards from this groove are a number of short, 
nearly perpendicular grooved lines. Thorax rather broader 
than long ; sides narrowly margined, moderately rounded ; 
upper surface convex. Scutellum trigonate, its apex obtuse. 
Elytra scarcely broader than the thorax, parallel, each elytron 
faintly impressed on the middle of the disk just below the 
basilar space ; deeply punctured, the punctures somewhat 
remotely placed in ten or eleven longitudinal rows ; the black 
apex varies greatly in extent, in some specimens being nearly 
lost, in others occupying almost a third of the surface. 

Genus Xuthea. 

Corpus elongato-ovatnm, convexum. Caput exsertum ; facie tri- 
angulari, carina lata, modice elevata; encarpis won contiguis; antennis 
gracilibus, filiformibus, corporis longitudine brevioribus, articulo 
primo paullo curvato, incrassato, secundo illo fere dimidio breviore, 
a basi ad apicem modice incrassato, ceeteris gracilibus, singulatim 
primo Bequalibus ; oculis orbitu circumdatis, prominulis, integris. 
Thorax transversus, lateribus anguste marginatis, fere parallelis, 
angulis anticis tuberculo setifcro armatis, dorso ante basin trans- 
versim sulcatus, sulco utrinque fossa perpendiculari brevi ad basin 
producta terminato. Elytra regulariter pnnctato-striata. Pedes 
modice robusti ; coxis anticis distantibus, prosterno fere sequialtis ; 
femoribus posticis modice incrassatis, subtus leviter sulcatis ; tibiis 
omnibus apice spina acuta armatis ; tarsorum articulo basali <$ am- 
pliato, posticorum articulo basali duobus sequeutibus conjunctim 

Mr. J. S. Baly on new Genera and Sjjecics of Gallerucidse. 249 

fere aequali, tibiae apici inserto ; unguiculis appendiculatis. Pro- 
sternum angustum. 

Type, Xuthea orient alls. 

This genus resembles Diplaulaca in the form of its thorax, 
Crepidodera in the form and punctuation of its elytra ; from the 
latter it is separated by all the tibia; having a short spine at 
their apex, from the former by the entirely different shape and 
punctuation of the elytra. 

Xuthea orientalis. 

X. elongato-ovata, convexa, supra viridi-cyanea, nitida, subtus ob- 
scure viridi- aut piceo-amea ; coxis, tibiis tarsisque piceis, plus 
minusve seneo tinctis ; thorace fortiter subremote punctato ; 
elytris nitidis <$ , minute granulosis, subnitidis $ , regulariter punc- 
tato-striatis ; antennis fulvis, extrorsum piceis. 

Long. 3-3 \ lin. 

Hub. India. 

Head exserted, face triangular ; mouth pale piceous ; space 
between the eyes rugose ; carina moderately elevated, not very 
broad ; encarpas ill defined, remote ; face separated from the 
front by a deep fiexuose groove which runs obliquely upwards 
on either side from the apex of the carina; vertex obsoletely 
wrinkled in front, very remotely impressed with large punc- 
tures ; whole face clothed with coarse, depressed, whitish hairs. 
Thorax one-half as broad as long ; sides straight and parallel, 
slightly converging and sinuate in front ; surface nitidous, 
strongly but subremotely punctured, all the angles slightly pro- 
duced, acute, the anterior somewhat reflexed. Elytra smooth 
and nitidous in the 6 , subnitidous and very minutely granulose 
in the $ , regularly punctate-striate, interspaces plane ; basilar 
space in each elytron bounded by a semicircular depression. 
Body beneath clothed with coarse, adpressed, whitish hairs. 
Basal joints of all the tarsi in the 6 dilated, the middle elevated 
into a longitudinal ridge. 

Subfam. Gallerucin^e. 

Genus Cynorta. 

Corpus elongatum, angustum, parallelum. Caput exsertum ; 
facie subelongata, plana, subporrecta, inter antennarum insertiones 
elevata ; mandibulis sat robustis, antrorsum productis ; antennis graci- 
libus, filiformibus, corporis longitudini fere eequalibus, articulo primo 
elongato, paullo curvato, a basi ad apicem incrassato, secundo bre- 
vissimo, obovato, cseteris fere sequalibus, singulis primo brevioribus, 
quarto tertio paullo longiore ; pa/pis maxillaribus apice ovatis ; 
oculis prominentibus. Thorax transverso-quadratus, lateribus an- 
guste marginatis, fere parallelis ; disco modicc convexo, profunde 

250 Mr. J. S. Baly on new Genera and Species of Gallerucidse. 

impresso. Elytra thorace paullo latiora, parallela, crebre punc- 
tata, levitcr elevato-vittata. Pedes clongati, graciles ; coocis anticis 
contiguis, erectis ; femoribus vix incrassatis, subcompressis ; tibiis 
omnibus singulatim apice spina acuta armatis ; tarsorum posticorum 
sequentibus longitudine sequali ; unguiculis appendiculatis. Pro- 
sier mini obsoletum. 

Type, Cynorta porrecta. 

The long, narrow form and produced head will serve to dis- 
tinguish this well-marked genus at first sight from its allies. 

Cynorta porrecta. 

C. elongata, subfiliformis, viridi-senea, nitida ; capite (vertice ex- 
cepto), thorace femoribusque fulvis ; thorace granuloso, arcuatim 
bisulcato, violaceo-seneo suffuso ; femoribus dorso, tibiis, tarsis 
antennisque (his basi exceptis) piceis ; elytris granulosis, elevato- 
vittatis, interspatiis confuse bifariam punctatis, interstitiis inter se 

Long. 3± lin. 
Hah. Java. 

Face subporrect, vertex granulosc, metallic green, apex of 
jaws and palpi piceous. Thorax scarcely broader than long; 
sides slightly diverging from their base to beyond their middle, 
then slightly converging to the apex; disk moderately convex, 
somewhat flattened in the middle, impressed on the centre with 
two curved fovea?, contiguous at the base, diverging towards 
their apices. 

Genus Nadrana. 

Corpus anguste ovatum, sat convexum. Caput modice exsertuin, 
perpendiculare ; antennis corporis longitudine, gracillimis, fili- 
formibus, articulo primo curvato, a basi ad apicem leviter incrassato, 
secundo brevi, tertio secundo fere duplo longiore, quarto tertio 
dimidio longiore, cseteris articulo quarto singulatim fere sequalibus ; 
oculis sat magnis, modice prominulis, integris ; palpis maxillaribus 
apice ovatis, acutis. Thorax brevis, transversus, lateribus mar- 
ginatis, angulis anticis obliquis, incrassatis ; disco leviter transversim 
sulcato. Elytra ovata, convexa, infra basin non transversim im- 
pressa, confuse punctata. Pedes graciles, sat elongati ; coxis anticis 
erectis, contiguis ; femoribus posticis non incrassatis ; tibiis omnibus 
apice spina acuta armatis ; tarsorum posticorum articulo primo 
elongato, duobus sequentibus conjunctim plus duplo longiore ; un- 
guiculis appendiculatis. Prosternum fere obsoletum ; metasternum 
utrinquc oblique depressum. 

Type, Nadrana pallidicornis. 

Nadrana is nearly allied to Luperodes ; it is to be distinguished 
from it by the grooved thorax and more slender antennas, toge- 
ther with the relatively longer third joint of the latter. 

Mr. J. S. Baly on new Genera and Species of Gallerucidsc. 251 

Nadrana pallidicornis. 

N. elongato-ovata, valde convexa, nigra, nitida; vertice, tibiis quatuor 
anticis apice tarsisque piceis ; antennis pallide flavis ; elytris 
tenuiter subcrebre punctatis, rufis. 

Long. 3| lin. 

Hab. Tringanee. 

Thorax three times as broad as long ; sides rounded, their 
outer margin narrowly reflexed ; above transversely convex, very 
finely punctured ; middle of disk covered with a broad, shallow, 
transverse excavation, which does not quite extend to the outer 
border of the thorax. Apical border of elytra narrowly edged 
with piceous. 

Genus Antipha. 

Corpus ovatum, postice ampliatum, convexum. Caput exsertum, 
subperpendiculare ; antennis gracillimis, filiformibus, corpore bre- 
vioribus, articulis cylindricis, primo curvato, a basi ad apicem incras- 
sato, secundo brevi, tertio primi longitudinis aut breviore, quarto 
duobus prsecedentibus sequali aut longiore, cseteris singulatim quarti 
longitudini fere Eequalibus, iis prope apicem paullo brevioribus ; oculis 
magnis, prominentibus, integris. Thorax transversus, dorso non im- 
pressus, lateribus fere rectis, parallelis, angulis anticis incrassatis. 
Elytra thorace multo latiora, oblonga, postice paullo ampliata, con- 
vexa, infra basin non transversim irapressa, confuse punctata. Pedes 
graciles, simplices ; coxis anticis suberectis, non contiguis ; femoribus 
posticis non incrassatis ; tibiis omnibus apice muticis ; tarsorutn 
]>osticorum articulo basali duobus sequentibus conjunctim longiore ; 
unguiculis appendiculatis. Prosternum angustissimum, distinctum. 

Type, Antipha picipes. 

The glabrous upper surface, smooth thorax, long slender legs 
and antennas, unarmed tibite, and appendiculated claws afford 
sufficiently good characters (taken conjointly) for the foundation 
of the present genus. 

Antipha picipes. 

L. ovata, postice ampliata, valde convexa, nitida, fusco-fulva ; oculis 
nigris ; epistomate, antennis (basi excepta), thorace infra, abdo- 
minis limbo pedibusque piceis, thoracis disco fusco maculato. 

Long. 4^ lin. 

Hab. India. 

Face triangular : thorax nearly twice as broad as long ; sides 
straight, slightly converging from base to apex, hinder angles 
acute, anterior thickened, oblique; smooth on the disk, very finely 
punctured on the sides : elytra more coarsely punctured, on the 
outer disk is a longitudinal costa which runs parallel to the outer 
margin for its middle two-fourths. 

252 Mr. J. S. Baly on new Genera and Species of Gallerucidse. 

Genus Momjea. 

Corpus elongatum aut subelongatum, convexum. Caput crassum, 
valde exsertutn ; front e lata, dcclivi ; facie perpendiculari ; mandi- 
bulis magnis ; autennis corporis longitudini a^qualibus aut paullo 
brevioribus, filiformibus, ad apicerri attenuatis, articulo primo cur- 
vato, a basi ad apicem incrassato, secuudo primi dimidise parti eequali 
aut paullo breviore, tertio elongato, articulo quarto longiore, cseteris 
singulatim quarto requalibus ; palpis maxillaribus crassis, apice acu- 
minatis ; oculis vix prominulis, intcgris. Thorax transversus, lateribus 
anguste marginatis, obtuse angulatis, augulis omnibus tuberculo seti- 
gero instructis ; disco trausversim concavo, medio longitudinaliter ex- 
cavato, utrinque trausversim sulcato. Elytra metallica, tborace 
latiora, fere parallela, convexa, infra basin trausversim depressa, con- 
fuse punctata, glabra aut postice pube tenuissima sparse vestita. 
Pedes modice robusti, sat elongati ; coxis anticis erectis, fere conti- 
guis ; femoribus posticis non incrassatis ; tibiis omnibus apice muticis ; 
tarsorum posticorum articulo basali duobus sequentibus longiore ; 
unguiculis bifidis. Prosternum lineariforme. 

Type, Momcea viridipennis. 

The longer third joint of the antennas, together with the 
different manner in which the thorax is excavated, will separate 
this genus from Nicea and Eumcea, two nearly allied forms. 
There is a slight error in the characters given by me of the latter 
genus (Annals, January 1865, p. 37); it ought to read — "Pro- 
sternum angustissimum aut obsoletum ; tibiis coxis anticis con- 
tiguis." In both Nicea and Eumcea all the tibise have their apices 

Momaa viridipennis. 

M. clongata, convexa, fusco-fulva, nitida ; capite (epistomate excepto) 
nigro-piceo ; pedibus antennisque nigris ; elytris viridi-eeneis, 
crebre punctatis, sparse fusco-sericeis. 

Long, bh lin. 

Hah. Mysol. 

Head large; jaws robust, prominent; forehead defiexed, im- 
pressed in the middle with a deep longitudinal fovea ; surface shi- 
ning, irregularly but not closely punctured : encarpae contiguous, 
triangular; lower portion of face, together with the base of the 
jaws, obscure fusco-fulvous. Thorax more than twice as broad 
as long; sides obtusely angled, diverging and slightly sinuate 
from their base to just beyond the middle, then converging 
to their apex ; upper surface transversely concave, impressed on 
the hinder half of the middle disk with a large longitudinal 
fovea ; on cither side is a deep but ill-defined transverse depres- 
sion which extends from the outer border nearly to the medial 
line. Elytra subelongate, nearly parallel, convex ; their surface 
convex, excavated and sinuous below the basilar space, about the 

Mr. J. S. Baly on new Genera and Species of Gallcrucidre. 253 

middle of the disk, and on the sides; on the hinder disk are 
several shallow, ill-defined, longitudinal sulcations. 

Genus Mimastra. 

Corpus elongatum, modice convexum, dorso subdepressum. Caput 
exsertum ; facie subperpendiculare ; antennis corpore brevioribus, 
gracilibus, filiformibus, articulo primo elongate- curvato, a basi ad 
apicem incrassato, secundo ad tertiam partem primi sequali, tertio 
secundo duplo longiore, quam articulum quartum paullo breviore, 
cseteris singulatim quarto fere aequalibus ; pal pis maxillaribus lan- 
ceolato-ovatis, apice acuminatis. Thorax transversus, lateribus an- 
guste marginatis, obsolete angulatis ; disco irregulariter excavato. 
Elytra thorace latiora, postice paullo dilatata, lateribus anguste ex- 
planato-marginata, modice convexa, dorso deplanata, confuse punc- 
tata. Pedes graciles, sat elongati ; coxis anticis erectis, contiguis ; 
femoribus posticis non incrassatis ; tibiis omnibus apice muticis ; tar- 
sorum posticorum articulo basali duobus sequentibus conjunctim 
sequali; unguiculis bifidis. Prosternum obsoletum. 

Type, Mimastra arcuata. 

The less exserted and smaller head, the shorter third joint of 
the antennas, the flattened upper surface, together with the 
obsolete prosternum, separate the genus before us from Mom&a. 

Mimastra arcuata. 

M. elongata, subnitida, dorso subdepressa, subtus obscure olivacea ; 
capite thoraceque fusco-fulvis,illo vertice, hoc disci maculis quinque 
metallico-olivaceis ; antennis pedibusque piceis, femoribus infra 
tibiisque apice fulvis ; scutello nitido, nigro ; elytris subelongatis, 
postice leviter ampliatis, granulosis, obsolete rugulosis, tenuiter 
punctatis, metallico-olivaceis, singulatim limbo laterali fasciaque 
arcuata prope medium posita, ad marginem adfixa, fulvis. 
Long. 4 1 lin. 
Hob. India. 

Thorax one-half broader than long; sides distinctly margined, 
nearly straight and parallel, moderately dilated, obtusely angled 
just before their middle; upper surface covered with about six 
large excavations; the green patches are arranged two in the 
middle of the disk, and three in front of the basal margin, the 
two lateral larger than the others. 

Genus Sastra. 

Corpus elongatum, convexum, supra pube brevissima adpressa 
plus minusve dense vestitum. Caput exsertum ; facie perpendi- 
eulari, brevi, transversa; mandibulis mediocribus ; antennis corporis 
longitudini fere oequalibus, gracilibus aut sat gracilibus, filiformibus ; 
articulo primo curvato, a basi ad apicem incrassato, secundo brevi, 
tertio duobus praecedentibus longitudine rcquali aut paullo longiore, 
quarto et sequentibus singulatim tertio brevioribus, inter se fere 
sequalibus ; oculis magnis, prominentibus, integris ; palpis maxillari- 

254 Mr. J. S. Baly on neiv Genera and Species of Gallerucidse. 

bus apice angustc ovatis, acuminatis. Thorax transvcrsus, lateribus 
medio ssepe angulatis ; disco subplano, medio longitudinaliter 
sulcato, utrinque transversim impresso ; angulis omnibus tuberculo 
setigero armatis. Elytra elongata aut subelongata, fere parallcla, 
postice vi\ ampliata, anguste explanato-marginata, convexa, dorso 
subdeplanata, infra basin non aut vix transversim depressa, pube 
sericea plus minusve dense vestita, confuse punctata, ssepe disco ex- 
teriore longitudinaliter sulcata. Pedes graciles, elongati ; coxis anticis 
contiguis aut fere contiguis ; femoribus posticis non incrassatis ; tibiis 
omnibus apice niuticis ; tarsorum anticoruin articulo basali duobus 
sequentibus longiore; unguiculis bifidis. Prosternum angustissimum, 
s:ope fere obsoletum. 

Type, Sastra placida. 

The smaller head, much shorter and transverse face, together 
with the much more pubescent upper surface of the body, will 
sufficiently distinguish Sastra from Momcea. 

Sastra placida. 

S. elongata, modice convexa, sordide flava, nitida ; abdomine anten- 
nisque fuscis, bis basi pallidioribus ; elytris dense punctatis, pube 
adpressa fusca vestitis, pallide fusco-violaceis. 

Long. 4 lin. 

Hab. Mysol. 

Head impressed with a longitudinal groove, which extends 
from the anterior edge of the epistome to the vertex ; encarp;e 
contiguous, large, pentagonal. Thorax nearly twice as broad as 
long ; sides nearly parallel, slightly rounded in front, narrowed 
posteriorly ; middle of disk impressed with a longitudinal sulca- 
tion, which extends from base to apex, but is interrupted in its 
middle ; on either side is a broad transverse depression which 
occupies nearly a third of the whole surface ; scattered distantly 
over the thorax, but rather more crowded on the anterior mar- 
gin, are some large deep punctures. Elytra subparallel, lateral 
border narrowly dilated, flattened along the suture, closely punc- 
tured; densely clothed with adpressed fuscous pubescence; on 
the outer disk are two shallow longitudinal sulcations, separated 
from each other by an elevated ridge. 

Sastra limbata. 

S. elongata, pallide flava, nitida ; oculis nigris ; elytris metallico- 

violaceis, singulatim pallide flavo limbatis. 
Long. 3| lin. 

Hab. New Guinea. 

Face short, transverse; space between the insertions of the 
antennae broad, impressed with a longitudinal groove, which runs 
downwards across the epistome and upwards to the vertex; ca- 
rina: large, contiguous, subpyriform ; antennae four-fifths the 
length of the body, slender; apex of jaws piceous. Thorax 

Dr. E. von Martens on Australian Species of Paludina. 255 

nearly twice as broad as long ; sides subparallel, slightly rounded, 
narrowed and sinuate behind their middle ; surface smooth, im- 
punctate, the longitudinal sulcus interrupted in the middle, less 
deeply impressed than the lateral foveas, which are broader and 
deeper, but ill denned. Elytra not very closely punctured, 
nearly glabrous in the single specimen before me (which is, in all 
probability, worn) ; the entire limb, with the exception of a small 
space near the scutellum, narrowly edged with flavous ; basilar 
space bounded beneath by a shallow depression ; running along 
the outer disk, and bounded exteriorly by an indistinct ridge, is a 
broad, shallow, longitudinal groove ; on the hinder disk near the 
middle are also to be seen the traces of a second, very ill defined. 

XXIX. — On the Australian Species of Paludina. 
By E. von Martens, M.D., C.M.Z.S. 

Only one Australian species is mentioned in the list of the 
species of this genus given by Frauenfeld in the l Verhandluugen 
des zoologisch-botanischen Vereins in Wien/ 1862, as well as in 
Reeve's ' Conchologia Tconica.' Having enjoyed the advantage 
of examining some others in the British Museum and in the 
Zoological Museum of Berlin, I shall here give comparative de- 
scriptions of them. 

1. Paludina australis, Beeve, Conchol. Icon. 1863, no. et 

fig. 71. 
Probably P. essingtonensis, Shuttleworth, Frauenfeld, /. c. 

p. 1162. 

P. testa conico-globosa, perforata, tenui, confertim spiraliter undu- 
lato-striata, virescenti-cornea, fasciis rufo-fuscis 3-5 picta ; spira 
gradata ; anfr. 5-G inflati, sutura profunda distincti ; apertura 
subperpendicularis, circulari-ovata, augulo supero modice acuto ; 
peristoma interruptum, album. 

Altitudo 38, diameter major 31, minor 25, aperturse altitudo 21, 
latitudo 17 mill. 

Operculum normale. 

Australia ; collected by Mr. Gilbert at Port Essington. (B.M.) 
Similar in size and form to the European P. vivipara, Mull., 
Lam. [P. Listeri, Forbes), but readily distinguished by its sculp- 
ture being similar to that of some species of the Indian Archi- 
pelago. The three principal bands occupy the same place as 
those of the European species, or as the principal ridges in the 
Indo-Chinese (P. annularis, Mull., and P. costata, Q. & G.) ; but 
in several specimens there are two additional bands, narrower 
and paler, the one above, the other beneath the uppermost of 
the three principal ones. 

25G Itcv. II. Clark on Dejean's Genus Coelomera. 

2. Paludina affinis. 

P. testa conico-ovata, suboblate perforata, solidula, HneiS spiralibus 
impressis, subtilissimis vel obsoletis, fusco-comea, fasciis rufo- 
fuscis 3-6 picta ; spira convexo-conoidea ; anfr. 5, convexi, sutxira 
mediocriter profunda divisi ; apertura paulum obliqua, subcircu- 
laris, angulo supero rotundato ; peristoma subcontinuum, iterate 
nigro limbatum. 

Alt. 27, diam. major 23, min. 18J-, apcrt. alt. 16j, latit. 13| mill. 

Operculum normale. 

Australia; collected at Fitzroy river and near Port Essington 
by Capt. Wickham, R.N. ; other specimens by J. II. Elsey, Esq. 

This species stands nearly in the same relation to the pre- 
ceding as P.fasciata, Mull. (P. achatina, Drap., Lam.), to P.v'trl- 
para, Mull., the chief difference being in the outlines of the 
whorls; besides, the spiral sculpture is much less developed in 
P. affinis. The bands are almost the same as in P. australis; 
but there is a third, secondary band between the second and 
third principal ones. 

This species varies somewhat in the elevation of the spire, 
several smaller specimens found at the same localities having 
it more produced, and therefore being of a more oblong form, 
and having a relatively smaller aperture. The dimensions of 
one of these are as follows: — altit. 19i, diam. maj. 15, min. 12, 
apert. alt. 1H, lat. 9 mill. 

3. Paludina polita. 

P. testa globoso-conica, perforata, nitida, lineis spiralibus impressis 
subtilissimis hand valde confertis sculpta, corneo-lutea vel pallide 
caruea, fasciis nullis ; spira conoidea, subgradata ; anfractus 5, 
inflati, valde convexi, sutura mediocri ; apertura paulum obliqua, 
ovata, angulo supero modice acuto ; peristoma plerumque con- 
tinuum, iterate fusco limbatum. 

Alt. 224, diam. maj. 19, min. 17, apert. alt. 13, lat. 11 mill. 

Operculum normale, rufum. 

South Australia, on the Balonne river, New South Wales ; 
found by John Macgillivray. Other regularly decollated speci- 
mens, of a brighter red colour, in Lake Alexandria, found by 
Mr. Strange. (B.M.) 

XXX. — An Examination of the Dejeanian Genus Coelomera (Co- 
leoptera Phytophaga) and its Affinities. By the Rev. Hamlet 
Clakk, M.A., F.L.S. 

The genus Ccelomera of Dejean's Catalogue (3rd edition, 1837) 

Rev. H. Clark on Dejean's Genus Cocloaiera. 257 

and of cabinets consists of a variety of forms. As at present 
constituted, it represents simply one of several forms of Galleru- 
cidse, which can neither be referred, on the one hand, to any of 
the genera shadowed forth by Adorium, nor, on the other, to 
the group of insects more immediately related to Adimonia and 
Galleruca proper. In Dejean's Catalogue it is made to compre- 
hend six or seven distinct real genera, the species of which are 
found in North America, South America, Africa, and Asia; 
while in modern cabinets the limits of the group would appear 
to be, if possible, more undefined still ; so that the name has be- 
come a sort of refuge for everything in the neighbourhood which 
is unknown or which has been uncharacterized. An examination 
of my material, during my summer holiday, has enabled me to 
fix with some certainty the limits of the several genera which it 
has comprised. I need not here analyze the Dejeanian species*: 
they will be found in the following pages in their natural places. 
I have been able to trace them all. It may be convenient, how- 
ever, to prefix a brief synoptical table of the several genera which 
contain the species, and which are dealt with in this paper. 

List of Genera. 

Antennas robust, short, incrassated; body ovate ... I. Cerochroa. 

Antenna: iucrassated, cylindrical, joints 3, 4, and 5 

being equal; body subeylindrical, subovate II. Alphidia. 

Antennae incrassated, joint 3 being longer tban 4, 

joints 5-11 broadly compressed; body ovate III. Clitena. 

Antennae incrassated, joints 1, 3, 4 being subequal, 

and 9 and 2 minute and equal; body subparallel IV. IIymenesia. 

Antennae incrassated, serrated, joints 3-7 being the 

broadest, joints 3-7 equal in length ; body ovate V. Orthoxia. 

Antennae incrassated in $ , joints 4-7 dilated and 
compressed, 3rd joint shorter than 4th ; body 
ovate VI. Pyesia. 

Antennae incrassated in $ , very long, joints gradu- 
ally diminishing in thickness from 1 to 11 VII. Procalus. 

Antennae robust, filiform, joints 3, 4, and 5 being 

subequal; body robust, subparallel VIII. 

Antennae filiform, robust, joints 1 and 3 equal, and 
4, 5, 6 equal and somewhat shorter; body short, 
parallel IX. Sphenoraia. 

Antennae filiform, joints 4 and 5 equal and shorter 
than 1 and 3 ; body parallel ; thorax much con- 
stricted at the base X. Dircema. 

Antennae filiform, moderate in length, joints 4 and 5 

subequal; body robust or broadly ovate XI. Monocesta. 

Antennae filiform, moderate in length, third joint 

very long ; body generally broadly ovate XII. Ccelomera. 

Antennae filiform, robust, nearly as long as the body, 

joints 3 and 5-10 nearly equal; body parallel ... XIII. Coraia. 

Antennas filiform, slender, nearly as long as the 

body; body subparallel XIV. Nestinus. 

Ami. § Mag. N. Hist. Ser.3. Vol.xvi. 18 

258 Rev. H. Clark on Dejean's Genus Ccelomera. 

Genus I. Cerochuoa, Ger stack. Peters, Mossamb. 1862, 
Zool. Ins. 341 ; Bericht Akad. Berl. 1855, p. 3. 

Ovata. Caput verticale ; palpi maxillares subcylindrici, apice 
acuminato. Thorax elytris multo attenuatior, lsevis, latere anteriore 
paulum emarginato, angulis anticis satis porrectis et acutis, lateribus 
paulum rotundatis, haud marginatis, margine postico subtransverso ; 
disco leevi punctate Scutellum subtriangulare, apice rotundato. 
Elytra thorace latiora, versus medium ampliata, leevia, vix marginata, 
crebre punctata. Pedes robusti, unguiculis fortiter appendiculatis. 
Metasternum versus apicem vel obsolete, vel in dentem acutum pro- 
ductum. Antennae robustse, breves, incrassatse, articulis 4°-ll m bre- 
vibus et subsecpjalibus, 1° longiore, 3° primo breviore. 

The species on which this genus is based (Cerochroa ruficeps, 
Gerst.) is more nearly allied to Adorium than to Ccelomera. The 
genus may be separated from all other neighbouring forms by 
its short and robust antennae; it is also conspicuous for the very 
narrow breadth of the thorax. From Adorium it may be sepa- 
rated by the form of its antennae ; from Rhombopala, by its more 
elongate form ; from Ccelomera, by its smooth and even thorax. 
Three species of this genus are known : — 

1. C. ruficeps, Gerst. Bericht Verh. Akad. Berl. 1855; 
Peters, Eeise Mossamb. Zool. 341. 

2. C. brachialis, Suffr. OEfver. Vetens. Ak. Forh. 1858. CafFraria. 

I think it probable that this species may prove to be a variety 
of C. ruficeps. 

3. C. maculicollis, Baly, Descript. of Uncharacterized, &c, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1864, p. 232. Old Calabar. 

Genus II. Alphidia. 

Robusta, subparallela. Caput verticale. Palpi maxillares art. 
penultimo globoso. Thorax declivis, transversus, angulis anticis 
depressis, posticis obsoletis ; disco leevi. Scutellum triangulare, 
lseve. Elytra robusta, leevia, punctata. Antennce robustse, incras- 
satse, art. 4°-ll m gradatim incrassatis, art. 3°, 4° et 5° longitudine 
sequalibus. Pedes robusti, unguiculis shnplicibus. 

The genus Alphidia will stand near to Clitena; it is separated 
from it by its cylindrical (not flattened) incrassation of. the an- 
tennae, by the 3rd, 4th, and 5th joints being equal in length, 
and by the simple unguiculi. 

A. comitata, (Galleruca) Klug, Ins. von Madagascar, p. 124. 

A common species, apparently, in Madagascar. In colour 
flavous, with elytra bright green or bluish green. Length 44, 
breadth 2 h lines. 

Rev. H. Clark on Dejean's Genus Coelomera. 259 

Genus III. Clitena, Baly, Descript. of Uncharacterized, &c, 

Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1864, p. 229. 

Callopistria, Chev. Dej. Cat. p. 402. 

Robusta, subparallela. Caput fortiter punctatum. Thorax trans- 
versus, angulis anticis prominulis, margine anteriore circulariter 
emarginato, lateribus subrotundatis et marginatis, basi subcirculari 
et leviter marginato ; disco laevi (vix ut in Coelomera transverse de- 
presso) punctato. Scutellum subquadratum, apice circulari. Elytra 
thorace latiora, parallela, apice rotundata, ante medium transverse 
depressa vel constricta, lsevia, punctata, nitida. Antennce robustse, 
satis elongatse, art. 1°, 3° et4° subsequalibus, art. 2° brevi, art. 5°-l l m 
latis compressis, art. 6°-l l m brevibus. Pedes robusti, unguiculis bi- 

Clitena differs from Coelomera and others in the form of its 
elytra, which are more robust and antemedially depressed, in the 
smooth form of the thorax, which shows no trace of the usual 
deep transverse depression, and especially in the peculiar arti- 
culation of the antennae, the apical joints of which are flattened, 
broad, and short. Two species have been described by Mr. Baly 
— C. limbata and C. melancholica, both from Siam. 

C. cyanea. 
C. Indica, Dej. Cat. 
C. robusta, subparallela, cyanea, pedibus et antennis nigris ; caput 
fortiter punctatum, nigro-cyaneum ; thorax leviter punctatus; 
scutellum nigrum ; elytra robusta, ante apicem transverse depressa, 
lsevia, punctata ; corpus subtus, antennce, et pedes vel nigra vel 
Long. corp. lin. 5 ; lat. lin. 2f . 


Genus IV. Hymenesia. 

Parallela, subdepressa. Caput verticale. Palpi maorillares art. 
penultimo triangulari, robusto. Thorax transversus, angulis anticis 
brevibus, posticis rotundatis, disco insequali. Scutellum triangulare, 
laeve. Elytra parallela, confuse punctata. Antennce robust se, arti- 
culis presertim apicalibus insequalibus (subcylindricis, vix depressis), 
art. 1°, 3°et4° subsequalibus, 5°, G°, 7° et 8° brevioribus et robustiori- 
bus, 9° et 2° brevibus, minutis eequalibus 10° et 1 1° conjunctis. Pedes 
robusti, tarsorum art. basali et 2° penitus sequalibus, unguiculis bipec- 

I have formed this genus on the species H. Tranquebarica, 
Fab. : it is quite distinct, by reason of the very peculiar articu- 
lation of the antennae. 

H. Tranquebarica, Fab. Syst. El. i. p. 479. 8, Suppl.p.93. 6,7, 

is punctate and rufous, the antennae, legs, and underside 
being black ; the elytra are thickly punctate and rufous, the 

18* . 

2 GO llcv. II. Clark on Dejean's Genus Coelomera. 

apex being marked by a purple transverse band, which broadly 
extends, near the margination, for nearly half the elytra. The 
length is 4|, breadth 2h lines. From the East Indies. 

Genus V. Ohtiioxia. 

Subparallela et satis depressa. Caput verticale. Palpi maxillares 
articulis apicali et penultimo globosis. Thorax transversus, margine 
antieo transverso, lateribus subrotundatis, margine postico sinuato, 
angulis anticis vix prominentibus, disco in typo insequali. Scutellum 
triangulare. Elytra thorace paulum latiora, parallela. Antenna 
robusta?, serratse, articulis (presertira 3"-7 m ) apud apices incrassatis, 
art. 3°— 7 m longitudine subsequalibus. Pedes robusti ; unguiculis ad 
apices extremos, bihamatis. 

This genus is nearly related to Monocesta, but differs from it 
in the globularly inflated maxillary palpi, in the minute bifurca- 
tion of the unguiculi (those of Monocesta being cleft almost to 
the base), and the serrated articulation of the antennae. 

0. Boisduvallii, Dej. 

0. subparallela, satis robusta, crebre rugosa, rufa, elytris, antennis, 
capite et pedibus nigris ; caput rugosum, nigrum ; thorax trans- 
versus, angulis anticis subobsoletis, marginibus leviter rotun- 
datis, versus apicem obsolete angulatis, basi sinuata, disco 
depressione media basali, alteraque utrinque incequali obliqua 
versus latera ; thorax crebre punctatus, ruf'us ; scutellum rufum ; 
elytra thorace paulum latiora, parallela, robusta, creberrime punc- 
tata, obsolete tomentosa, nigra ; antennae robustse, articulis 3"-G m 
sensim ampliatis, nigrse : corpus subtus rufum ; pedes nigri. 

Long. corp. lin. 4 ; lat. lin. 2. 

Genus VI. Pyesia. 

Differt a genere Monocesta in antennis art. 3° primo breviorc, tenui, 
art. 4° tertio multum longiore, art. 5° et 6° subsequalibus et tertio 
paulum longioribus ; antennis in § simplicibus, filiformibus ; in 3 
art. 4°-7 ra dilatatis, compressis. 

P. laticornis, Germ. Insect. Spec. 589, 843. 

Closely allied in pattern to M. consularis, Dej., but a much 
smaller insect, and more depressed in form ; the elytra are not 
finely rugose, but levigate and punctate. The articulation also 
of the antenna;, both in $ and <$ (which is the special character 
of the separate genus into whicli it must be erected), abun- 
dantly distinguishes it from this insect. 


Genus VII. Procalus. 

Itobustus, parallelus, brevis. Caput verticale. Palpi maxillares 
elongatuli. Thorax magnus, transversus, vix elytra amplitudine 

Rev. H. Clark on Dcjean's Genus Ccelomera. 261 

sequans, margine anteriore valde excavato, angulis anticis rectis, 
lateribus subrotundatis, marginatis, angulis posticis obsoletis, basi 
transversa, disco leevi. Scutellum triangulare, leeve. Elytra parallela, 
brcvia, robusta, thorace paulum latiora, punctata (punctis confusis, 
insequalibus) ; antenna vel filiformes vel incrassatse ; in S penitus 
corpus ipsum longitudiue sequantes, ct ad basin valde robustse, com- 
pressre, sensim versus apicem attenuantur ; art. 1° valde ad apicem 
ampliato, 2° et 3° minoribus, brevioribus, et subsequalibus, 4°, 5° et 
usque ad 1 l m longitudine subsequalibus, latitudine sensim attenuation- 
bus ; in 5 antennae filiformes ; pedes robusti, satis breves, femoribus 
subincrassatis, tibiis versus apicem robustioribus et ad insertionem 
tarsorum subtus excavatis ; unguiculi ab infra breviter utrinque bi- 

This diagnosis is based on a Chilian species, Ccelomera mutans 
of cabinets, which is very different from all allied groups, not 
only by reason of its shorter and more robust form, but also by 
the largely developed basal joints of the antennas in the male. 

P. mutans. 

P. et colore et maculis incertus, flavo-viridis vel fuscus, thorace et 
elytris, vel neutro vel utroque, nigro maculatis ; caput longitudi- 
naliter oblique foveolatum, rufo-flavum ; thorax rarius punctatus, 
vel flavus vel nigro maculatus, maculis quatuor (duabus mediis 
et una utrinque postmedia laterali) ; scutellum impunctatum ; 
elytra punctis subordinatis minutis, plerumque flava, sed ali- 
quando maculis nigris juxta basin transverse ordinatis, maculisque 
etiamjuxta apicem ; antennas nigrae, flavo annulatse ; corpus subtus 
in S abdominis apice fortiter ad medium foveolato, fuscescens, 
abdomine aliquando rufo ; pedes rufi, tibiis et tarsis nigris. 

Long. corp. lin. 3-4 ; lat. lin. l|-2. 

The head-quarters of this sr)ecies is Chili, where it would 
appear to be abundant ; it is widely distributed. I have re- 
ceived specimens from Brazil and also from Bolivia. 

Genus VIII. Pachytoma. 

Robusta, brevis, parallela. Cuput breve, verticale. Palpi maxil- 
lares graciles, elongatuli. Thorax declivis, elytris paulum at- 
tenuatior, angulis anticis prominulis, lateribus paulum curvatis, mar- 
gine basali subsinuato ; disco lsevi, punctate Scutellum triangulare, 
apice truncate Elytra brevia, robusta, confuse punctata. Antenna 
filiformes, robustse, art. 1° longissimo, 2° brevi, 3°, 4° et 5° subaequali- 
bus. Pedes robusti, unguiculis pectiuatis. 

1. P. Westermanni, Dej. Cat. 

P. e majoribus, fusca, antennis, pedibus et corpore subtus nigris ; 
caput longitudinaliter foveolatum, punctatum ; thorax crebre et 
fortiter punctatus ; scutellum nigrum ; elytra crebre punctata ; 

26.2 Rev. II. Clark on Dcjean's Genus Coclomera. 

corpus subtus et pedes nigra ; antennae nigri, articulis l°-3 m flaves- 
Long. corp. lin. 0" ; lat. lin. 3£. 

Western Africa. 

2. P.flava. 

P. subovalis, lata, punctata, flava ; caput in medio leviter lon- 
gitudinaliter foveolatum, punctatum, flavum, basi transverse nigra ; 
thorax transversus, lateribus et angulis ]>osticis rotundatis, lateri- 
bus marginatis, disco crebre punctato ; scutellum triangulare, 
nigrum ; elytra post medium paulum ampliata, confuse et minute 
punctata vel rugosa ; antennae nigro-f'uscfe ; pedes et corpus sub- 
tus nigra. 

Long. corp. lin. 5, lat. lin. 3. 

Genus IX. Sphenorata. 

Lata, subdepressa, brevis, parallela. Caput verticale. Palpi 
maxillares art. penultimo incrassato, brevi. Thorax transversus, 
lateribus marginatis et rotundatis, angulis anticis prominulis, basi 
subsinuato. Scutellum triangulare, lteve. Elytra parallela, brevia, 
striato-punctata (punctis interdum penitus confusis). Antennae fili- 
formes, robustse, art. 1° et 3° sequalibus, et art. 4°, 5° ct 6" (articulo 
primo paulum minoribus) inter se sequalibus. Pedes tenues, ungui- 
culis simplicibus vel leviter appendiculatis. 

1 . S. jlavicollis. 

S. rufo-flava, elytris (marginibus et sutura exceptis) nigris ; caput 
transverse foveolatum, impunctatum ; thorax rufo-flavus, impunc- 
tatus (punctis sparsis in medio disco obsoletis) ; scutellum rufo- 
flavum, impunctatum ; elytra parallela, punctata (punctis nee 
magnis nee acie instructis, confuse ordinatis), fusco-nigra, sutura et 
marginibus tenuiter flavis ; pedes, antennae et corpus subtus flava. 

Long. corp. lin. 3| ; lat. lin. 2. 
Northern India. 

2. S. nigripennis. 

S. flava, elytris, tborace maculis et femoribus apicalibus nigris ; 
caput inter oculos transverse foveolatum, lseve, flavum basi nigra ; 
thorax flavus, macula utrinque nigra insulata, fortiter sed sparsim 
punctata et paulum depressa ; scutellum l;cve, nigrum; elytra 
striato-punctata (punctis magnis et profundis), nigra ; antennce 
nigro-fusca3, art. l"-4 m flavescentibus; corpus subtus at pedes fusco- 

Long. corp. lin. 4 ; lat. lin. 2i. 

Northern India. 

Genus X. Dircema. 

Parallelum, satis depressum. Caput verticale. Palpi maxillares 
elongatuli. Thorax transversus, margine anteriore paulum emar- 
ginato, angulis anticis porrectis, lateribus oblique arcuatis, angulis 

Rev. H. Clark on Dcjean's Genus Ccelomera, 263 

posticis obsoletis, disco valde transverse depresso. Elytra parallela, 
depressa, subtiliter rugosa. Antennce filiformes, art. 1° et 3° sub- 
sequalibus, 2° minuto, 4° et 5° subasqualibus et tertio paulum brevi- 
oribus. Pedes graciles, unguiculis utrincpie bifidis. 

The form of the thorax in this group is peculiar; it is nar- 
rowly transverse, the anterior angles are laterally producedcon- 
siderably beyond the head ; the sides converge gradually towards 
the base, being arcuate or constricted medially ; the basal angles 
are slightly prominent; and the disk of the thorax is distinctly 
and deeply transversely depressed. I know of three exponents 
of this form, all common species in the tropics of South America. 

1. D. nigripenne, Fab. Ent. Syst. i. ii. 14. 9; Syst. El. i. 480. 

Notable by its uniformly opaque-black elytra (rugose and to- 
mentose) and its clearly coloured rufous or flavous thorax. 
Long. corp. lin. 4^-5^; lat. lin. 2-2^. 

The species is very common in Cayenne : some examples have 
the apical joints of the black antennre testaceous; and one ex- 
ample in my cabinet has the head testaceous instead of black. 

2. D. cinctipenne. 

D. oblongum, parallelum, opacum, reticulosum, tomentosum, fusco- 
flavum, elytris (sutura et marginibus exceptis) et capite nigris vel 
viridi-nigris ; caput inter oculos longitudinaliter foveolatum, crebre 
punctatum, nigrum ; thorax fortiter transverse depressus, punc- 
tatus, plus minus tomentosus, flavus, macula utrinque nigra magna 
aliquando insulata ; scutellum flavum ; elytra parallela, nigra vel 
nigro-viridia, sutura et marginibus tenuiter flavis ; pedes nigri, 
femoribus plus minus flavis ; corpus subtus flavo-fuscum ; antennce 
nigrse, art. 9°-ll m flavis. 

Long. corp. lin. 3^-7; lat. lin. lg— 2|. 

D. cinctipenne varies not only in size, but in the sculpture 
and coloration of the thorax, which is either entirely flavous or 
flavous with two submedial black markings, one on either side, 
these markings sometimes occupying nearly the whole disk. 
The species has been found at Para, by Mr. Bates and others. 
I have two Columbian representatives of it, which have the ely- 
tra opaque green instead of black, and the thorax of which is not 
so deeply depressed. I have seen some interesting examples of 
this species in Mr. Baly's cabinet, which, at first sight we are 
tempted to declare, represent distinct species : I have little 
doubt, however, on more mature examination, that the above 
diagnosis is the true definition of the species. The insect is as 
variable as it is beautiful ; and at present, at any rate, wc have 
not sufficient material to justify us in breaking it up into dis- 
tinct races or species. 

264 llcv. H. Clark on Dejcan's Genus Coelomera. 

3. D. ruficruSf Chcv. 
D. parallelling opacum, tomentosum, rufo-flavum, elytris, antennis 
et genibus nigris ; caput levitcr rugosum, impunctatum, flavum ; 
thorax subpubcseens, rufo-flavus ; scutellum fuscum ; elytra pa- 
rallela, tomentosa, nigra ; antennce nigrse ; corpus subtus rufo- 
fuscum ; pedes fuscij femoribus ruib-fuscis. 
Long. corp. lin. 4-|; lat. lin. If. 

Genus XL Monocesta. 

E majoribus, robusta, plerumque versus apicem dilatata. Caput 
verticale, basi longitudinaliter foveolatum. Thorax transvcrsus, 
inargirie antcriore paulum emarginato ; angulis anticis sat productis, 
lateribus subrotundatis ; angulis posticis omnino vel penitus obso- 
lctis ; discus transverse et fortiter depressus est. Scutellum trans- 
versum, apice rotundatum. Elytra robusta, thorace latiora, post 
medium plus minus dilatata, aliquando versus apicem debiscentia, et 
utrinque angulata, marginata, j)imctata. Antennce vel filiformes 
robustee vel subincrassatse, art. 1° apice incrassato, art. 1°, 3° et 4° 
subsequalibuSj art. 2° minore, art. 5° et 6° subsequalibus, paulum 
quarto brevioribus, art. 7°-1 l m paulum sexto brevioribus et gradatim 
attenuatis. Pedes robusti, art. tarsorum basali penultimo duplo 
longiore ; unguiculis fortiter utrinque biridis. 

The genus Monocesta, as thus defined, is very natural : it 
represents those species in which the elytra are postmedially 
dilated, the thorax is transversely depressed, and the antennae 
in the more broadly ovate species filiform, in the more parallel 
species subincrassated, the third and fourth joints being sub- 
equal, and the apical joints sufficiently produced and attenuate. 
These characters comprehend two distinct subgroups, which will 
constitute an excellent genus, well bounded and separated from 
the several other forms with which the species representing 
them have been, in Dejean's Catalogue, mixed up. The metro- 
polis of the genus is evidently the tropical region of South 
America and Mexico. One species (M. coryli) is found as far 
north as Illinois, where it infests the hazel; and one other (M. 
elegantula of this paper) I have received as from Brazil. 

Division A. 

Species of large size ; in form {for the most part) postmedially 

dilated; the thorax is deeply transversely depressed ; the an- 

tenna' filiform and sufficiently elongate. Species 1-12. 

Section I. 

Elytra for the most part bright blue or bright green, with flavous 

markings. Sp. 1-5. 

1. M. imperialis. 
M. grandis, apice dilatato, crebre punctata, nigro-caerulea, elytrorum 

Rev. H. Clark on Dejcan's Genus Ccelorncra. 265 

dimidio apicali rufo-flavo ; caput fovea longitudinali ad frontem, 
impunctatum ; thorax subtiliter punctatus ; scutellum transverse 
quadratum, impunctatum ; elytra thorace latiora, et versus apicem 
multum ampliata, marginata, crebre punctata ; antennce, corpus 
subtus et pedes nigra, femorum apicibus rufo-fuscis. 
Long. corp. lin. 9j ; lat. lin. ad humeros 4, ad apicem 6j. 

2. M. equestris, Dcj. 

M. e majoribus, versus apicem subampliata, crebre punctata, viridis 
vel azurea, fascia media in elytris transversa flava ; caput longi- 
tudinaliter foveolatum, punctatum ; thorax ut in speciebus aliis in 
medio valde transverse depressus, punctatus ; scutellum sub- 
quadratum, impunctatum ; elytra versus apicem ampliata, crebre 
et rugose punctata, fascia recta flava transversa ad medium, versus 
margines latior, elytra ornat ; antennce, corpus subtus et pedes 

Long. corp. lin. 9-6^ ; lat. lin. 5|-2^. 

M. equestris, the Cayenne species, differs clearly and uniformly 
in pattern from the Mexican species, M. ducalis. In the species 
before us, the transverse band on the elytra is medial and even, 
sometimes, by reason of its greater breadth towards the margins, 
being slightly inflected ; in M. ducalis the transverse band is 
never straight, but arcuate, in each elytron, broader in size and 
more irregular in pattern. 

Mr. Baly has shown me in his cabinet a species taken by Mr. 
Bates on the Amazons, in which the transverse band is a trifle 
broader, and rather nearer the scutellum, than in M. ducalis — 
M. Batesii, Baly. It is probable that the two are slight modi- 
fications of the same species. 

The males of M. equestris have sometimes the apex of the 
elytra, at a little distance from the suture, produced into an 

A common species in Cayenne. 

3. M. ducalis. 

M. elongata, versus apicem subampliata, punctata, nigro-cserulea, 
fascia lata et apice flavis ; caput foveolatum, punctatum ; thorax 
transverse depressus, leviter punctatus ; scutellum lseve ; elytra 
crebre punctata vel subrugosa, nigro-cserulea, fascia lata inaequali, 
ad margines versus humeros et apicem tendente, et apice flavis ; 
pedes, antennce et corpus subtus nigra. 
Long. corp. lin 8-6 ; lat. lin. 5-3. 

I have before me several specimens of this form, which agree 
entirely in pattern, and are readily separated from the Cayenne 
species, M. equestris : the band of the elytra is broader, more 
irregular in outline, and extending along the marginatum to the 
apex, and sometimes to the shoulders. I have an interesting 

2G6 Rev. II. Clark on Dejcan's Genus Coclomera. 

variety in which the transverse band is represented by a medial 
spot, the margins being obscurely navous. 
Mexico. A common species. 

4. M. splendida. 

M. versus apicem leviter ampliata, punctata, lsete viridis ; caput ob- 
solete punctatum ; thorax crebre punctatus, ad medium transverse 
depressus ; scutellum subquadratum, leviter punctatum ; elytra 
crebre punctata (punctis minutissimis) et leviter rugosa; corpus 
subtus fusco-viride, testaceo pubescens ; antennae nigrse ; pedes 

Long. corp. lin. 74, lat. lin. Ah. 

Conspicuous among its congeners by its uniform brilliant 
green colour. 

Para. I have in my collection a single example, received 
from the Marquis La Ferte. 

5. M. consularis, Dej. 

M. subparallela, postice paulum dilatata, satis robusta, vix depressa, 
tomentose rugosa, vix punctata, rufo-flava, elytris (fascia media 
excepta rufo-nava) viridibus ; caput longitudinaliter foveolatum, 
rugosum, rufum ; thorax rugosus, rufus ; scutellum rufum ; ely- 
tra subparallela, apice transverse rotundata et subdilatata, sub- 
tiliter rugosa, cserulea, fascia media transversa secpiali rufo-flava ; 
antenna fusco-nigree, art. 1° rufo ; pedes et corpus subtus rufa. 

Long. corp. lin. G| ; lat. lin. 3|. 

This species resembles as to pattern the Pyesia laticornis of 
Germar ; but, besides being a larger insect, it is more robust, 
less depressed, and the surface is not, as in that species, punc- 
tate, but thickly rugose and tomentose. 

Brazil. One of the examples in my collection is labelled 

Section II. 

Elytra for the most part tiavous, with darker markings. Sp. 6-12. 

6. M. illustris. 

M. satis lata, subparallela, crebre punctata, pube flava subvestita, 
rufo-flava, elytrorum apicibus fuscatis ; caput fronte foveolatum, 
punctatum ; thorax transverse ad medium depressus, punctatus ; 
elytra leviter pubescentia, punctata, rufo-flava, apicibus nigris ; 
antenna;, pedes et co?pus subtus nigra. 

Long. corp. lin. (i ; lat. lin. 34. 


7. M. coryli, (Coelomera) Say, Acad. Philad. iii. 1821, p. 455; 
Complete Writings, vol. ii. p. 220. 

This is the only species which represents the genus on the 

Eev. H. Clark on Dejean's Genus Ccelomcra. 267 

North American continent : it is found in Illinois, Maryland, 
and Virginia; in the latter State it is so abundant that it often 
entirely strips the Curylus americanus, on which it feeds. 

8. M. depressa. 

M. late ovalis, valde depressa, flava, antennis, elytrorum marginibus 
et apice necnon corpore subtus nigris ; caput longitudinaliter foveo- 
latum, leviter punctatum ; thorax valde ad medium transverse 
depressus, impunctatus ; scutellum flavum ; elytra lata, valde de- 
pressa, late marginata subtiliter rugosa, subpubescentia, flava, 
apice et marginibus late uigrescentibus ; antennae nigrae, art. l°-3 m 
flavis ; corpus subtus nigrum ; pedes flavi. 

Long. corp. lin. 5-| ; lat. lin. 3|. 

I am indebted to Mr. Baly for this species, received by him 
from the river Magdalina. ' 

9. M. Balyi. 

M. late ovalis, nigra, thorace, capite, elytrorum basi et femoribus 
anticis rufo-flavis ; caput leviter longitudinaliter foveolatum, im- 
punctatum ; thorax late transverse depressus, lateribus ad medium 
subangulatis, impunctatus ; scutellum impunctatum, rufum ; ely- 
tra ampliata, late marginata, subdepressa, rugosa, opaca, nigra, 
basi tenuiter fulvescente ; antennae fusco-nigrae, art. l°et 2° flavis ; 
corpus subtus nigrum ; pedes nigri, femoribus anticis rufo-flavis. 

Long. corp. lin. 7 ; lat. lin. 4. 


10. M. elegantula. 

M. pallide purpurea, thorace maculisque 4 elytrorum flavo-pubes- 
centibus ; caput ad basin foveolatum ; thorax omnino flavo 
pubescens ; elytra macula utrinque magna media, alteraque minore 
circulari ad apicem flavo pubescentibus ; antennae rufo-fuscse ; 
pedes et coipus subtus fusco-purpurea. 

Long. corp. lin. 5 ; lat. lin. 3. 

11. M. Hopfneri, Dej. Cat. 

M. subparallela, crebre punctata vel rugosa, testaceo-flava, tibiis, 
tarsis et antennis nigris ; caput leviter longitudinaliter foveolatum; 
thorax transversus, sub quad ratus, transverse modice depressus, 
lateribus rotundatis, crebre et fortiter punctatus ; scutellum sub- 
triangulare, subpunctatum ; elytra thorace latiora, subrugosa vel 
crebre punctata ; antennae sat elongatae, nigrse ; co/pus subtus 
fuscum ; pedes flavo- fusci, tibiis et tarsis nigris. 

Long. corp. lin. 5 ; lat. lin. 2^. 

M. Hopfneri may be distinguished not only by its flavous 
coloration, but by its thorax, which is less deeply transversely 
depressed, and coarsely and closely punctate. 


268 Dr. W. 11. Scott on the Occurrence of 

12. M. sanguinicollis. 

31. elongatula, posticc subdilatata, crebre punctata, nigra, thorace 
rufo, elytris rufo vittatis ; caput punctatum, rufum ; thorax in 
medio transverse depressus, lateribus rotundatis, punctatus, rufus; 
scutellum impunctatum, rufum ; elytra versus apicem subdilatata, 
satis depressa, crebre punctata, rufa, vittis duabus parallelis (sub- 
suturali et laterali) basin sed vix apicem attingentibus, post medium 
elytrorum conjunctis ; antennce nigrae, art. basali interdum rufo ; 
2>edes et corpus subtus vel nigra vel rufo-fusca. 

Long. corp. lin. 3g-4|; lat. lin. lf-2j. 

I have examples of this species from Bolivia, and also from 

[To be continued.] 

XXXI. — On the Occurrence 0/ Orcynus alalouga on the Coast of 
Devon. By Dr. W. 11. Scott. 

Several fish of but rare occurrence in British waters have from 
time to time been taken on the Cornish and Devon coasts. 
The close and accurate observations of Mr. Couch have seldom 
allowed any found on the former to pass unnoticed. On the 
coast of Devon, however, recorded captures of these rarer spe- 
cies are less common, owing probably in some degree to the 
want of that zealous watchfulness which has animated the la- 
bours of the Cornish ichthyologist. Amongst the rarer species 
that pay our coasts an occasional visit are those of the genus 
Tkynnus; and amongst the very rarest of these is the Germon, 
separated now, however, by Cuvier into a distinct genus, and 
which fish he has named Orcynus al along a, from the length of 
its pectoral fin — which constitutes the chief, if not the only, dif- 
ference between it and the true Tunnies. 

The Orcynus alalonga has been very rarely found in British 
seas. One has been recorded as taken at Portland, which was 
presented to the British Museum, and it has been twice taken 
in Mounts Bay, Cornwall. 

I have pleasure, therefore, in now recording another specimen 
of this rare British fish, taken in Devonshire. This fish was 
captured on the 26th of August last, not really in channel, but 
a little way up the river Exe, about three miles from its mouth, 
and at about half-tide. The fish had got entangled amongst 
some palings which had been driven into the river about a foot 
from the edge, where a kind of quay had been made, and which 
formed a cul-de-sac. Into this the fish got ; and so violent were 
its struggles to get out, that it drew the attention of some work- 
men who were at a little distance, when one of them got his gun 

Orcynus alalonga on the Coast oj- Devon. 2G9 


and shot it. They describe its efforts to free Itself as shaking 
the palings like the strength of two men, which agrees with the 
observations of Mr. Couch, who says that a specimen taken in 
Mount's Bay showed " extraordinary strength when caught with 
a line.'' 

Unfortunately I did not hear of this fish having been captured 
till a week after, and when it had become much putrified, and, 
indeed, had been buried ; so that I cannot give so full and accu- 
rate a description of it as might be desirable. Still enough re- 
mained to show to what species it belonged; and on showing 
the plates of the Tunnies in Mr. Couch's volume to the person 
who killed it (an intelligent foreman of some works near the 
river), he declared it to agree with that of the Gernion. 

The shot by which the animal was killed had destroyed all 
the first dorsal fin and part of the second, so that no examina- 
tion could be made of these; but the general form was not 
much injured, and the other fins remained sufficiently defined 
to enable me to mark their position and numbers ; and the pec- 
toral fin, one of the most important in identifying the species, 
was the least injured of all. From this state of the fish I was 
enabled to note the following particulars. 

The full length of the fish, from the nose to the base of the 
caudal fin, was 24 inches, the girth round the pectoral fin 19, and 
the girth immediately in front of the second dorsal 15^ inches; 
the flesh in this part was very firm and solid. 

The head was pointed, the under jaw slightly the longest, the 
teeth small and incurved, and the gape about 4 inches ; the 
nostrils very obscure ; the eye was large, and, when fresh, was 
slightly elevated, and placed over the angle of the mouth. The 
sections of the gill-covers were well defined ; and from the nose 
to the gill-opening was about 7 inches. 

The pectoral fin, lodged in a deep depression, was 8^ inches 
long, and reached to about the middle of the anal fin. I could 
not say if the anal and second dorsal were falcated, as the upper 
parts of both had perished ; but I was informed that both were 
so. I could trace that there was a short space between the first 
and second dorsal fins, and that the finlets were eight above 
and seven below, which I was told had been tinged with yellow, 
but not so deeply as are those in Mr. Couch's plate. The tail 
was deeply cleft; but, one-half being gone, I could only judge 
of this approximately. The weight of the fish when caught was 
twelve pounds, and nothing was found in its stomach. 

On comparing this fish with the figure given by Couch, I 
thought the latter more slender for its length than the former ; 
but this appearance might have arisen from the body having 
become depressed, from the treatment to which it had been 

270 Prof. II. J. Clark on the Animal Nature 

subjected. The length of the pectoral fin was also not so great 
as that figured by Couch. The proportions given in the speci- 
men killed at Portland are — length of body 30 inches, length 
of pectoral fin 1H inches; while in the specimen examined by 
me the length of body was 24 inches, and the pectoral fin 
8^ inches. This latter length, however, comes epiite up to that 
given by Cuvicr for the species. He says the Scomber thynnus 
has the pectoral fin one-fifth part of its length, while the Orcynus 
has it one-third the length of the body, and that this difference 
is the only one between the two fishes. It will be seen, then, that 
8^ inches is nearly the proportion given by Cuvier, being a 
little more than one-third of 24 inches, the full length of the 

It is fortunate that the pectoral fin was sufficiently perfect 
to allow of its being accurately measured, and thus enable us 
to record another instance of this south-of-Europe fish paying 
a visit to our northern shores. 

It is further worthy of remark that Mr. Couch has reported the 
capture of the Short-finned Tunny (a fish never before taken on 
our coasts) on the 16th of August last. It would be interest- 
ing to know what causes have led these fish so far north on this 

XXXII. — Proofs of the Animal Nature of the Cilio-flagcllate Infu- 
soria, based upon Investigations of the Structure and Physio- 
logy of one of the Peridinia (Peridinium cypripedium, n. sp.). 
By Prof. H. James Clark, A.B., B.S .* 
[Plate XII.] 

Whatever tends to elucidate the doubtful nature of any group 
of beings which stands undecided (as it were on the dividing line) 
between sentient and non-sentient things has an importance at 
the present day which would not have been deemed worthy of 
very grave consideration before the theories of Spontaneous 
Generation and what is sometimes mistakenly called Darwinism 
had been revived. The resurgence of these doctrines has given 
a prominence to the discussion of the character of the lowest, 
obscure forms of life, simply because, in their extreme simplicity, 
they hardly seem to rise above a state of inorganic nature, and 
their vitality is exhibited in such a guise as would readily be 
mistaken for the operation of exo-endosmotic, inanimate, inor- 
ganic forces. Hence the readiness, the eagerness, with which 
the physicists of the Materialistic school clutch at these "toys" 

* Communicated by the Author, having been read before the American 
Academy of Science and Arts, February 14, 1865. 

of the Cilio-jlagellatc Infusoria. 271 

of the older microscopists, hoping therein to find an abundance 
of argument by which they may prove that rock and flesh do not 
incompatibly jostle each other whenever they come in contact. 

Claiming, aud justly too, that these extremes of the inorganic 
and organic bodies are naturally and incontestably related to 
each other through their common basis the simple elements of 
the chemist, it does not seem possible to the materialist that 
their relations should be changed or dissevered by the introduc- 
tion of any modes of existence, however varied or elevated. The 
carbon, the hydrogen, the nitrogen, and the oxygen once being 
established as definite existences, they always remain C, H, N, 
and 0, no matter under what forms or relations they may be 
disguised, the various modes of being not in the least changing 
the fact of their existence. For instance, they say, the transi- 
tion from one kind of animate being to another kind is only a 
graduated change in the mode of existence, or of the manner of 
an outward expression of the relations of the component elements 
of the organism ; certainly not an actual metamorphosis of the 
nature of these elements. To this assertion there may not pos- 
sibly be any objection ; but if the same explanation were urged 
for the transition to the Monad from the infinitesimally small, 
vibrating, inorganic corpuscle of the "Brownian motion," we 
have not come to that state of knowledge of the forces of nature 
to accept it so readily as in the former case. Still the growing 
tendency, among the philosophical chemists, to merge the vital 
and the inorganic forces into one would seem to be inevitably 
preparing us to regard such a transition as identical in kind 
with that which obtains among the undoubtedly organized bo- 
dies, whether animals or plants. 

In this state of hesitancy to step across the vanishing line of 
demarcation between the animate and the inanimate, we can at 
least safely venture to give, in general terms, an expression of 
the relations of the three forms of existence. We may say that 
it is the mode of existence which constitutes the difference be- 
tween the inorganic and the organic bodies, or between the two 
forms of organic life, viz. animals and plants ; so that every 
fact enunciated in regard to an animal or plant is the record of 
a symbol of one of the methods of existence, or of the nature of 
the influences which enter into the life of the being. 

From this point of view the study of these insignificants rises 
to the rank of the highest philosophical inquiry, and the minute 
wonders of the microscopist become the agents in the pursuit 
after the knowledge of the ways of the Infinite, which one could 
hardly have the temerity to smile at. 

These thoughts have been suggested by the results of some 
investigations into the thus far doubtful animal nature of the 

272 Prof. II. J. Clark on the Animal Nature 

Cilio-flagcllatc Infusoria, as the Peridiniens and their congeners 
arc designated by Clapavede in his, conjointly with Lachmann, 
most recent publications upon the Infusoria*. 

In order that the various points of the proof that the Peri- 
diniens are undoubted animals may be comprehended in sys- 
tematic sequence, it seems most desirable to present them under 
separate sections, each devoted to some particular vital function. 

Habitat and Form. — There is probably no generic difference 
between the species in question here and those described and 
figured by Allman in the third volume of the 'Journal of Micro- 
scopical Science/ 1856, and by Claparede in the memoir above 
referred to ; but in their specific relations no doubt they are 
distinct. This (PI. XII. figs. 1, 2, 3) has an oblique pyriform 
outline, more than one-third longer than its greatest breadth, 
and hollowed on one side by a broad longitudinal depression {<!), 
extending from the narrower end (p) to a short distance beyond 
the broadest part of the body. Not far from the narrower end 
the so-called fiagellum (//) is attached, in the middle line of the 
broad depression, and is so long as to project beyond the end 
near to which it is situated. As the narrower end (p) is always 
the posterior, and the broader end (a) the anterior, in the act of 
swimming, and the relations of the other parts of the body, 
such as the position of the mouth (m) and particularly the trend 
of the oesophagus («?), correspond to these, the one which pre- 
cedes should be called the anterior, and the other the posterior 
end of the body ; and as such they will hereafter be designated 
in this article. 

There are two shallow furrows which encircle the body; one 
(/>/), rather broad, passes obliquely backwards and around it 
just behind its middle, and the other (af), quite narrow, encir- 
cles the broader end just in front of the termination of the broad 
longitudinal depression above mentioned. The whole of the 
body posterior to the narrower transverse furrow is clothed with 
vibratile cilia ; but the anterior end is devoid of them, and appears 
to be covered by a low cap (pc) in the form of a segment of a 
sphere. In the young this cap is so shallow as to be readily 
overlooked during the motions of the animal. Close to the 
posterior end there is a large, clear vesicle (cv), which is quite 
conspicuous, even during the rapid motions of the animal. This 
is the contractile vesicle, which will be described presently. In 
point of sensitiveness this Peridinium exhibits it in almost as 
great a degree as Pleuronema and many other timid Infusoria. 
These are the most evident and striking features, such as readily 
attract the attention when the body is in motion ; and moreover 

* Clapavede and Lachmann, " Etude sur les Infusoires et les Rhizo- 
podes," Mem. de Tins. Genevois, tomes v., vi., vii. (1858-1861). 

of the Cilio-flagellate Infusoria. 273 

they are the chief and characteristic traits of this species. The 
specific name is derived from the resemblance in the form of the 
body to the labellum of one of the Orchidaceze, viz. Cijpripedium. 
It is very common in the freshwater ditches and slow streams 
about Cambridge,U.S. ; and in the aquarium congregates in great 
numbers around decaying matter. It varies from ~o to -^^ 
of an inch in length ; but occasionally adults were found -j-J-o of 
an inch long. It is probable, however, that the latter were in a 
preparatory state, just before self-division. The colour is a uni- 
form light brown, which resides mostly in the derm. 

Contractile Vesicle. — This organ (cv) is so conspicuous, in the 
species before us at least, that one is apt to wonder why it has 
not been discovered before. The only reasonable excuse for this 
seeming delinquency would appear to be, that the animal is so 
incessantly active and so rapid in its motions, that a large amount 
of patience could hardly compensate for the want of a quiet 
subject. Fortunately, at the present day our lenses, even of 
moderate power, are constructed with such large angles, broad 
fields, and excellent definition, that the difficulty of keeping the 
Infusorian in sight, and of getting a clear decided view of its 
interior, is almost done away with. By strewing the glass slide 
with abundance of indigo, little lagoons are formed here and 
there, in which, when the specimens are plentiful, there is no 
difficulty in finding and confining any particular individual, 
without the necessity of a thin glass covering. In this way the 
motions of the body are reduced to a simple revolution on its 
longer axis, with an occasional inversion, end for end. The eye 
soon gets accustomed to the rhythmical appearance of any par- 
ticular region as it comes round at each revolution, so that, by 
a systematic study of each and every feature, a knowledge of the 
whole organism may be obtained as readily as in most Infusoria. 
The contractile vesicle is invariably situated close to the nar- 
rower, or posterior, end of the body, but at a considerable dis- 
tance from the ventral, dorsal, or lateral surfaces. At the mo- 
ment just before systole it has a perfectly globular form (PI. XII. 
fig. 1 cv), and a very sharp, strongly refracting, conspicuous 
contour, and occupies rather more than the middle third of the 
transverse diameter of the body at this point. The systole and 
diastole are as regular in their recurrence as in any of the 
ciliated Infusoria, and as conveniently observed. The systole, 
in perfectly fresh specimens, occurs with perfect regularity once 
in forty seconds, as numerous and carefully registered observa- 
tions prove. As in other Infusoria, between diastole and sys- 
tole, the vesicle is more or less irregular in outline, but gradu- 
ally approximating to a spherical form. At the moment of sys- 
tole it rather quickly changes from a broad spheroidal figure to 

Ann. fy Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. xvi. 19 

274 Prof. H. J. Clark on the Animal Nature 

one which is globular, and then contracts suddenly and rapidly 
until it is nearly invisible. The diastole then follows slowly, 
aud during this it passes from a jagged rounded outline (fig. 3c?;) 
to a lenticular form (rig. 2), then to a hemispherical shape (fig. 4) 
with the flattened side next to the posterior end of the body, 
and finally, assuming a spheroidal contour, it remains quiet 
awhile, until the time for the next systole. If the water is not 
renewed, the specimens become unhealthy, which they exhibit 
by changing their form, and swelling up into an oval and finally 
a globular mass. In such a condition the systole of the con- 
tractile vesicle oftentimes occurs five or six times in a minute, 
and will continue at that rate even when the animal is very 
much flattened out, and until it bursts or falls to pieces. Tinc- 
ture of opium stops the action of the contractile vesicle almost 
immediately, even before the rest of the body is sensibly affected 
by it. The effect is to swell the vesicle to an enormous size ; 
and then, breaking through the posterior end of the animal, it 
expands to a dimension often exceeding that of the whole body, 
before it bursts. 

The Mouth (in). — That this creature has a mouth might be 
premised from the manner in which particles of indigo or car- 
mine approach and recede from the body. When the animal is 
moored by its flagelliform appendage (ft), and gyrates about it 
as if on a pivot, these particles of coloured food may be seen to 
pass along the face of the broad longitudinal depression (d), 
and, striking the body just behind its mid-region, glance off in 
a backward direction. At the point where the indigo strikes 
may be seen an obliquely longitudinal ovate opening (m), which 
leads into an elongated funnel-shaped cavity (oe) : the former is 
the mouth, and the latter is the oesophagus. The mouth lies 
altogether within the posterior obliquely transverse furrow (pf), 
and extends from its anterior to its posterior edge, trending 
diagonally across the axial plane of the body, from the right, 
backwards, toward the left. Its anterior edge (wt 1 ) is broad, 
and thence it gradually narrows to a sharp angle, which forms 
the posterior edge. It is so inconspicuous that in all probability 
it is nearly or altogether closed, except when taking in food ; 
certainly it is not one of the prominent features of the organism, 
although one of the most important. When the animal is in a 
sickly condition, and swollen up, the mouth is easily descried; 
but its relations are not readily made out, because in this state 
the annular furrows are all obliterated; yet its connexion with 
the oesophagus at such a time is clearly seen. There are no 
appendages whatever about or belonging to the mouth ; not 
even the flagelliform body (ft) has anything to do with it, but 
is attached to the body at a very sensible distaucc (ft) behind 

of the Cilio-flagellate Infusoria. 275 

it. It would seem, therefore, to be dependent upon the simple 
cilia around it for the transfer of food to its lips. From the 
mouth the oesophagus {oe) passes obliquely backwards and toward 
the dorsal region, at least halfway through the body, and then 
terminates rather abruptly just before the contractile vesicle, 
but a little to the right side (fig. 3 a?) of the axial plane. At 
the mouth it is widest antero-posteriorly, but suddenly narrowing 
a little, it afterwards gradually lessens its calibre as it extends 
into the body, and finally ends as just described. The whole 
track of this channel is much more readily seen than the mouth. 
The food is taken in such excessively small particles that its 
entrance into the mouth cannot be detected with any degree of 
satisfaction ; and a single digestive vacuole (dv) requires from 
twenty minutes to half an hour to form and fill; and although 
it may be comparatively quite large, even two-thirds of its fullest 
capacity, yet so infinitesimally minute are the particles, that 
even indigo or carmine is not readily seen, although it may be 
the only kind of food present. Beyond this point, however, 
these colouring-matters become rapidly visible, so that when a 
vacuole is fully formed, the indigo or carmine is as conspicuous 
as in any other Infusorian. These vacuoles are very large, in 
fact equalling in size the contractile vesicle ; and as they form 
sometimes pretty far back, they are apt to obscure the latter — 
without doubt thus causing this vesicle to be mistaken for one 
of them, since they bear a certain resemblance to it. No anus 
was detected during these investigations, although the specimens 
at times were kept well fed. 

The Locomotive Organs. — The most prominent among the cilia 
is the so-called flagellum (fl). This, however, is not a single 
filament, as has usually been asserted; but, owing to the manner 
in which it is used, it very naturally appears to be so. Most 
frequently its compound nature becomes apparent when the 
numerous cilia of which it is composed divide into two groups 
(fig. 7 fl,fl l ), thus simulating a double flagellum*. At other 
times, after having divided into two groups, they twist about 
each other in such a way as to resemble a sharply pointed screw, 
with a long drawn-out double thread. Such is the condition in 
which this pseudo-flagellum is most frequently seen, and then, 
with the best magnifying-powers, up to five hundred diameters, 
its compound nature is not easily recognized. But there are 
times when the whole group of cilia spreads out into a distinct 
brush, so that each individual cilium may be seen. The base 
(fl 1 ) of attachment is in the axial plane of the body, a short dis- 

* Claparede (loc. cit.) speaks of frequently noticing that some of the 
Ceratiums, &c., appeared to have a double flagellum. Probably they were 
a group of cilia divided as here described. 


276 Prof. H. J. Clark on the Animal Nature 

tance posterior to the mouth (m), and distinctly disconnected 
from it, as has been already noticed. When not in motion, 
which seldom occurs, the brush lies along the median furrow 
(?»/), which trends from the mouth to the posterior end of the 
animal ; and in this position it projects for nearly half its length 
beyond the body. Its most ostensible use would seem to be 
that of a sort of rudder when the creature is swimming, and as 
a means of attachment when not progressing. The body may 
be seen gyrating and at the same time revolving on its longi- 
tudinal axis, for long periods, around a point to which the 
pseudo-flagellum is attached, and upon which it turns like 
a pivot. Most frequently, during this act, a part of the 
brush separates from the rest, and performs the office of au 
extra propeller. When the animal is darting and spinning 
through the water, this appendage projects obliquely from its 
point of attachment (as in fig. 1), and always following, with 
the narrower end of the body, in the rear, it seems pretty evi- 
dently to be the main agent in the various and sudden tackings 
to which this Infusorian is addicted, and also the axis upon 
which the body revolves ; at least the latter whirls, repeatedly 
changing as quick as thought from right to left, or vice versa, 
upon an imaginary axis, which is oblique to its greatest length, 
and which exactly corresponds to the trend of the flagelliform 
appendage when operating in this capacity. Under these con- 
ditions the animal shoots along with a compound motion, which 
might be described as wabbling, or like the action of an excen- 
tric wheel. Apparently in confirmation of this view, the annular 
obliquely transverse anterior (af) and posterior (pf) furrows 
trend almost exactly at right angles to this imaginary axis. 
These two furrows seem, at first sight, to be bands of vibrating 
cilia ; and in fact it is in the line of their trend that these cilia 
are most readily detected, simply because they are rather more 
crowded along their edges than elsewhere ; but an attentive ex- 
amination reveals their presence all over the body, posterior to 
the anterior transverse furrow. Between the two furrows (i. e. 
from af to pf) they are longer than at the narrower end of 
the body, and at both points they have a pretty uniform length, 
moderate extension, and arc very delicate, so as not to be easily 
observed when the body is in motion. At the anterior trans- 
verse furrow they appear to be a little longer than elsewhere, 
and, acting more or less in concert, they have the semblance of 
a wreath disposed along the edge of the low skullcap-like cover- 
ing (pc) of the anterior end. 

The Cuirass (pc). — It is pretty evident that in the species be- 
fore us this is a mere dermal specialization, without any trace 
of indurated matter which would entitle it to the name of a 

of the Cilio-Jlagellate Infusoria. 277 

genuine cuirass. Where vibratile cilia are present, no such 
covering can be said to exist ; and as the broad anterior end (a) 
of the body is devoid of them, its skull-cap covering is the only 
portion of the derm where one could expect to find a cuirass. 
But this it is only in form, since it participates with the rest of 
the body in the general expansion when an individual is dying. 
It has, without doubt, a different character from the rest of the 
skin ; for the style of ornamentation is not of the same kind, 
and, curiously enough, too, it is less truly ornamented than 
the other regions of the body, amounting to a mere scattered 
punctuation; whereas over the field where the cilia prevail these 
punctuations, which are in reality minute, cylindrical, strongly 
refracting bodies standing perpendicularly to the surface of the 
derm, are arranged in perfectly regular rows, which have a dif- 
ferent character in the three regions posterior to the pseudo- 
cuirass. In the space (fig. 5 d) between the anterior (of) and 
posterior (pf) transverse furrows, the rows trend longitudinally 
and transversely ; in the posterior transverse furrow ( pf) they 
have the same arrangement as the last, but they are more closely 
set together; and in the region behind the latter furrow they 
trend in decussating lines (p), like those in the carapace of 
Arcella vulgaris. 

This region is also characterized by being divided longitudi- 
nally, on the ventral side, by a furrow (fig. 1, 2, 6 mf) which 
trends in a direct line from the end of the body to the mouth, 
and gradually widens anteriorly, where it joins the annular 
transverse furrow (pf). At this point of juncture the flagellar 
appendage arises, and opposite to it the anterior edge of the 
transverse furrow just mentioned forms an inequilateral angle at 
the broader margin (m 1 ) of the mouth, so that the right and left 
halves of this furrow are rendered asymmetrical — a character in 
perfect accordance with that of many, if not of all, the Peridinia. 

The Nucleus (u). — At the period when these observations were 
made, viz. early last December, the genital organ invariably lay 
transverse to the longitudinal axis, and occupied a very large 
portion of the bulk of the posterior end of the body. Most 
frequently it had a U-shaped form (fig. 3 u), and embraced the 
contractile vesicle with its two limbs. It was then of a yellowish- 
brown colour, and perfectly homogeneous. Occasionally it was 
observed to be divided into three or four masses, which extended 
toward the region encompassed by the posterior annular furrow. 
While in the U-shaped form, the whole scmiopaque mass was 
enclosed in a transparent envelope (ne). Oftentimes there was 
to be seen immediately over and close to the dorsal region of the 
nucleus, and directly in the plane of the axis of the body, a mi- 
nute, clear, vesicular corpuscle (fig. 3 t), which seemed to have 

278 Prof. II. J. Clark on the Cilio-jlagellate Infusoria. 

the character of a " nucleolus " or (as is now becoming the be- 
lief, since the investigations of Balbiani and Claparede) a 

Reproduction from the egg has not been observed, but trans- 
verse division occurred in a number of instances. In the latter 
case it agrees, in the process, with what Allman (loc. cit.) has 
described, excepting that the resultants (fig. 6, i. n. ; fig. 7) are 
quite different in their proportions from the adults (figs. 1,2,3). 
At the moment of separation the young offshoot (fig. 7) is about 
two-thirds the size of the adult, and is almost as broad as long, 
and bulges strongly on the ventral side (v), in front of the 
mouth (m). It has a very flat anterior end, and the pseudo- 
cuirass (pc) of this part is represented by an inconspicuous 
unguiform body. The anterior transverse furrow, on account of 
its narrowness, hardly attracts attention, except along its ventral 
edge {(if), where it is rendered conspicuous by the strong pro- 
jection of the unguiform cuirass. As in the adult, it is broadest 
ventrally, but, growing shallower, thins out (of 1 ), going dorsally 
to almost nothing. The relations and structure of the various 
organs, cilia, &c, are the same as in the full-grown individuals; 
but with progressing growth the proportions of the different 
regions of the body change insensibly, as may be seen by com- 
paring figures 7, 4, and 1, which are respectively representations 
of the youngest, middle-aged, and adult individuals. 


[In all the figures the same letters refer to corresponding parts.] 

A. The anterior end of the hody. v. The posterior end. 

r>. The dorsal side. v. The ventral side. r. The right side. L. The 
left side. 

of, anterior transverse or annular furrow ; of 1 , dorsal part of af; 
pf, posterior transverse or annular furrow ; mf, median or longitudinal 
furrow ; d, depression on the ventral side ; cv, contractile vesicle ; 
m, mouth, to 1 , anterior edge of to ; ae, oesophagus; dv, digestive vacuoles; 
ji, pseudo-fiagellum,^ 1 , base of^; n, nucleus or generative organ ; we, en- 
velope of n (this is the reproductive organ, properly speaking, and n is the 
contents or reproductive material, the future eggs) ; t, nucleolus or testes ; 
pc, pseudo-cuirass. 

I., ii. The two products of self-division, in. The annular constriction 
which finally separates i. and II. 

Figs. 1 to 7- Peridinium cypripedium, n. sp. 

Fig. 1. Profile of an adult, seen from the left side; magn. 500 diams, 

Fig. 2. View of the ventral side of an adult; magn. 500 diams. 

Fig. 3. Posterior view of an adult, the anterior end in the distance ; 

magn. 500 diams. 
Fig. 4. A young individual ; magn. 300 diams. 
Fuj. 5. An adult, gradually dried up; dorsal view, to show the arrange- 

Bibliographical Notices. 279 

ment of the punctiform ornamentation of the derm ; magn. 

500 diams. 
Fig. 6. The process of self-division, just half an hour before separation ; 

ventral view ; magn. 200 diams. 
Fig. 7- Profile of i. fig. 6, just at the moment of separation ; magn. 

200 diams. 


Travels and Researches in Crete. By Captain T. A. B.Spratt, R.N. , 
C.B., F.R.S. &c. In two vols. 8vo. London: Van Voorst, 

In carrying out the Mediterranean Survey, the Island of Crete 
came under examination by Capt. Spratt, whose acquaintance with 
the recpiirements of his own profession, with the ancient and mo- 
dern history of the Greeks, their early works of art, coins, monu- 
ments, and buildings, with the natural history of land and sea in 
the Mediterranean area, and with the geological structure of every 
mountain, coast, and islet he visited, render him peculiarly capable 
of doing justice to so interesting a region as Crete. The form and 
character of that island, from mountain to plain, the sites of its cities, 
its ravines, caves, and water-courses, are so visibly explicable by 
their rocky structure, that to shut one's eyes to their geological is 
to misinterpret their topographical relations. Its highlands and 
valleys, as well as the coast and the deep sea, are strikingly remarkable 
in their natural products. Its old forgotten cities rise up to intelli- 
gent research, and the ancient ruins take definite form and their true 
place in history, when learning and sagacity unravel the half-true 
legends of the place. In Crete are found statuary and coins of the 
finest style, and of a school dating from an earlier time than Athenian 
art could boast of ; for it was the cradle of Greek learning and much 
of Greek mythology. Lastly, there still exist genuine Cretan Greeks, 
whose ancestors (under the Roman sway) heard Paul preach at Fair 
Havens, — under the Byzantines, Saracens, Franks, and Venetians, 
played their mediaeval part in quarrels, bigotry, and trade, and, well 
versed in war, withstood the Turk for more than twenty years, — 
and under the Turk have suffered all that brings out the debasing 
vices and exceptional virtues of a conquered race. 

Following Capt. Spratt in his account of Crete (the eastern part 
of which he more particularly treats of, as having been left unde- 
sctibed by Pashley), we find the natural features of the country, the 
remnants of Greek buildings and works of art, media;val relics, the 
peculiarities of the present population — the old highland Sfakiote 
breed, hardy, unscrupulous, and cruel, and the lowland Candiotes of 
mixed origin — all carefully noted and elucidated by a scientific 
acquaintance with nature and by a knowledge of classic literature 
and history ; whilst an eye for beauty in nature and art — enthusiasm 
in working out the traces of long-past civilization, the early source, 
in great part, of our present culture — a warm sympathy with all 

280 Bibliographical Notices. 

that is human, lowered though it he as the outcast leper of benighted 
Crete — and a hearty, honest, common-sense view of men and man- 
ners, give a good tone and genuine feeling to all his observations. 
In tact, the naturalist, geologist, geographer, antiquary, and general 
reader cannot fail to be interested and instructed by this work. Its 
illustrations are first-rate : two excellent geological and topographical 
maps ; a dozen good chromo-lithographs of scenery, with some other 
plates ; numerous small lithographs on india-paper inserted in the 
text, besides several woodcuts, are all well executed, and help the 
reader. A delicately tinted lithograph of Cestum Veneris and Bero'e 
illustrates a long and careful account of these beautiful creatures. A 
chapter is devoted to the sponge-divers and their surroundings ; and 
a picturesque group of their fishing-boats is shown in a coloured plate. 

Appendices on Cretan and modern Greek (by Viscount Strafford); 
on Deep-sea Soundings ; on Currents in the Mediterranean ; on the 
Salinity of the Black Sea and Mediterranean ; on the Geology of 
Crete, and its relations with Malta and Africa ; on the Birds (by 
Col. Drummond-Hay) and the Land-Shells of Crete ; and on the 
Greek inscriptions found in Crete (by Dr. Churchill Babington), 
carry out more fully some of the researches and favourite topics 
of our author. 

One of the characteristics of Capt. Spratt is most pleasantly shown 
in the honest and genial acknowledgment of the labours of his col- 
leagues in the Nautical Survey, of the aid of other friends in his 
scientific and literary work, and of the strong and lasting influence 
that he believes the genius and philosophy of his lamented friend 
Edward Forbes have had in rousing, shaping, and supporting that 
activity of research which is so handsomely represented by these 
volumes — which is so well known by many circles of his countrymen 
and foreigners, and always so modestly referred to by himself. 

Handbook of British Water-weeds, or Algae. By Dr. John Edward 
Gray, F.R.S., late President of the Botanical Society of London. 
The Diatomacece, by W. Carruthers, F.L.S. &c. London : 
Hardwicke, 1865. 

This little work contains an arrangement of all the Algre or Water- 
weeds hitherto recorded as found in Great Britain and Ireland, re- 
ferred to the most recent genera, and fills up a desideratum that has 
for several years been felt by the botanical student. 

The black- and red-seeded Algoe, which, with very few exceptions, 
are all marine, are arranged in the families, genera, and subgenera 
used by Professor Jacob George Agardh in his ' Species, Genera, et 
Ordines Algarum,' lately published in Sweden, with the alterations 
suggested in the system proposed by Professor Harvey, in his ac- 
count of the American Algae, published by the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution. The species are all accompanied by a short diagnosis and a 
reference to the best figure which has been given of them from spe- 
cimens in a living state, Harvey's ' Phycologica Britannica' being the 
work almost always referred to. 

Bibliographical Notices. 281 

The Green Algse (Chlorospennce), which contain both freshwater 
and marine species, are arranged according to the system proposed 
by the author in his paper on the distribution of those Algse, pub- 
lished in the 'Annals of Natural History' for November 1861. 

As these plants are very difficult to be distinguished, except in a 
living state (the chief character often disappearing when they are 
dry, and indeed often shortly after they are gathered), the author 
has not attempted to give any diagnosis of the species, but has only 
referred to the works in which the species or presumed species are 
figured, preferring, where he can, figures that are taken from living 

Dr. Gray has suggested some improvements in the arrangement 
of the Algse. Thus he has proposed to separate the families of 
Melanospermee used by Agardh and Harvey into three orders, 
according to the structure of the frond ; thus — 

Order I. Scytophyces. Frond leathery or membranaceous, formed 

of compact cellular substance: containing — 1. Fucacece ; 2. La- 

minariaceee ; 3. Dictyotaceee ; 4. Sporochnaeece. 
Order II. Trichophyces. Frond subarticulate, with a jointed 

axis, and furnished with tufts of pinnate, jointed (deciduous) 

threads. 5. Arthrocladiacece. 
Order III. Arthrophyces. Frond formed of jointed filaments, 

which are either free or united into a compound body. 6. Chor- 

dariacece ; 7. Ectocarpacece. 

Iu the families he has characterized three new genera, viz., 

1. Fasciaria for Laminar ia fascia. 

2. Sphcerophorus for Ectocarpus granulosus and its allied species. 

3. Hincksia for Ectocarpus Hincksii. 

In the Rhodosperms he regards the anomalous genus Hapalidium 
as the type of a family. It has been suggested that that genus may 
be only the very young state of Melobesia ; but this theory wants 
further examination, as the glassy texture, the form of the frond, 
and cells are very unlike those of any species of the latter genus, 
which is always calcareous and opake, and formed of several layers 
of cells, even in its thinnest state of development. Again, if it is 
the young state of that very common and universally spread genus, 
why is it so seldom observed, when the Melobesice are to be seen on 
almost every kind of marine body 1 

In the Chlorosperms, Dr. Gray has characterized the following 
genera as new, viz. — 

Leptocystea for Cladophora pellucida. 
Vagabunda for Cladophora fracta. 
Cystothrix for Cladophora Rudolphiana. 
Cystophora for Cladophora littorea. 
Calonema for Callothrix mirabilis. 

The list of the Diatomacese seems to have been prepared by 
Mr. Carruthers with great care ; and it will be very useful for the 
collectors of that very numerous and intricate class of minute plants. 

282 Bibliographical Notices. 

Natural-History Transactions of Northumberland and Durham. 
Vol. I. Part 1. 8vo. 1865. 

The ' Natural-History Transactions of Northumberland and Durham,' 
of which this is the first part, are to be looked upon as a continuation 
of the 'Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field-Club 5 under 
a different title, being in fact the Proceedings of the "Natural-His- 
tory Society of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-on-Tyne," 
incorporated with those of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field-Club. 

To make perfect catalogues, zoological and botanical, for the 
natural history, recent and fossil, of Northumberland and Durham 
is a main object of the Tyneside Field- Club and of the naturalists 
now associated with them. This aim is well kept in view in the 
present volume of their Transactions, which is largely composed of 
" Reports of Deep-Sea Dredging on the Coasts of Northumberland 
and Durham in 1862-64," edited by Mr. G. S. Brady. Among the 
new or little-known species are especially mentioned : — Echinoderms 
— Echinocardium pennatifidwm, Norman, MS., Psolus squamatus, 
Echinus pictus, Norman, Antedon rosaceus, Ophiocoma nigra. Mol- 
lusca — Chiton albus, L. Several stalk-eyed Crustacea — Atelecyclus 
heterodon, Payuri/s Cuanensis, P. Hyndmani, P. ferrugineus, Cran- 
gon Allmani, G. spinosus, C. nanus, C. fasciatus. Of Amphipods, 
Lysianassa Costce and several others. Of Ostracods, six new species 
of Cy there were taken ; also a new and very interesting Copepod 
(Calanus Clausii, Brady) and a new Pycnogon (Nymphon rubrum, 
Hodge). Among Polyzoa, Lepralia annidata and Tubulipora lobu- 
lata are new to the coast. Lastly, some rare Ilydrozoa were col- 
lected ; and five Foraminifera were added to the local list. 

Mr. Joshua Alder reports on the Mollusca, Tunicata, and Zoo- 
phyta; the Rev. A. M. Norman on the Crustacea; Mr. G. S. Brady 
on the Pelagic Entomostraca ; Mr. G. Hodge on the Pycnogonoidea 
and the Echinodermata ; and Mr. II. B. Brady on the Foraminifera. 
These reports are accompanied with tabulated catalogues showing 
the species found in 1862, 1863, and 1864 respectively, with notes 
as to frequency and other conditions. Eight plates illustrate this 
part of the volume. 

Mr. Norman, in the next succeeding memoir, describes Cyanea 
imporcata (a new Medusa taken off the Northumberland coast), and 
illustrates it with a beautiful chromolithograph (pi. 11) by T. West. 
Mr. Alder then describes three new or rare Polyzoa (pi. 8) — Eschar a 
Landsborovii, Johnston, E. pavonella, Alder, and Scrupocelluria 
Delilii, Audouin. Mr. Kirkby's paper on some remains of Fishes 
and Plants from the Upper Limestone of the Permian series of Dur- 
ham succeeds, with Plate 9, illustrating Palceoniscus altus, P. c</- 
rians, and P. Abbsii. The next memoir is entitled "A Catalogue of 
the Recent Foraminifera of Northumberland and Durham, by II. B. 
Brady," with Plate 12, in which ten forms figure as new or rare in 
the British seas. One point of interest mentioned in this paper is 
the occurrence of certain Foraminifera in brackish pools at Hylton 
Dene, and near the mouths of the Wansbeck and the Coquet, such 

Zoological Society. 283 

as Quinqueloculina agglutinans, Polystomella striato-punctata, No- 
nionina depressula, Rotafia Beccarii, Trochammina inflata (abun- 
dant), and Globigerina bulloides (one specimen). These often pre- 
sent modified shell-structure, and are evidently the remnants of sea- 
born families, left to struggle with the adverse influence of fresh 
water, herein reminding us of the marine Crustacea found in fresh- 
water lakes in Norway, and of other like instances. 

Mr. G. S. Brady supplies a suggestive paper on Naturalists' Field- 
Clubs and their objects, giving some statistics as to half-a-dozen of 
the best, comparing some of the different methods of research 
adopted, and concluding with a well-urged plea against the destruc- 
tion of small birds by the farmer, even for his own sake, and against 
the extermination of rare plants by curiosity-hunting botanists, for 
science-sake. Very valuable papers and notes on meteorology (Mr. 
Atkinson), flowering-time of plants (Mr. G. S. Brady), entomology 
(Mr. Bold), &c, complete this rich volume of natural-history facts 
collected by the men of Northumberland and Durham. 



May 9, 1865.— Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 

Description of a New Genus of Trichiuroid Fishes ob- 
tained at Madeira, with Remarks on the Genus Di- 


chiurid^e. By James Yate Johnson, Corr. Mem. Z. S. 
Fam. Trichiurid.e. 
Nealotus, gen. nov. 

Body elongate, compressed, incompletely clothed with delicate 
scales. Cleft of the mouth deep. Small teeth in the jaws and on 
the palatine bones ; none on the vomer. First dorsal fin continuous, 
extending to the second ; finlets behind the second dorsal and anal 
fins. Each ventral fin represented by a single small spine. A 
dagger-shaped spine behind the vent. No keel on the tail. Caudal 
fin well developed. Seven branchiostegal rays. 

This genus may be entered in the synopsis of Trichiuroid genera 
in the 'Catalogue of the Collection of Fishes in the British Museum' 
thus : — 

Each ventral represented by a single spine ; a dagger-shaped spine 
behind the vent. 

Neaeotus tripes, sp. n. 

First D. 21. Second D. 19. P. 13. A. 18. C. 16. 

The compressed body is very elongate, and has a few large deci- 
duous simple scales of delicate structure scattered here and there on 

284 Zoological Society : — 

the skin, which is faintly reticulated with oblique grooves or wrinkles, 
and has a steel-grey colour with a silvery lustre. The height of the 
hody, compared with the total length, is as 1 to 9| ; whilst the length 
of the head, compared with the total length, is as 1 to 4-JL The 
hlack compressed head is flattened ahove, and is concave between 
the eyes, where there are four low ridges, the inner pair of which 
enclose an elongated diamond-shaped space. The lower jaw is longer 
than the upper, and each is armed with a single series of small del- 
toid distant teeth. Those of the upper jaw are inserted in the pre- 
maxillary. In front there are seven longer teeth, which are conieo- 
compressed, and curve slightly backwards ; two of them at each side 
stand within the outer row of teeth. On the palatine bones there is 
a single row of minute teeth; whilst the vomer is unarmed. The 
tongue is also without teeth, and is black like the rest of the month 
and the inside of the gill-covers. A membrane with a tongue-like 
lobe stretches across the palate. 

The diameter of the round lateral eye is contained in the head 
about five times, and is distant from the muzzle 1| of its diameter. 
Near the angle of the preopercle are three very small flat teeth. The 
opercle terminates in two obtuse projections separated by a notch. 

The first dorsal fin commences a little in front of the root of the 
pectoral fin. Its height is rather more than half the height of the 
body ; and its length is less than half that of the fish. It rises out 
of a groove, and is supported by twenty-one slender spines, which 
are not tuberculated. The second dorsal fin commences shortly behind 
the termination of the first, to which it is not quite ecpial in point of 
height, and it is less than half as long. It is supported by nineteen 
rays, of which the first one or two are short ; and it is followed by 
two longish finlets. The pectoral fin is inserted under the angle of 
the opercle ; it contains thirteen rays, and equals in length the second 
dorsal fin. The pair of spines representing the ventral fins are in- 
serted close together under the hinder part of the roots of tbe pec- 
toral fins. Their length is about a fourth of the height of the body; 
and, being longitudinally grooved, each appears to consist of two or 
three spines fused together. The vent is a little behind the middle 
of the fish. Behind the vent there is a flat dagger-shaped spine, 
which is longitudinally grooved. Its length is less than half the 
greatest height of the body ; but it is rather longer than the ventral 
spines. The anal fin commences about the length of the spine behind 
it, and is opposite to, but rather shorter than, the second dorsal fin. 
It contains eighteen rays, and is followed by two finlets, the second 
of which is elongated. The deeply forked caudal fin contains six- 
teen rays, with five or six short exterior rays on each side. 

The lateral line falls obliquely from its commencement above the 
opercle to the middle of the length of the fish, and is then continued 
with a gentler obliquity along the posterior part of the body to the 
tail, where it has two-thirds of the height above it. 

The single specimen of this fish which has occurred was obtained 
in the month of December, and it has been deposited in the British 
Museum. The fish bears a close external resemblance to the 

Mr. J. Y. Johnson on a new Trichiuroid Fish. 285 

" Coelho " of Madeira (Thyrsites Prometheus, Gthr. ; Prometheus 
utlanticus, Lowe). From that fish it may be distinguished by the 
possession of a dagger-shaped spine in front of the anal fin*, by the 
spines of the first dorsal fin being twenty-one in place of eighteen, 
by the rays of the second dorsal fin being nineteen in place of twenty- 
one, and by the rays of the anal fin being eighteen in place of six- 
teen. It may be further noticed that in the present fish the ventral 
spines are placed under the posterior angle of the base of the pec- 
toral fin, instead of being inserted a little before that fin, and that 
the lateral line does not descend rapidly under the anterior part of 
the first dorsal fin, as in Prometheus atlanticus. With Nesiarchus 
nasutus it cannot be confounded, since the latter has perfect ventral 
fins and fleshy and cartilaginous prolongations of the jaws. 

The dimensions of the fish which has afforded materials for this 
description are given in the following table : — 


Total length of fish 10 

Height 1^ 

Thickness behind pectoral , -fa 

Head, length 2 fa 

Eye, diameter, nearly 2 

Teeth, length of largest £ 

First dorsal, distance from muzzle 2 

First dorsal, length 4^ 

First dorsal, height in front -fa 

Second dorsal, length ] fa 

Second dorsal, height -fa 

Pectoral, distance from tip of lower jaw 2-^ 

Pectoral, length Ifa 

Ventral spines, length | 

Ventral spines, distance from tip of lower jaw .... 2fa 

Spine in front of anal, length fa 

Anal, length 1^ 

Anal, height in front fa 

Caudal, length 1 1 

The family of Trichiurid<e is composed, according to Dr. Giinther's 
Catalogue, of the genera Aphanopus, Lepidopus, Trichiurus, Epiti- 
nula, Dicrotus, Thyrsites, and Gempylus. To these have to be added 
the recently described genera Nesiarchus and Nealotus. With re- 
spect to Dicrotus, Giinther, a genus founded on a small fish only 
1\ inches in length, it appears to me that it ought to be abolished, 
the fish having been most probably a young individual of some species 
of Thyrsites or Gempylus — an opinion which has been entertained by 
Dr. Giinther himself for some time. From Thyrsites Prometheus, 
for example, it would seem to differ only by the absence of finlets 
and the presence of minute teeth on the vomer. But finlets are not 

* Aphanopus carbo, Lowe, and Nesiarchus nasutus, a fish described by me in 
the Society's ' Proceedings' for 1862, p. 173, pi. xxn., have a similar spine be- 
tween the vent and the anal fin. 

286 Zoological Society: — 

developed in very young fishes, such as Dicroli/s armatus prohably 
was ; and teeth are apt to disappear from the vomer when fishes ac- 
quire their full growth. It may be mentioned in confirmation of 
this view, that I obtained a scaleless fish, not quite six inches in length, 
which had its ventrals reduced to single spines, had teeth on both 
palatines and the vomer, and had the last four or five rays of the 
second dorsal fin distant from, and unconnected by membrane with, 
the rest of the fin; whilst the last two or three rays of the anal fin 
were separated from the anterior portion. This was therefore a IJi- 
crotus with imperfectly formed finlets, showing a closer approach to 
a fully developed Prometheus atlanticus than D. armatus. 

After attentively considering the descriptions of the species placed 
by Dr. Gunther under the genus Thyrsites (Brit. Mus. Cat. ii. 3f>0), 
as well as some of the fishes themselves, it appears to me that a more 
satisfactory arrangement would be to distribute the species amongst 
three genera, thus : — 

1 . Thyrsites. Fishes having teeth on the palatines, perfect 
ventrals, finlets, and a skin naked or furnished with simple scales. 

T. Atun, C. & V., and T. lepidopoides, C. & V. 

2. Ruvettus. Includes a single very distinct species, remark- 
able for having a keeled abdomen, and the skin everywhere furnished 
with bony bodies, each bearing several spines — possessing also teeth 
on the palatines, perfect ventrals, and finlets. 

Ii. pretiosus, Coeco. 

3. Prometheus. Distinguished by having each ventral reduced 
to a single spine, as well as by having teeth on the palatines, finlets, 
and a skin either naked or furnished with simple scales. 

P. atlanticus, Lowe; P. Solandri, C. & V. ; P. prometheoides, 

The genus Gempyhis is distinguished from all these by the absence 
of teeth from tbe palatines. 

To return for a moment to Ruvettus pretiosus ("ce curieux, ce 
precieux poisson," — Valenciennes), the "Escolar" of Madeiran 
fishermen, it may be noted that, although one of the characters given 
in the ' British Museum Catalogue ' is the want of a lateral line, this 
line may be made out in fishes fresh from the sea. It commeuces 
on a level with the upper border of the opercle, but at some distance 
behind it, and then descends gently until it arrives at the middle of 
tbe height of the fish, which position it keeps on the posterior half 
of the body. 

May 23, 1805. — John Gould, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 

Notice of a New Species of Australian Sperm Whale 
(Catodon Krefftii) in the Sydney Museum. By John 
Edward Gray, Ph.D., F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., F.L.S., etc. 

In a letter which I lately received from Mr. Gerrard Krefft, the 
intelligent Secretary and Curator of the Australian Museum, he sent 
me some photographs (taken like those formerly sent by Mr. Henry 

Dr. J. E. Gray on a new Sperm Whale. 287 

Barnes) of a separate atlas vertebra and of the second and other 
cervical vertebrae united into one mass of a species of Whale, which 
are contained in the museum under his charge. The two bones, 
though not united, fit one another so exactly that Mr. KrefFt has no 
doubt of their having belonged to the same animal ; and the photo- 
graphs sent justify this conclusion. However, should there be any 
mistake in this matter, it will not in the least invalidate the conclusion 
that I have come to, from the examination of these photographs, 
that they indicate the existence of a second species of Sperm Whale 
in the Australian Seas, very distinctly characterized by the subcir- 
cular form of the atlas vertebra and of the neural canal in it. 

The mass formed by the second and other cervical vertebrae is 
somewhat, similar to these bones in the skeleton of the Australian 
Catodon lately received by the Royal College of Surgeons, which I 
hope will shortly be described by Mr. Flower, the energetic Curator 
of their Museum, who, in his late paper on the Balcenidee, has shown 
how well he can describe and determine the species of Whales. 

The genus Catodon should be divided into two subgenera, accord- 
ing to the form of the atlas, thus : — 

I. The atlas oblong, transverse, nearly twice as broad as high ; the 

central canal subtrigonal, narrow below. Catodon. 

1. Catodon macrocephalus of the Northern Ocean. A ske- 
leton from Scotland, in the British Museum. 

2. Catodon australis, Macleay, of the Southern Ocean. A 
skeleton in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, from 
Hobart Town. 

II. The atlas subcircular, rather broader than high ; the central 

canal circular in the middle of the body, widened above. Me- 

Catodon (Meganeuron) Krefftii, sp. nov. 

The atlas vertebra oblong transverse, about one-third wider than 
high ; the lateral processes only a little produced beyond the articular 
surface, with an arched edge ; the lower edge arched ; the neural 
arch low, broad, with a slight central prominence on the upper sur- 
face ; the canal for the spinal marrow very large, circular, rather 
contracted on the sides above, and then dilated, becoming oblong and 

The atlas is thin, high, being only about one-fourth wider than 
it is high. The lower and lateral margins are arched, the lower 
edge being the most so. The neural arch is low, transverse, with a 
nearly straight lower edge. It is thickest in the middle. The 
upper surface is shelving on the sides, with an angular central pro- 

The central aperture is very large, nearly circular, and dilated 
above into an oblong transverse aperture, which is rather wider than 
the widest part of the central circle. The front articulating surface is 
horseshoe-shaped, continued to the upper outer angle, and obliquely 


Zoological Society : — 

shelving off on the upper edge to the base of the oblong part of the 
aperture. The articulating surface of the hinder side is similar ; 
but the articulating surface is shorter at the sides, and transversely 
truncated in a line with the middle of the upper, oblong, transverse 
opening (figs. I, 2). 

2. Fig. 1. 

Fig. 1 . Front of atlas of Catodon Krefftii. 
2. Hinder side of ditto (reduced). 

The second and other cervical vertebrse are all united together into 
one mass, anchylosed by their bodies, lateral processes, and neural 
arches. The neural arches form a triangular mass, which is strongly 

Fig. 3. 

Hinder view of cervical vertebrae of Catodon Krefftii. 

keeled on the central line ; and the keel is stronger and produced 
into an acute point at the hinder end (figs. 3, 4). 

Dr. J. E. Gray on a new Sperm Whale. 289 

The lateral processes of the second, third, and fourth vertebrae are 
produced and united into a broad, thick, angular process, which is 
expanded at the side, giving the united mass a rhombic appearance, 
the width of the side being about one-fourth more than the height 
of the mass. 



Side view of the hinder side of the cervical vertebrae of Catodon Krefftii. 

There is a tubercle, which is most probably the end of the lower 
lateral process of one of the anterior cervical vertebrae, at the lower 
part of the hinder side of the front lateral expansion. 

The three hinder vertebrae have no distinct lower lateral processes ; 
their place is only marked by three slight ridges on the lower edge 
of the hinder side of the mass. The upper lateral processes of the 
hinder cervical vertebrae are small, slender, forming a strap-like sec- 
tion, rather tapering towards and truncated at the tips on the side of 
the apertures for the passage of the nerves for the neural canal. 
The neural canal is rather large, oblong transverse, the height being 
about two-thirds of the width ; it is rather larger and higher behind. 

The hinder surface of the body of the last cervical vertebra is ob- 
long transverse, about two-thirds of the height of its width at the 
widest part ; the lower edge is rounded and rather angularly pro- 
duced in the centre, and the upper margin transverse, with a slight 
central depression ; the surface is concave, with a central, linear, 
perpendicular, compressed line. 

The cervical vertebrae in Catodontid<e are united into a single mass 
by their bodies, the neural arch, and the lateral processes. The 
lateral processes of the anterior vertebrae are produced, and form a 
thick, subcorneal, triangular prominence on the side of the mass. 
The front side is nearly flat, and the lateral processes of the hinder 
vertebrae are shorter and shorter to the last. The hinder surface 

Ann. cy Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 3. Volxvi. 20 

290 Zoological Society : — 

shelves from before backwards, and is crested with some conical pro- 
minences which indicate the lateral processes of the different ver- 
tebra of which the mass is formed. The first dorsal vertebra is 
sometimes partially anchylosed with the seventh cervical. 
The arm-bones are very short. 

Notes upon the Cuckoos found near Sydney, New South 
Wales. By Edward P. Ramsay. 

(1.) The Bronze Cuckoo (Chakites lucidus) : Gould, B. Austr. 
iv. pi. 89. 

We have for many years been under the impression that the females 
of this species lay two distinct varieties of eggs, which, although in 
many instances exactly the same in size, differ widely in colour and 
in style of marking. 

The most satisfactory way of determining this question was to 
procure specimens of each of these different eggs, and to place them 
in nests of the Malurus cyaneus, or of various Acanthiza (which 
had been built sufficiently near our residence to admit of our occa- 
sionally visiting them), until they were hatched, and then to com- 
pare the young birds so hatched from each of the different eggs. 
This we succeeded in doing in more instances than one, and found 
that the voung birds were in every case alike, and that when they 
were sufficiently fledged we had no difficulty in recognizing them to 
be the young of the Bronze Cuckoo (Chalcites lucidus). 

The first variety of the eggs in question (var. A), usually recog- 
nized as the egg of the Bronze Cuckoo, varies in colour from a uni- 
form ashy grey to a rich dark olive-brown or bronze, many of the 
light ashy-grey specimens having minute dots of deep olive towards 
the larger end. In one specimen, in which these dots form a blotch, 
they are more inclined to reddish brown. 

Var. B has a purely white ground, blushed with pink before the 
egg is emptied, and minutely freckled over the whole surface with 
dots of light brownish red or dull salmon-colour, running in some 
instances into blotches which stretch half across or round the surface, 
leaving patches of the white ground without any markings. Occa- 
sionally we find a specimen in which the salmon-colour and bronze 
seem to be blended, forming a curious brownish-lilac tint. 

Both varieties vary much in size : we have specimens of var. A 
varying from 8 by 6 lines to 10 by 5^ lines ; of var. B, from 8 by 5 
lines and 8| by (i lines to 9| by 6 lines in breadth. The colouring- 
matter of both varieties easily rubs off, especially when the eggs are 
freshly taken. The Bronze Cuckoo seems to give no preference to 
any particular character of country, being found equally numerous 
in all parts. In the thick shrubs and low brushwood it finds a secure 
place for depositing its eggs in the nests of Malurus Lamberti and 
Acanthiza pusilla. In the half-cleared patches of land and even in 
our gardens and shrubberies it seeks for the nests of the Malurus 
cyaneus, Acanthiza lineata, A. reguloides, and A. nana. 

From a nest of this last-mentioned species {A. nana) I remember 

Mr. E. P. Ramsay on Cuckoos of New South Wales. 291 

taking, in the year 1855, no less than six eggs. Among them were 
three of the Bronze Cuckoo — two of var. A and one of var. B. In 
November last (1864) we took another nest of the same species, con- 
taining one of each variety. In this instance one of the eggs, var. A, 
was imbedded below the lining of the nest, and had evidently been 
laid before the nest was completed, as is not unfrecpiently the case. 
The other egg, which was a specimen of var. B, my brother Percy 
placed in a nest of Acanthiza lineata, which he had found on the 
previous day and left for such an occasion. On returning to it about 
a week afterwards we found that the young Cuckoo had been hatched. 
After the lapse of seven days the bronze feathers were just com- 
mencing to appear, and in about a week or ten days more the young 
bird was nearly able to fly, the bronze on the wings, head, and back 
now showing plainly. 

All the species of Acanthizas that we have met with construct oval 
dome-shaped nests, having the entrance near the top, and more or 
less covered with a hood. The nests are either suspended (as in the 
case of A. lineata) from the end of some drooping or horizontal 
bough, or, like those of the Maluri, placed in some low bush or 
cluster of vines, or, as is often the case with A. reyuloides, placed in 
the thick forks or loose hanging pieces of bark of the Eucalypti and 
white-barked Tea-trees (Melaleuca). 

Now, as the apertures of the nests of the Acanthizce are exceed- 
ingly small, a question naturally arises whether the Bronze Cuckoo 
lays its eggs in the nest, or places them there by some other means. 
To this I can only answer that the apertures of those nests which 
have contained Cuckoos' eggs are nearly twice as wide as the open- 
ings of those nests which we have taken before the Cuckoo's egg has 
been deposited in them. This is more easily noticed in the nest of 
A. lineata, of which the aperture is very small, and neatly covered 
over with a hood. 

The following are a few extracts from my note-book, showing the 
species which are most frequently the foster-parents of the Bronze 
Cuckoo : — 


Eggs | 
of Eggs of Cuckoo, 

Sept. 29th, 1862 ... 
Sept. 11th, 1863* ... 
Sept. 12th, 1864 ... 
Sept. 12th, 1864 ... 
Sept. 14th, 1864 ... 
Sept. 14th, 1864 ... 
Nov. 1864 

Acanthiza pusilla 
Malurus cyaneus . 


1 of C. lucidus, var. B. 
1 of C. lucidus, var. A. 
1 of C. lucidus, var. A. 
1 of C. lucidus, var. B. 
1 of C. lucidus, var. B. 

1 of C. lucidus, var. A. 

2 of C. lucidus : 1 of var. A ami 

Sept. 16th, 1864 ... 
Oct. 2nd, 1864 

Meliphatja sericea 
Meliphaya sericea 


1 of var. B. 
1 of C. lucidus, var. B. 
1 of C. lucidus, var. B. 

Mr. Gould tells us that the Bronze Cuckoo is dispersed over the 
* This nest also contained one of Cuculus cineraceus. 

292 Zoological Society: — 

whole continent of Australia, as well as New Zealand. In the latter 
country I have myself met with it at every port I visited, from 
Stewart's Island to Auckland, where it arrives about September, and 
leaves during February and March. 

(2.) The Unadorned Cuckoo (Cucidus inornatus) : Gould, B. 
Austr. iv. pi. 85. 

When the eggs of two or more species of Cuckoo are found in the 
same locality, and the birds themselves equally plentiful during the 
same months, it becomes difficult to determine which is the egg of 
each species, except perhaps where there is a great difference in the 
size of the birds. Even this, however, must not be depended upon 
in too great a degree, as will be seen in the present case. Following 
the same plan as in the case of the Bronze Cuckoo (Chalcites lucidus), 
we succeeded in procuring two young Cuckoos from eggs which we 
had left in the nests of the Yellow-whiskered Honey-eater (Ptilotis 
auricomis). These, when fledged, we at once recognized to be the 
young of Cuculus inornatus. 

The young, upon leaving the nest, have the throat, face, and 
shoulders black ; the rest of the upper and under surface and tail 
irregularly marked with dashes and stripes of black, scarcely two fea- 
thers, even of wings, being alike. They retain this plumage until 
March and April, during which months all the specimens I procured 
were commencing to assume the more dusky plumage of the adult. 
During these months all the old birds seem to have left us, the young 
of the last season alone being found. 

The present species arrives early in September, and is usually met 
with in pairs, showing a preference for the half-cleared land and belts 
of trees skirting the more cultivated parts. They may frequently be 
seen perched upon the dead tops of trees, or among the lower open 
branches, or often on the posts and fences, from which they pounce 
down upon any unhappy grasshopper or cricket that they may have 
discovered lurking in the grass. 

Their food consists chiefly of Gryllidcc and Phasmidce, various 
species of Mantis, and often the beautiful larvse of the Ccequosa 
triangularis and Anthercea eucalypti, which they obtain among the 
leafy tops of the Eucalyptus trees. The crops in some specimens, 
procured in October last, contained nothing but grasshoppers, which 
appear to be their favourite food. 

In this neighbourhood they usually deposit their eggs in the nests 
of Ptilotis auricomis, but also occasionally in those of Ptilotis chry- 
snps, but rarely in those of Ptilotis fusca and Melithreptus lunu- 
latus ; in other districts, doubtless, in any nests suitable for the pur- 
pose. I have frequently observed that whenever the eggs of Cuckoos 
have been deposited in open nests, there is manifested a decided pre- 
ference for those of birds which lay eggs similar to their own. 

The Cuckoo's eggs mentioned in my notes upon the Yellow- 
whiskered Honey-eater (P. auricomis) in the 'Ibis' (vol. vi. 1864, 
p. 245) as being found in the nest of that bird, I have now no 
doubt belong to Cuculus inornatus, and not, as I then supposed from 
their small size, to Cuculus cincraceus. 

Mr. E. P. Ramsay on Cuckoos of New South JVales. 293 

The eggs of the Brown Cuckoo (C. inornatus) closely resemble the 
large and almost spotless variety of the Yellow-whiskered Honey- 
eater ; they are, however, somewhat more rounded, and of a much 
lighter tint, being of a pale flesh-colour, sprinkled with a few dots 
of a deeper hue, but often without any markings at all. In length 
they vary from 11 to 12| lines, being from 8k to 9 lines in breadth. 

They are usually hatched about the twelfth or fourteenth day, 
when the young Cuckoo, a little fat helpless creature, is scarcely 
larger than its foster-brethren. However, as it grows more rapidly, 
it soon fills up the greater part of the nest, and its unfortunate com- 
panions, either smothered by its weight or starved to death through 
its greediness, are thrown out by their parents. 

On the 30th of October last (1864) we found two unhappy young 
birds which had been hatched in company with a Cuckoo in a nest 
of Ptilotis auricomis, tossed out and lying upon the ground just 
under the nest ; they were of course quite dead, and appeared to have 
been about three or four days old. 

During the months of October and November it is no uncommon 
sight to see the smaller birds feeding the young Cuckoos ; even the 
little Acanthiza, which I believe are never the foster-parents, at least 
of this species (C. inornatus), join in supplying their wants, which 
are easily made known by their continual peevish cry, stopping only 
when being fed, or when their appetites are appeased. 

While walking towards home, through a half-cleared paddock, on 
the 27th of last October, I was not a little surprised, upon hearing 
the cries of a young Cuckoo, to see a pair of adult birds of the same 
species (C. inornatus) flying after it, settling beside it, and apparently 
paving it great attention. Several times they flew away, but returned 
to it again ; and from their actions I feel convinced that they were 
feeding it, although, much to my regret, I was unable to obtain a 
view sufficiently close to make sure of the fact. 

(3.) The Cinereous Cuckoo (Cuculus cineraceus) : Gould, B. 
Austr. iv. pi. 86. 

This, the third and remaining Cuckoo which annually visits us, 
arrives much earlier than either of the former species. 

During May I have found it very plentiful, preferring the lonely 
and more closely wooded parts, and the sandy scrub-lands studded 
with aged Banksice (B. serrata) and widely branching Eucalypti, 
where the undergrowth consists of low, thick, scrubby Lambertice 
(L. formosa), Acacias, and dwarf Banksias, &c. Such are the parts 
of our neighbourhood frequented by this species for nearly a month 
after its arrival. Their clear wailing cry is often heard from the 
depths of the bush, giving quite a melancholy tone to the surround- 
ing neighbourhood. 

June comes, and they leave their lonely haunts for the more open 
wooded parts. Here they may be seen, either singly or in pairs, 
often frequenting the gardens and orchards, where, among the leafless 
fruit-trees, their undulating flight and the peculiar cuckooish upward 
jerk of their tails at once render them conspicuous. As spring 

294 Zoological Society : — 

advances, their melancholy cry assumes a more cheerful tone, but is 
less often heard, giving place to a quicker and more harsh note. 

The shrill whistle of the Bronze Cuckoos {Chalcites lucidus) is 
now more often heard, accompanied by the mellow notes of the 
Brown Flycatcher (Micrceca macroptera), singing on the topmost 
bough of some neighbouring tree ; and the twittering of the Acan- 
thizce as they sport among the leafy branches of the Eucalypti, cling- 
ing to the ends of the twigs and leaves in every possible attitude, the 
tremulous anxious piping of the Spine-bills (Acanthorhynchus tenui- 
rostris), the varied inward note of the Silver-eye {Zosterops dor- 
salis), with other species far too many to mention here, keep up a 
merry chorus, and, tired of the winter fogs, welcome the bright 
spring mornings. 

As the birds pair off and the nesting-season commences, this Cuckoo 
seems to be less plentiful. Either some of them leave us, or they 
scatter over the bush so thinly that we do not observe their numbers. 
If some do migrate at this time, still many remain to deposit their 
eggs and to avail themselves of the nests of those species most suited 
to become the foster-parents of their young, after which they com- 
mence to leave us, and, with the exception of a few stragglers and 
young, appear to have all departed before the end of December. 

Among those species the nests of which are favoured by visits 
from this " parasite" is Acanthiza pusilla, from a nest of which, in 
September 1863, we took no less than four eggs — two laid by the 
rightful owner of the nest, the other two by Cuckoos. One of these 
was a very fine specimen of var. B of Chalcites lucidus, the other 
an egg of the present species — Cuculus cineraceus. The entrance 
of this nest was greatly enlarged, being in width fully two inches ; 
and the hood, which usually conceals the entrances (which are near 
the top of the nest, and not generally wider than one inch across), 
was pushed back to such an extent that the eggs were rendered 
quite visible. 

I have now before me ten nests of Acanthi zee and four of Maluri, 
the former comprising Acanthiza lineata, A. nana, A. pusilla, and 
what at present I believe to be that of A. reyuloides, the latter 
Malurus cyaneus and M. Lamberti. 

Now, having compared the greatly enlarged entrances of those 
from which we have taken Cuckoos' eggs with the entrances of those 
which did not contain the egg of a Cuckoo, and which we took as 
soon as the bird had laid its full number of eggs for a sitting, I 
cannot but feel convinced more than ever that the eggs of these pa- 
rasites are laid in the nests, and not deposited in any other manner. 
The average width of the entrances of the nests of Acanthiza lineata 
which have not been visited by a Cuckoo is 1 inch, while those 
which have contained Cuckoos' eggs vary from 2 to 2| inches. In 
addition to the nests of Acanthiza pusilla, we have known this 
Cuckoo {C. cineraceus) deposit its eggs in the nests of A. reyuloides (!) 
and Chthonicola minima. How great is the difference between the 
Cuckoo's eggs and those of this last bird (Chthonicola minima), 
which are of a bright reddish chocolate ! 

Dr. P. L. Sclatcr on Animals from Madagascar. 29."} 

The eggs of Cuculus cineraceus are from 10 to 10| lines in length, 
by 7 to 74 in breadth. The ground-colour is a delicate white, 
spotted and dotted with wood-brown, deep brownish lilac, and fair 
lilac dots, which appear beneath the surface. 

Some specimens are faintly sprinkled all over, and the dots have 
a washed-out appearance ; others are marked more strongly, and in 
these the markings formed are in a distinct zone at the larger end, 
which is sometimes broken by a batch of very deep-coloured dots. 

I have seldom met with the eggs of this species in collections 
(although sometimes I have seen those of Cuculus inornatus), whereas 
the eggs of Chalcites lucidus are to be found in almost every col- 
lection of eggs made in New South Wales. It is curious that one 
variety of the egg of the Chalcites lucidus (var. A) should be so 
different from the eggs of the species in the nests of which it is 
placed, whereas both the other species here mentioned lay eggs very 
similar to those of their foster-parents. 

June 13, 1865.— Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 
Report on a Collection of Animals from Madagascar, 


P. L. Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Mr. J. Caldwell, of Port Louis, Mauritius, has recently transmitted 
to me a small collection of animals in spirits, collected in Madagas- 
car, in the vicinity of Antananarivo. The species represented in the 
series are two Mammals, five Reptiles, and a Crayfish. 

The Mammals, which have been kindly determined for me by my 
friend Dr. W. Peters, are of the following species : — 

1. Nyctinomus (Mormopterus*) jugularis, Peters, n. sp. 

N. supra fuscus, pilis bast albis, subtus fusco-canus, alis nigris ; 
capite depresso, rostro lato ; auriculis triangularibus, sejunctis; 
fovea jugulari magna. 

The only specimen of this very interesting species is a male, dis- 
tinguished from all other species by a deep transverse fossa imme- 
diately before the manubrium sterni. 

The head appears more flattened than in any other species, and 
terminates with a broad flattened snout. The triangular large ears 
are, compared with those of other species, rather thin, not united, 
but separated by an interspace of 4 millim. 

The fur is soft, of moderate length. The hair of the upper parts 
is dark brown, at the base white; that of the underside greyish. 

* Mormopterus, nov. subg. In the formula of the teeth ( ^— - — - — - j^-» 
when younger — — ^^ — — -J it differs from Nyctinomus withy molars, and 

approaches more to Molossus. The lips also are not so much plicated as in Nyc- 
tinomus. It is a species intermediate between Nyctinomus and Molossus, thus 
showing another iustance of the relationship of the fauna of .Madagascar to the 
American fauna. 

296 Zoological Society : — 

The skull is more flattened than in other species, and remarkable 

for a strongly developed ante-orbital crista. 


Total length 0089 

Length of the head 0-021 

of the ear in front 0-014 

Breadth of the ear 0012 

Length of humerus 0024 

of forearm , 0*037 

of thumb 0O085 

of second finger 0-0335 

of third finger 0'067 

of fourth finger 0*0505 

of fifth finger 0-035 

of thigh 0-013 

of tibia 0-0105 

of foot with claws 0-008 

of tail 0-019 

of free end of the tail 011 

2. Mus, sp. ? 

A very young, indeterminable specimen, with only two molars de- 
veloped. Above brown, penicillated with black, with the bases of the 
hairs blackish grey ; below white. In its colour and the length of 
the ear, this species is allied to the South-African Fieldmice, as Mus 
colonus, M. natalensis, &c. 

The Reptiles, which Dr. Giinther has named for me, consist of 
two Snakes (Dijisas colubrina and Herpetodrxjas Bernieri), a Cha- 
meleon (Chamceleon lateralis, Gray), several fine specimens of a 
Lizard of the genus Gerrhosaurus (G. lineatus, Cocteau = Ciciyna 
ornafa, Gray), and an example of another Lizard (Liolepisma Belli, 
Gray). All these are species already known to the fauna of Mada- 

The Crayfish I have submitted to Mr. Spence Bate, as our lead- 
ing authority on this branch of natural history. Mr. Spence Bate 
pronounces it to be a new species of Astacus, which he proposes to 
call after its discoverer, with the following characters : — 

Astacus Caldwelli, Spence Bate, sp. nov. 

The eyes are planted on short peduncles. The first pair of an- 
tennae have the third joint of the peduncle reaching to the extremity 
of the rostrum. Both branches of the flagellum are slender; and 
the primary branch, which is half as long again as the secondary, 
is about half the length of the anterior division of the cephalon. 
The second pair of antennae are about three times the length of the 
first. ; and the flagellum is minutely articulate, each articulus being, 
in length, less than half its breadth, and at the basal extremity being 
about half the breadth of the last joint of the peduncle. The s<jua- 

Dr. P. L. Sclater on Animals from Madagascar. 297 

migerous process of the third joint is rounded and thickened upon the 
outside, straight, thin, and ciliated upon the inner, and obtuse at 
the apex. The rostrum reaches to the extremity of the penultimate 
joint of the peduncle of the external antennse, rounded at the ex- 
tremity, dorsally concave, the margins fringed within and above 
the actual edge with a rim of short, blunt denticles. The ocular 
orbit is deeply excavate, and armed posteriorly near the centre by a 
small denticle, and at the infero-lateral extremity by a short, sharp, 
curved, and anteriorly directed strong tooth. The lateral walls of 
the cephalon are thickly covered with numerous, subequally distant, 
short, spinous protuberances, which gradually lessen in importance 
towards the dorsal surface of the carapace, which is perfectly smooth, 
except for the well-defined fissure that distinguishes the anterior 
portion of the carapace from the posterior — the demarcation between 
the antennal and mandibular somites. The first or large chelate 
pair of pereiopoda are subequal in size, but differ in form from those 
of every other species of the genus with which I am acquainted, and 
resemble more in general aspect those of the genus Homarus. The 
dactylos is curved inwards, and tipped with a sharp unguis ; the 
dactyloid process of the propodos is similarly formed, and meets the 
dactylos only at or near the apex ; the approximating edges, how- 
ever, are armed with a few small and one large tubercle opposite to 
corresponding ones. The inferior and external margin of the pro- 
podos, from the extremity of the dactyloid process to the carpal ar- 
ticulation, is convex, and longer than that of the intero-superior 
margin of the propodos and dactylos together. The carpus is armed 
with three blunt and one sharp anteriorly directed teeth upon the 
inner edge, and two sharp strong teeth upon the under surface. 
The meros is furnished with two rows of teeth, that converge toge- 
ther towards the ischium upon the inner surface. The other pereio- 
poda have little to attract attention. The second somite of the pleon 
has a tuberculous ridge just above the lateral margin. The inner 
scale of the posterior pair of pleopoda is furnished with a central 
row of short, sharp teeth ; and the telson is armed with similar teeth, 
of which there are a few in the mediau line and others in two late- 
ral obsolete rows. 

The specimen from which the description is taken is a male. Of 
all the species of this genus, this form approximates the nearest to 
its marine allies, in the appearance of the great chelate pereiopoda, 
of any that we are acquainted with. The generally close resemblance 
of the several species of this genus is certainly very remarkable, 
when we take into consideration the vast geographical distribution 
that it has — larger, perhaps, than that of any genus of Crustacea 
that is not of marine habits. Species have been taken in the frozen 
waters of North American rivers, in the hot latitudes of Chili, in 
temperate Europe and Tasmania, and now from the African island 
of Madagascar. We do not know of any having yet been recorded 
from the inland rivers of that continent. 



On Pristolepis marginatus, Jerd. 
To the Editors of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, — Some time since, Dr. Gunther founded the genus 
Catopra on a freshwater fish from Siam ; and he has recently added 
another species to the genus, from the west coast of India, under the 
name of Catopra malabarica. 

In 1849 or 1850 I described that very genus under the name of 
Pristolepis, founding it on the identical species lately described by 
him from the Malabar coast, which I named Pristolepis marginatus. 
It is very possible that Dr. Gunther may not have seen my paper on 
the freshwater fishes of Southern India, published in the ' Madras 
Journal of Literature and Science'; but it is quite as likely that he 
has seen and ignored it ; and I therefore beg to call his attention to 
it, as well as that of other naturalists who may not be disposed to 
treat so slightingly the labours of fellow-workers in natural science, 
writing under every disadvantage in a foreign land. It is very pos- 
sible that the generic name bestowed by me may have been pre- 
viously applied, in which case Dr. Gunther' s name will stand. This 
fish, I may remark, is found in rapid rivers in Malabar, and also in 
the elevated region of the Toynaad, the waters of which flow into the 
Cauvery, on the eastern coast of India. It frequents chiefly rapids ; 
and I have taken it with bait. I have not seen it longer than 
9 or 10 inches. 

Some two or three years ago Dr. Gunther contributed a short 
paper to the Zoological Society, remarking on the extension of several 
marine genera of fishes to Nepal, apparently on the strength of cer- 
tain specimens in Mr. Hodgson's collection. I have not the paper 
now by me to refer to ; but among others were Therapon and, I 
think, Scatophagies. I need hardly say that the extension of any of 
those marine and estuary fishes to Nepal is perfectly mythical ; and 
I am sure that Mr. Hodgson himself would not countenance the idea 
for one moment. He probably purchased the fishes at Calcutta. 

I intended at the time I saw this paper to have sent you a note on 
the subject, and indeed wrote out a short paper ; but it was delayed 
through some cause or other. 

I am, Gentlemen, yours obediently, 
Srinuggur, Cashmere, T. C. Jerdon, 

Aug. 7, 1865. Surgeon-Major. 

[In answer to the above statements, we have received the following 
from Dr. Gunther. — Ed. Ann. Nat. Hist.] 

1 . It is scarcely necessary to say that Mr. Jerdon is in error in 
believing that the genus Catopra was founded by me ; it was esta- 
blished by Dr. Bleeker in 1851. 

2. Mr. Jerdon' s paper on Indian Fishes is known to me ; the 
description of Pristolepis, however, bears so much the stamp of 
being written " under every disadvantage in a foreign land," that 
neither I myself nor Dr. Bleeker were able to recognize Catopra in it. 

Miscellaneous. 299 

3. Since I wrote my paper on Mr. Hodgson's collection of fishes, 
I have ascertained that not only all the Indian species of Therapon 
enter fresh waters freely, but that several are exclusively freshwater 
fish. — A. Gunther. 

On the Constitution of the Fruit in the Cruciferce. 
By M. E. Fournier. 

When a horizontal section is made of a bilocular Cruciferous 
fruit, especially of a young ovary after the amalgamation of the two 
parts of the septum, the latter is seen to be bifurcate at each ex- 
tremity, and to embrace in the angle produced by this bifurcation 
the elongated column from which the two rows of ovules originate, 
described by the author as the placenta. This arrangement pro- 
duces a triangular canal extended longitudinally within each placenta, 
the horizontal section of which forms a triangle, with its apex at the 
point of bifurcation of the two lamellae of the septum, and its base 
upon the placenta itself. 

The placenta presents, passing inwards, the epidermis, a green 
parenchyma, cortical fibres, ligneous fibres, and tracheae. The epi- 
dermis presents projections formed by the cuticle, which are very 
common in the Cruciferae. The green parenchyma completely sur- 
rounds the placenta in most genera. It is continuous on each side 
with the subepidermal parenchyma of the valves, and more internally 
with the double origin of the septum, which springs directly from it. 
The cortical fibres exist only on the outer side of the placental 
column. The woody fibres, which contain chlorophyll at an early 
period, form around the tracheae a ring which is thicker exteriorly 
than interiorly. The trophosperms originate from the placenta, 
sometimes within, sometimes outside of, the triangular canal ; in the 
former case they perforate one of the lamellae of the septum, to 
which they appear to be adnate. 

The valves present a double epidermis, the outer one with longi- 
tudinally elongate cells, the interior with transverse cells, arranged 
in two or three series. Within the outer epidermis there is a paren- 
chyma, in which vascular bundles ramify in various ways, according 
to "the genera and species ; this is separated from the inner epidermis 
by a remarkable undescribed fibrous layer. It is formed of very 
thick fibres, of which the section presents several concentric lines, 
and strongly refracts light. The form of the section is circular in 
Lunaria biennis and Psy chine, elliptical in Sisymbrium. These fibres, 
when examined in the middle part of the horizontal section, form a 
simple row in Lunaria and Sisymbrium, several rows with parallel 
elements in Psychine, two rows with crossed elements in Fibigia 
clypeata, Med., and several rows with alternately crossed elements 
in Raphanus and Enarthrocarpus. Near the placentas they are 
always approximated, in several rows, and form a thicker tissue than 
in the middle of the valve. Analogous fibres are met with in many 
fruits (Malus, Fraxinus, Niyella, Ervum) ; but they are never so 
frequent in other families as in the Cruciferae. They are absent 
from the walls of the ovary in the Resedacea and Capparidacece. 

300 Miscellaneous. 

Below, these fibres terminate in a point, without attaching'thern selves 
to any analogous organ ; above they are continuous with a fibrous 
sheath surrounding the stylar canal ; laterally they are in contact 
with the annular parenchyma which surrounds the placenta, and 
becomes converted into suberous tissue at maturity, causing the 
dehiscence of the fruit and the separation of the valves. In the 
genus Cardamine, of which the dehiscence is different, the herbaceous 
layer of the placenta is interrupted at the level of the line of attach- 
ment of the valves. 

In certain Cruciferse, which have a free funiculus and a spherical 
indehiscent fruit, these fibres do not exist, and the horizontal section 
of the fruit only shows tracheae ramifying in a parenchyma. 

The anatomical structure of the septum has not yet been thoroughly 
investigated. Its two lamellae present at first cells filled with green 
matter, which in some rare cases is retained until the fruit is mature. 
The form gradually acquired by these cells, the direction of their 
elongation, and the thickness of the membranes formed by them 
may furnish specific and even generic characters for the Cruciferse. 
The Alyssinece may even be divided into two sections according to 
the form of the septal network. 

Fibres and vessels are frequently developed between the two 
lamellae. Sometimes the cells of the septum acquire the character 
of fibres upon the median line. In many cases there exists in the 
middle of the septum a fibrous bundle, which encloses a dotted duct 
in Sisymbrium tanacetifolium. In Matthiola, Malcolmia, and several 
Sisymbria, of which the author makes a distinct group under the 
name of Malcohniastrum, there is between the two lamellae an actual 
membrane formed of juxtaposed fibres, among which are some 

In some genera, especially Farsetia (excl. Fibigia, Dec), the fibres 
of the septum are pierced with holes, by which they communicate, 
forming a very elegant network unconnected with any fibro-vascular 

In Psychine stylosa the septum, which is very transparent and 
formed of polyhedric cells with delicate and inconspicuous walls, pre- 
sents long branched tubes of very unequal diameter, with distinct 
walls and greenish granular contents before the maturity of the fruit. 
These tubes generally ascend nearly parallel to each other ; but they 
anastomose irregularly, so as to resemble a laticiferous network. 

But it is in the triangular canal that these formations, sometimes 
closely resembling certain varieties of laticiferous vessels, are especially 
met with, containing, however, only granules of chlorophyll, starch, 
and fatty matters. They consist of isolated ramose cells, or more 
frequently of elongated lateral vessels emitting branches at right 
angles to their direction. Among the various elements of this system 
we may observe sometimes complete partitions communicating by 
the ordinary punctures, sometimes walls perforated like sieves, some- 
times open canals, probably produced by the disappearance of former 

These anatomical observations throw a new light on the constitu- 

Miscellaneous. 301 

tion of the fruit in the Cruciferse. Upon this point some writers 
have put forward singular opinions, in consequence of the difficulty 
originating from the position of the stigmata in this family. Now 
all those who suppose that the ovules originate from the median 
part of a carpellary leaf reduced to the placenta, or joined to its fellow 
upon the median line of the valves, are refuted by the fact that the 
placenta presents a perfectly peculiar structure. The opinion of 
De Candolle, that the septum was formed by the reentering margins 
of the carpels, is also invalidated, as the four lines of bilateral origin 
of this organ are situated upon the parenchymatous circumplacentary 
ring, and the structure of the septum is quite different from that of 
the valves. The fruit is therefore to be regarded as formed of two 
carpels alternate with the placentas, and of two intervalvar placentas, 
from which the septum issues on each side and by a double origin. — 
Comptes Rendus, September 4, 1865, p. 404. 

Male Generative Organs of Phalangium. 
To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Cliislehurst, Kent, 5th Sept. 18G5. 
Gentlemen, — The 'Annals and Magazine of Natural History' for 
this month contains a translation of Dr. Krohn's memoir on the Male 
Generative Organs of Phcdangium, in which he points out certain 
mistakes made by Treviranus and Tulk, and explains the true rela- 
tion and homologies of those organs. 

I had, however, four years ago made the same observations, and 
given a figure in all essentials identical with that of Dr.Krohn ("On 
the Generative Organs in the Anmdosa," * Philosophical Transac- 
tions,' 1861, p. 612). 

This memoir appears to have escaped the notice of Dr. Krohn. 
I am, Gentlemen, your obedient Servant, 

John Lubbock. 

On the Mode in which the Long-eared Bat captures its Prey. 

Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park, 
Sept. 14, 18tio. 

My dear Sir, — I have lately noticed a curious way in which 
the Long-eared Bat (Plecotus auritus) captures its prey ; and al- 
though it may be familiar to naturalists, I have not found it men- 
tioned by authors. 

The peculiar structure of Bats is well known. The highly deve- 
loped membrane used as the flying- apparatus or wings is also ex- 
tended from the hind legs to the tail, forming a large bag or net 
(the interfemoral membrane), not unlike two segments of an um- 
brella, the legs and tail being the ribs. 

Having caught a lively male specimen of the common Long- 
eared Bat, and placed the little fellow in a wire-gauze cage, and 
inserted a few large flies, he was soon attracted by their buzz, and, 
pricking up his ears (just as a donkey does), he pounced upon his 
prey ; but instead of taking it directly into his mouth, he covered it 
with his body, and beat it by aid of his arms, &c., into the bag or 

302 Miscellaneous. 

interfemoral membrane ; he then put his head under his body, with- 
drew the fly from the bag, and devoured it at leisure. This appeared 
always to be the modus operandi, more or less cleverly performed. 
Several times, when the fly happened to be on the flat surface of the 
ground, the capture appeared more difficult, and my little friend was 
by his exertions thrown on his back ; the tail could then be seen 
turned round, with its tip and the margin of the membrane pressed 
against the stomach, forming a capital trap, holding the fly, the 
captor remaining on his back till he had withdrawn the fly from 
the bag. 

I had no opportunity of observing the action when the Bat was in 
full flight ; but if the insect was captured a few inches from the side 
of the cage, the mode was the same. When flying, the interfemoral 
membrane is not extended to a flat surface (and appears not capable 
of being so stretched), but always preserves a more or less concave 
form, highly calculated to serve the purposes of a skim-net to cap- 
ture insects on the wing. Occasionally, when the Bat was sleepy, 
sitting at the bottom of the cage, nodding his head, a poor silly 
" Bluebottle Fly," no doubt of tender age, and not read in the 
natural history of the Vespertilionidee, with the greatest confidence 
walked quietly under his friend, passing nose, ears, and eyes without 
danger ; but immediately he touched the sensitive membrane of the 
bag it was closed upon him, and there was no retreat except by 
being helped out of the difficulty by the teeth of the Bat. 

On looking through books at hand to see if the above was noticed, 
I find that most accurate of observers of nature's works, Gilbert 
White, of Selborne, speaking of a tame Bat, says, " If you gave it 
anything to eat, it brought its wings round before its mouth, hover- 
ing and hiding its head in the manner of birds of prey when they 
feed " (a capital description of the action of my little friend, only no 
mention is made of the bag). Also, in Bell's ' British Quadrupeds ' 
is the following : — " Of Bats, the interfemoral membrane is probably 
intended to act as a sort of rudder in rapidly changing the course of 
the animal in the pursuit of its insect food." " In a large group of 
foreign Bats which feed on fruits or other vegetable substances, as 
well as some of carnivorous habits, but whose prey is of a less active 
character, this part is either wholly wanting or much circumscribed 
in extent and power." 

May it not also be, that they do not require an entomological 
bag-net ? Believe me yours truly, 

To W. Francis, F.L.S. Wm. Sowerby. 

On the Habits of the Water-Shrew (Crossopus fodiens). 
By N. L. Austen, Esq. 
I am induced to offer you the following account of the Water- 
Shrew, as the animal in question, though tolerably abundant in many 
localities, may not have come under the personal observation of some 
of my hearers. I have also never seen it mentioned as having been 
kept with success in confinement, and therefore will attempt to de- 
scribe as accurately as possible the habits of a pair that lived in my 
possession for a considerable time, hoping that the details may not 

Miscellaneous. 303 

prove altogether uninteresting. In form this Shrew closely resemhles 
the common species, the snout being lengthened in the same manner, 
and the fur having the same velvety softness of texture. In size, 
however, it is superior, a full-grown male measuring a little more 
than 5 inches in total length, whereas the Field-Shrew rarely exceeds 
4 inches ; the feet and tail are fringed with stiff white hairs, which are 
of great assistance to the creature when swimming. The colour on 
the head and back is commonly a rich jetty black, on the sides and 
underparts pure white ; the line of demarcation between the two 
colours very distinctly defined, adding much to the beauty of the fur ; 
a small tuft of white hairs is also noticeable at the corner of the ear. 

The Water-Shrew, as its name implies, is usually found in the 
vicinity of pools and rivulets, where it forms in the banks long and 
winding burrows, which penetrate for a considerable distance into 
the loose soil, and end in a small chamber, furnished with a bed of 
moss and dry grass. In this secluded retreat the young are produced 
about the middle of May, there being usually from six to ten in the 
litter. When first born, they are curious pinky-white little animals, 
with round blunt noses and semitransparent bodies, bearing as little 
resemblance as possible to their parents. A small colony of these 
Shrews frequently inhabit the same spot, and towards the cool of the 
evening may be observed searching for food, and sporting with each 
other in the water, now hiding behind stones or large leaves to elude 
their companions, and then darting out to engage in a general skir- 
mishing chase, diving and swimming with the greatest activity, and 
occasionally taking a plunge into their holes. By constantly traver- 
sing the same ground, in going and returning from their burrows, 
they gradually tread down a path among the grass and herbage, by 
which their presence may readily be discovered by an experienced 
eye. When under water their fur is covered with multitudes of tiny 
air-bubbles, that shine like silver, and have a beautiful effect when 
seen against the dark surface of the body. Spots where the stream 
in some bend of its course forms a little pool are the favourite re- 
sorts of this pretty little creature ; and, although easily startled by 
the slightest noise, their range of vision seems far from extensive, as, 
by quietly approaching, I have often succeeded in watching their 
gambols without causing alarm among the small community. The 
food of the Water-Shrew includes insects, worms, young frogs, and 
small fish, which latter it pursues and captures with all the graceful 
dexterity of the Otter. I am enabled to speak with certainty as to 
this fact, by observing the mode employed by my own pets in seizing 
their prey. I obtained them in the following manner : — Having no- 
ticed a very fine pair that frequented a small pond, 1 set several circular 
wire mouse-traps, baited with small frogs, in what I supposed to be 
their favourite runs, and secured both male and female by the next 
morning. 1 had already had a cage constructed as much as possible 
in accordance with what I knew of their mode of life. It was shaped 
like an ordinary arched dormouse-cage, but considerably larger than 
those used, being 12 inches in height by 18 in length ; a zinc tank 
was also adapted to hook on to the doorway, so that they might 
enjoy the comfort of a bath. When first introduced into their new 

304 Miscellaneous. 

dwelling, the Shrews evinced no symptoms of fear, appearing quite 
at home, and feeding freely on worms, raw meat, and insects. A 
few days after I procured them, I placed three or four minnows in 
the bath attached to the main part of the cage. Directly the Shrews 
caught sight of the fish, they hoth plunged instantly into the water, 
and quickly reappeared, each having secured a victim, which they 
proceeded to discuss with great apparent gusto, having first killed 
it by a bite through the head. I remarked that while feeding they 
held the fish firmly between their fore paws, in the same maimer as 
the Otter, and, commencing at the head, ate gradually downwards, 
by a succession of sharp snapping bites. Their appetites were very 
good, as they frequently consumed two or three minnows each in 
one day — a very tolerable amount, considering their size. When 
running about their cage, these Shrews often uttered a shrill sibilant 
chirp, resembling the note of the Grasshopper-Lark. They would 
also play in the water, half rearing up and striking with their fore 
paws, or rolling over and over each other on the surface. Though 
appearing perfectly reconciled to captivity, they manifested no attach- 
ment, nor especial tameness, biting viciously when touched. They 
lived with me in this way several months in perfect health, till the 
cage-door being accidentally left open one day in my absence, the 
inmates levanted, as a matter of course, and were never seen or heard 
of afterwards. I hope, however, shortly to obtain more, as when 
treated properly, and supplied with plenty of water, they thrive, and 
might probably be induced to breed in confinement. Besides the 
Common Shrew, which is exclusively terrestrial, another species, the 
Oared Shrew (Crossopus remifer), is found in Britain. For some 
time this animal was confounded with the Water-Shrew, as its habits 
ai'e similar, and it frequents the same situations. It differs, how- 
ever, in colour, the black on the back and sides being flecked with 
white hairs, the throat and abdomen blackish grey tinged with yel- 
low. Though scarcer than the two other kinds, the Oared Shrew 
is more abundant than is often supposed by naturalists, as I have 
several times caught it in different parts of Hertfordshire and Surrey. 
I must here remark that the ears of both the Oared and Water- 
Shrew are furnished with a peculiar and beautifully contrived appa- 
ratus by which the water is excluded from those organs. It consists 
of three small valves, which fold together when the animal dives, 
effectually preventing the entrance of a single drop of moisture. As 
soon, however, as the pressure is removed, on the Shrew rising to 
the surface, they reopen spontaneously. Without this provision of 
nature, the animal would constantly be annoyed by the water filling 
the cavities and irritating the delicate membranes of the ear. 

The dimensions of full-grown individuals of the three species arc 
as follows : — 

Common Shrew, in. lin. Water-Shrew, in. lin. Oared Shrew, in. lin. 
Total length 4 1 Total length 5 7 Total length G 1 

Head 1 2 Head 1 5 Head 1 7 

Tail 1 9 Tail 2 1 Tail 2 4 

Hind foot.. 3 Hind foot. . 5 Hind foot. . 7 

Pjoc. Zovl. Soc. June '27, l^(i."i. 


A NT. 


No. 95." NOVEMBER 1865. 

XXXIII.— On the Microscopic Structure of the Shell of Rhyncho- 
nella Geinitziana. By William B. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S , 
F.L.S., F.G.S. 

In consequence of my prolonged absence on the Continent, it 
has been only within the last few clays that I have seen Prof. 
King's " Remarks on the Histology of Rhynchopora Geinitziana," 
contained in the Ann. Nat. Hist, for last August (p. 124). These 
remarks have led me to subject my preparations of that shell to 
a renewed microscopic examination, of which I have now to 
state the results. Before doing so, however, I may say that I 
have done my best to dismiss from my mind any prejudice in 
favour of that view of its structure which I might be supposed 
to derive from the conclusion to which I had been led by my 
previous researches — that whilst the perforation of the shell by 
canals passing from surface to surface is the family character of 
the Terebratulida, the absence of such perforation is the family 
character of the Rhynchonellidce. The progress of natural-his- 
tory inquiry is continually bringing to light examples in which 
features essentially characterizing one group appear in particular 
types belonging to another. Thus, a paper " On Rose-spored 
Mushrooms," by Mr. Berkeley, now lying before me, commences 
as follows :— " I have already pointed out that a single species 
with decidedly rose-coloured spores (Agaricus euosmos) occurs in 
the white-spored series; but its affinities with the common 
Oyster-Mushroom {A. ostreatus) are so intimate that it would be 
in direct opposition to nature to separate them." It would not 
in the least surprise me, therefore, to meet with a perforated 
Rhynchonellid ; and I cau honestly say that no ivish to make 
out Rhynchonella Geinitziana imperforate is father to the belief 
that, as regards its outer layer, it really is so. 

The preparations in my possession consist (1) of transparent 
lamellae, scaled off from the exposed surface of German and 

Ann. ty Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. 21 

306 Dr. W. B. Carpenter on the Microscopic Structure 

Russian specimens of the fossil shell in question, and therefore 
passing, more or less exactly, in a direction parallel to that sur- 
face ; and (2) of a transparent vertical section of a German speci- 
men. As these specimens were supplied to me by Mr. Davidson, 
there can be no doubt of their authenticity. 

Some of the transparent lamellae exhibit distinct and regular 
perforations, filled with black matter, of considerable size; and 
had these lamellae been my sole materials of judgment, I should 
have readily accorded with the description of Prof. King. But, 
as I stated when the matter was formerly under discussion (Ann. 
Nat. Hist. March 1857, p. 214), this appearance is presented 
only by lamellae taken from abraded surfaces, and therefore be- 
longing to the internal layer of the shell. In a transparent 
fragment in which the natural surface of the shell is partially 
preserved, the large and regular black spots are seen only near 
one edge ; towards the middle they give place to small black 
dots, so irregular in size and form as scarcely to be distinguish- 
able from others which are obviously due to infiltrating deposit; 
and towards the other side they are wanting altogether. Now 
in the whole of this specimen the characteristic structure of 
the shell is most perfectly preserved, so that the absence of 
the marks of perforation cannot be ascribed to metamorphic 

The key to this variety in the appearances presented by pa- 
rallel lamella? is afforded by the vertical section. In one part 
(a) of this section there c 

is an obvious deficiency « ^ «-r-^^M c* 

of the external layer of _J&. "-_0__£l^j(T" ~/f —^ ~ 
the shell, and the per- ^^^-4i l\ 

rorations are seen to pass ^ 

Continuously through Vertical section of a portion of the shell of 
the remaining internal lihynchopora Geinitziana. 

layer. But in another part (b c), the external layer is preserved 
in great part, if not the whole, of its thickness ; and this layer is 
plainly seen not to be perforated at all, the passages all stopping 
short of it, sometimes ending abruptly in rounded terminations 
(A), sometimes more pointedly (cc 1 ). Hence it is obvious that 
if the plane of a. parallel section pass along the line de, it will 
show at a large perforations, at c small perforations, and at b c' 
none at all, which is exactly what is seen in the specimen pre- 
viously described. And further, as the transparence of the shell 
allows the large black spots with which the inner layer is regu- 
larly marked to be plainly seen through the outer layer, even 
when this is perfectly preserved, it is easy to understand how 
readily the conclusion might be drawn from incomplete obser- 
vation, that the perforations extend through the whole thickness 

of the Shell of Rhynchonella Geinitziana. 307 

of the shell, — a conclusion which I have shown to be negatived by 
the decisive test of a vertical section. 

I feel myself justified, therefore, in reiterating my former state- 
ment, that the passages which are visible in the shell of Rhyncho- 
nella Geinitziana traverse the internal layer only, and are there- 
fore of the nature of pits, having no physiological relationship 
with the canals which traverse the whole thickness of the shell of 
the typical Terehratulida, and which open out in large trumpet- 
shaped orifices on its external surface, although presenting such 
a rudimental approximation to that structure — as might almost 
be expected in some member of the imperforate series. 

The readers of the 'Annals' have now both sides of the case 
fully before them, and can form their own judgment whether it 
is more likely that Prof. King or that I have fallen into a " serious 
mistake" in this matter. But I must ask them to bear in 
mind that Prof. King's observations upon this shell have been 
made, by his own showing, only with a Stanhope lens, upon the 
exposed surfaces of his specimens ; whilst mine have been made 
with a Binocular microscope and a magnifyiug-power of 120 
diameters, upon transparent lamellae and sections. Further, I 
would recall to their recollection that it was by surface-obser- 
vation with the Stanhope lens that Prof. King was formerly led 
to commit himself to the conclusion that all Brachiopod shells 
are perforated; from which conclusion, if true, it would necessa- 
rily follow that the elaborate drawings and descriptions which I 
had given (in the Reports of the British Association for 1844), 
of the microscopic structure of the non -perforated forms, had no 
prototypes in nature*. 

University of London, Burlington House, W. 
October 16th, 1865. 

* So far from having ever expressed his regret for this grave imputation, 
of the fallacy of which he has had ample opportunity of convincing him- 
self, Prof. King has recently pursued the very same course, in asserting that 
Eozoon Canadense is not a fossil, but is a product of chemical and physical 
agencies. For, if this be true, it necessarily follows, either (I) that my de- 
scription of its Foraminiferal characters has no foundation in fact, or (2) 
that I am incompetent to pronounce upon what I assert to be indubitable 
Foraminiferal structure. As he has not adduced one single fact to justify 
either of these charges, I have felt myself called upon to repudiate in toto 
his claim to authority in this matter. Whether, under such circumstances, 
the charge of " personality" is to be laid at my door or at Prof. King's, 1 
leave it to others to decide. Although he may have used no hard words, 
the imputations conveyed by his assertions would, if true, be more 
damaging to my personal as well as to my scientific character than any 
epithets he could employ. 


308 Mr. II. W. Bates on the Lonyicorn Coleoptera 

XXXIV. — Contributions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazons Valley. 
Coleoptera : Longicornes. By II. W. Bates, Esq. 

[Continued from p. 182.] 

Genus Xylomimus, nov. gen. 

Body cylindrical, narrow. Head vertical, or slightly inclined 
backwards ; muzzle moderately elongated ; sides rounded ; fore- 
head very slightly convex ; eyes small, lower lobe nearly circular. 
Antennas moderately distant at their bases, with inner side of 
antenniferous tubercles prominent and angular; basal joint 
dilated almost from the base, and forming a thick, oblong club, 
with the lower edge slightly waved ; third joint one-third longer 
than the first, and also thickened nearly from the base, continu- 
ing of the same thickness to the apex, furnished on the under- 
side with a fringe of long bristles ; fourth joint slender, slightly 
thickened in the middle, and about one-half the length of the 
third ; fifth to seventh joints each about one-half the length of the 
fourth, slender (rest wanting). Thorax cylindrical, longer than 
broad, and deeply wrinkled transversely ; lateral tubercles in- 
conspicuous. Elytra linear, obtusely rounded at the apex, sur- 
face free from excrescences; pro- and meso-sterna plane. Legs 
very short, thighs clavate, tibiae broad ; claw-joint of the tarsi 
as long as the remaining joints taken together. 

The species on which this genus is founded presents, from its 
shape and style of coloration, a striking resemblance to a frag- 
ment of a slender decayed branch. 

Xylomimus baculus, n. sp. 

X. angustatus, cylindricus, thorace transversim crehre ruguloso ; 
elytris stria impressa suturali, apice singulatim obtuse rotundatis ; 
corpore supra brunneo, lateribus obscure ochraceo ; elytris pone 
medium fascia lata flexuosa bruimea ochraceo lineata ; antennis 
brunneis, articulo quarto flavo. Long. 5| fin. J? 

Head dingy ochraceous, front uneven, punctured; vertex and 
occiput ample, brown, streaked with rusty ochreous ; antenni- 
ferous tubercles slightly prominent on their inner sides, and 
leaving a small semicircular notch between them. Antennas 
with the first and third joints dark brown varied with ochreous, 
bristly, fringe of the third also dark brown, fourth joint yellow, 
fifth, sixth, and seventh rusty brown. Thorax cylindrical, sur- 
face covered with numerous, irregular, transverse wrinkles ; 
lateral tubercles small, conical, dark brown in the middle, with 
three indistinct rusty-brown vitta? ; sides each with an ochreous 
vitta, below which is a broader brown vitta. Elytra linear, 
shoulders not prominent, apex of each obtusely rounded; surface 
slightly uneven, plane towards the base and more convex beyond 

of the Amazons Valley. 309 

the middle, punctured (except near the apex) and marked with 
an impressed stria near the suture ; colour rusty ochreous, with 
a broad common brown vitta over the suture from the base to 
beyond the middle, and a broad irregular brown fascia (lineated 
with rusty brown) at the termination of the vitta, the space 
near the apex having an irregular ochreous spot followed by a 
similarly shaped brown spot. Body beneath light brown; sides 
of prothorax and breast with an ochreous-white vitta; abdomen 
streaked with ochreous white. Legs clothed with pale tawny- 
brown pile. 

Found on a slender dead branch of a tree in the forests of the 

Genus Ectho3a, Pascoe. 

Pascoe, Trans. Eat. Soc. n. s. iv. p. 244 (1858). 

Syn. Talasius, Buquet, Thorns. Arcana Naturae, p. 99 (1859). 

This remarkable genus is distinguished from the allied groups 
by many well-marked features, which have been well described 
by the authors above quoted. I myself met with female exam- 
ples only, and have not been able to examine the opposite sex, 
which bears one of the chief marks of the genus — namely, four 
horn-like projections from the forehead. The body is large and 
cylindrical ; the head very broad, and remarkable (besides the 
horned forehead of the male) for the great convexity of the crown, 
which rises very much higher than the base of the antennae, and 
descends perpendicularly from its front edge towards the tuber- 
cles which support those organs. The elytra are broad and 
square at the apex, and each one is deeply sinuated in the mid- 
dle, so as to form two projections or lobes. The antennae are 
rather slender, in the female as long as the body, with the basal 
joint tumid on one side at the apex, and the third joint slightly 

My specimens differ in colour from the one figured by M. 
Buquet; but I believe them to be referable to the E. quadri- 
cornis of Olivier. The Trachysomus faunus of Erichson (Consp. 
Peru. p. 148) seems to be quite a distinct species of this genus. 

Ecthosa quadricornis, Olivier. 

Cerambyx quadricornis, Oliv. Ent. iv. p. 97, pi. 20. f. 158. 

Talasius quadricornis, Buquet, Thorns. Arc. Nat. p. 100, pi. 5. f. 6. 

The female example now in my collection, and which I found 
at Ega, is 9£ lines in length, the head being 2| lines in width. 
The upper part of the forehead is yellow, brown near the crown, 
where it is marked with three black spots; the lower part is of 
a blackish olive-colour, the line of demarcation between the two 
colours being a transverse carina, from which in the male rise 
the two lower frontal horns. The thorax is very uneven on each 

310 Mr. II. W. Bates on the Longicorn Coleojriera 

side, one of the elevations near the anterior part of the disk on 
each side forming an acute tubercle ; the colour above is rusty 
ochreous, the hind part having two blackish lines, which are 
severally continuous with the rounded velvety black spots on the 
elytra, on each side of the scutellum. The elytra are of a light 
green hue, except on the apical fourth, where there is a large 
ashy-ochreous spot, streaked with dark brown, very similar to 
the streaked apical spots in the genus Eudesmus. The under- 
side of the prothorax and breast is greenish ashy. The legs are 
green, varied with greenish ashy. These green and rusty- 
ochreous hues, combined with the rugged surface of the insect, 
give it very much the appearance of a mossy fragment of wood, 
when it is seen clinging close to a dead bough, as is the habit 
of the creature. 

Genus Trestonia, Buquet. 
Buquet, in Thomson's ' Arcana Naturae,' p. 45. 

Like many other generic groups of Longicorn s, the present 
one is recognizable rather by a similar general form and colora- 
tion than by definite structural characters. The species are 
cylindrical or linear and depressed in shape, and exhibit a dark- 
brown or black curved mark towards the apex of the elytra, 
preceded by a pale-ashy or greenish patch, and succeeded by 
fulvous strigse nearer the apex. The possession of this charac- 
teristic mark points to a near relationship with Eudesmus and 
Ecthoea ; but some species answer very well to the definition of 
the genus Hesycha, as far as structure is concerned. All the 
species, however, are more linear in form than the Hesycha, and 
the antennae in nearly all are more nearly approximated at their 
bases. The head is variable in width, and the forehead is some- 
what convex in the middle; the latter is in most species clothed 
with pale-coloured tomentum. The antenniferous tubercles, in 
the broader-headed species, have prominent and sometimes 
cornuted inner angles. The antennas themselves are slender 
and setaceous, in the males often twice the length of the body ; 
their basal joint is clavate, and the third joint, with few excep- 
tions, a little curved. The thorax is cylindrical and uneven, 
never short and broad. The elytra are linear, obtusely rounded 
at the apex, free from centro-basal elevations and tubercles ; the 
shoulders are prominent and acute, and curved anteriorly. The 
legs are moderately short, the thighs clavate, the claw-joint ro- 
bust, as is universal in the Oncideritse, and equal in length to 
the three remaining taken together. 

The Trestonia, like the other genera of the present group, 
are found on branches of trees, clinging closely and gnawing the 
bark and surface-wood. 

of the Amazons Valley. 311 

1. Trestonia Chevrolatii. 
Trestonia Chevrolatii, Buquet, Thorns. Arc. Nat. p. 46. 

T. elono-ata, subdepvessa ; capite lato, tomento flavescente dense ves- 
' tito, maculis duabus verticis alterisque frontalibus nigris, genis et 
gula nigricantibus ; antennis basi distantibus, brunneis, tuberculis 
antennfferis intus modice productis acutis ($); thorace obscure 
fusco-grisescente, supra transverse ruguloso sulcis duobus trans- 
versis juxta marginem posticum distinctioribus ; elytris postice 
paulo attenuatis, dorso depressis, humeris subconicis, granulatis, 
disco bicostato lineaque elevata suturali, punctatis, griseis, ante 
apicem utrinque plaga curvata nigra (antice albo marginata), dein 
fulvo-brunneis macula subapicali pallida ; corpore subtus pedibus- 
que viridi-griseis, abdomine ferrugiueo-brunneo, segmentis tribus 
posterioribus lateribus ochraceis. Long. 10 lin. ? . 
One example, taken at Ega, and named as above, from the 
typical specimen formerly belonging to M. Chevrolat. It would 
be impossible to determine the species from the meagre descrip- 
tion of M. Buquet. 

2. Trestonia ramuli, n. sp. 

T. elongato-oblonga, postice ( S ) angustata, subdepressa, fusca, iulvo 
varie^ata ; elytris medio macula magna laterali viridi-cinerea 
postice dentata et fusco marginata, intra apicem macula distinc- 
tiore fulva ; tuberculis antenniferis distantibus, intus utroque sexo 
prominulis acutis ; antennis corpore paulo longioribus, articulo 
tertio curvato. Long. 6-6£ lin. <$■ $ . 

Head moderately broad, forehead punctured, dingy brown 
varied with tawny ; antenniferous tubercles with their inner 
angles in both sexes prominent, acute, conical, and distant from 
each other somewhat widely. Antennas very little longer than 
the body in either sex, dark brown; joints paler at the base; 
third joint rather strongly bent in the middle. Thorax sub- 
cylindrical, widest in the middle, convex, transversely depressed 
near the hind margin, very uneven above, and obtusely tuber- 
culose on the sides ; dark brown, varied with rusty tawny. Ely- 
tra with prominent conical shoulders, and gradually narrowed 
towards the apex (much less so in the female than in the male), 
surface scarcely convex, simply punctured (except near the apex), 
dark brown, minutely varied with rusty tawny, and having on 
each side in the middle a large, oblique, greenish-ashy spot, 
widest on the margin : this spot is bordered posteriorly by a 
broadish, flexuous, blackish streak ; and close to the apex there 
is a tawny spot, larger and clearer in colour than the other 
tawny marks. Body beneath and legs clothed with olivaceous- 
ashy tomentum. 

On dead branches, Ega. 

312 Mr. H. W. Bates on the Loncjicorn Coleoptera 

3. Trestunia albilatera, Pascoe. 

Hesycha albilatera, Pascoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. n. s. v. pt. 1. 25. 

T. elongato-oblonga, apicem versus paulo attenuata, subdepressa, 
fusca, fulvo minute varia ; capite latiusculo, fronte ochracea, tuber- 
culis antenniferis intus in lobulos erectos oblongos productis ( cf ) ; 
elytris utrinque plaga maxima laterali (fere ad basin extensa) cana, 
postice nigro marginata. Long. 6| lin. c? • 

Similar, in its elongate-oblong subdcpressed form of body and 
general colour, to T. ramuli, but differs in the elytra being much 
less prominent at the shoulders, and not attenuated, except from 
very near the apex ; the pale lateral spot, too, is much larger 
and whiter, extending from behind the middle to the shoulders. 
The thorax is cylindrical and very uneven on its surface, as in 
T. ramuli; but it has two transverse impressed lines near the 
hind margin, and a distinct conical lateral tubercle, much behind 
the middle. The forehead is clothed with dense tomentum of a 
pale ochreous hue. The underside of the body is ashy, with a 
broad rusty-tawny stripe down the middle of the abdomen. 
The antennae are very slender and twice the length of the body 
in the male; the terminal joints are greatly elongated, and the 
third with a scarcely perceptible bend. 

Ega, on branches of trees. 

4. Trestonia coarctata, n. sp. 

Trestonia terminata, Buquet, Thorns. Arc. Nat. p. 47, pi. 5. f. 3? 

T. cylindrica, cinereo-fusca, fulvo varia, vertice coarctato ; antennis 
basi valde approximatis, articulo basali elongato, apice abrupte 
clavato ; elytris crebre punctatis, apice nigris, fulvo lituratis. 
Long. 4^-6 lin. d $ • 

The form of body and situation of the dark apical spot (close 
to the apex of the elytra) in this species so closely resemble the 
same features in the figure above quoted of T. terminata, that it 
is not unlikely the specimens here treated of belong to that 
species. I cannot, however, reconcile the description of the 
colours given by M. Buquet with my insects; and the figure is 
as uncertain in this respect as the description. His words are, 
" Couleur generate d'un gris-verdatre melange de blanc et par- 
fois de jaunntre sur le devant de la tete, sur les bords lateraux 
du prothorax et sur la partie inferieure des elytres." The head 
in all my specimens is of a pale ashy hue, with a dark-brown 
spot on the upper part of the forehead between the eyes. The 
elytra as well as the thorax are dark brown, clothed with thinnish 
ashy pile, and sometimes varied with tawny, and becoming of a 
paler ashy hue near the dark apical spots. The thorax has a 
number of large scattered punctures, and the elytra are thickly 

of the Amazons Valley. 313 

punctured, except at the extreme apex. The antennas are closely 
approximated at the base, the bases of the tubercles being sepa- 
rated only by the impressed line on the vertex; the angles of 
the tubercles are not produced. The antennas are more than 
twice the length of the body in the male, the apical joint being 
twice the length of the preceding, and of great tenuity ; in the 
female they are but little longer than the body, but the apical 
joints are very slender and more elongated than is usual in the 
female sex of Longicorn insects ; the basal joint is as long as 
the third, and clavate at the apex. 

Found, rather commonly, on slender branches on the banks 
of the Tapajos, and also at Ega. 

Genus Peritrox, nov. gen. 

Body subcylindrical. Head moderately narrow; face plane, 
inclined obliquely backwards; eyes ample, convex ; antenniferous 
tubercles with their inner angles produced. Antennas elongated, 
simple; basal joint gradually thickened from the base; third 
joint straight, one-fourth longer than the first, fringed beneath 
with fine hairs. Thorax subcylindrical, uneven, sides armed 
with prominent, acute lateral tubercles. Elytra cylindrical, free 
from ridges and tubercles; apex rounded. Legs moderate; 
thighs clavate ; claw-joint of tarsi greatly elongated, longer than 
the three remaining joints taken together. 

This new genus, founded on one species only, is very closely 
allied to Trestonia, differing, in structural characters, chiefly in 
the gradually thickened basal joint of the antennas. The cha- 
racteristic feature in the coloration of the elytra of Trestonia is 
entirely absent, the colours being dull and uniform. In form 
of body and head, the species described below resembles much 
Trestonia terminata and T. coarctata. 

Peritrox denticollis, n. sp. 

P. subcylindrica, paulo convexa, fuliginosa ; elytris maculis tomen- 
tosis fulvo-brunneis adspersis ; capite inter antennas profunde 
impresso ; thorace transverse ruguloso, lateribus acute tubercu- 
latis. Long. 5 lin. <$ . 

Head sooty black, coarsely punctured on the forehead and 
crown, and deeply grooved between the antenniferous tubercles, 
which are closely approximated at their bases, and have their 
inner edges produced into short ear-like lobes. Antennas 
blackish, shining. Thorax subcylindrical, surface uneven, and 
marked with a few sharp transverse wrinkles, besides two 
impressed lines parallel to the hind margin ; lateral tubercles 
conical, acute ; colour sooty brown. Elytra cylindrical, narrowed 

314 Mr. H. W. Bates on the Lonijicorns of the Amazons Valley. 

only very near the apex, the latter rounded; surface thickly 
punctured, except near the apex, sooty brown, sprinkled with 
spots formed of dingy-tawny tomentum. Body beneath and 
legs pitchy, thinly clothed with ashy pile. 
Santarera, on a dead branch : one example. 

Genus Pachypeza, Serville. 
Serville, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (1835) iv. 

The forehead, muzzle, and eyes in this genus resemble much 
the same features in Oncideres ; but the crown is narrower and 
more depressed between the antenniferous tubercles. The body 
is elongate, but narrower than in any species of Oncideres. The 
antennae have their joints beneath (including the basal joint) 
clothed more or less densely with longish hairs. The thorax is 
cylindrical, about as long as broad, and covered above with 
transverse wrinkles. The pro- and meso-sterna are extremely 
narrow. The legs are short and stout, the femora clavate, the 
tibia? very short and compressed, and the tarsi have the claw- 
joint, although elongated, much less robust and shorter than in 

Pachypeza lanuginosa, n. sp. 

P. cylindrica, robusta, fusco-cinerea ; capite latiore ; antennis dis- 
tantibus, articulis sex basalibus infra pilis tenuibus dense vestitis ; 
elytris prope basin confertim et subtiliter granulato-punctatis. 
Long. 9!-10 lin. <$ $. 

Head rather broad, forehead between the antenniferous tuber- 
cles depressed; eyes large, oblong, ashy tawny. Antennae a 
little longer than the body in the male, about the same length 
in the female ; terminal joints shorter than the median ones, 
last joint short and pointed; basal and five succeeding joints 
densely clothed beneath with very line hairs ; colour ashy brown. 
Thorax scarcely so long as broad, surface closely wrinkled, many 
of the wrinkles not continuous; colour ashy brown. Elytra 
cylindrical, convex ; shoulders somewhat prominent ; basal fourth 
of the surface studded with small, regular granulations, accom- 
panied by punctures ; finely punctured in the rest of their sur- 
face ; colour ashy brown, deflexed sides paler. Body beneath 
and legs tawny brown; base of abdomen on each side, and hind 
legs, sooty brown. 

Ega and S. Paulo, Upper Amazons, on slender woody stems. 

Rev. H. Clark on Dejean's Genus Coelomera. 315 

XXXV. — An Examination of the Dejeanian Genus Coelomera (Co- 
leoptera Phytophaga) and its Affinities. By the Rev. Hamlet 
Clark, M.A., F.L.S. 

[Continued from p. 268.] 

Genus Monocesta. 

Division B. 

Species of smaller size ; in form more robust, short, and parallel ; 
elytra not postmedially dilated; thorax with the transverse 
depression more obsolete; antennce shorter, more robust, and 
slightly incrassated. Species 13-26. 

Section I. 
Elytra black, or fuscous black, or dark green. Species 13-19. 

13. M. obliquenotata. 

M. robusta, lata, satis parallela, rugosa, leviter pubescens, purpureo- 
fusca, thorace humeris fascia obliqua et corpore subtus rufo-flavis; 
caput leviter punctatum ; thorax transverse depressus, lateribus 
mediis angulatis, punctatus, rufo-fiavus, macula utrinque insu- 
lata magna nigro-fusca ; scutellum subtriangulare, impunctatum, 
flavum ; elytra robusta, subrugosa, purpureo-fusca, humeris et 
fascia obliqua (a sutura ad margines postmedios tendente) atque 
etiam sutura et apice (obsolete) rufo-flavis ; antennce fuscse, art. 1° 
2° et 3° infra flavescentibus ; corpus subtus rufo-flavum ; pedes 
rufo-fusci. . 

Long. corp. lin. 6 ; lat. lin. 3. 

Amazons. Collected by Mr. Bates. 

14. M. cincta. 

M. lata, robusta, subparallela, subtilissime pubescens et rugosa, 
nigro-fusca, thorace elytrorum fascia corpore subtus femoribusque 
flavo-fuscis ; caput ad frontem foveolatum ; thorax lateribus ad 
medium angulatis, disco depresso, subtiliter punctatus, rufo -flavus, 
disco medio nigro ; scutellum subtriangulare, impunctatum, flavum; 
elytra robusta, subparallela, leviter rugosa, opaca, nigro-fusca, 
fascia media recta marginibus et tenuiter sutura flavis ; antenna 
fuscse, art. 1° et 2° flavo-fuscis ; pedes fusci, femoribus flavis; 
corpus subtus rufo-flavum. 

Long. corp. lin. 6 ; lat. lin. 3. 

Amazons. Collected by Mr. Bates. 

15. M. cpectanda. 

Jf. robusta, parallela, subtilissime rugosa, rufo-flava, elytris (margini- 
bus exceptis) viridescentibus ; caput ad basin foveolatum, minute 
punctatum, rufum, macula triangulari basali fusca ; thorax trans- 
verse depressus sparsim pubescens rufo-fiavus, disco medio fusco 

3] 6 Rev. II. Clark on Dejean's Genus Coelomera. 

adumbrato ; scutellum rufo-flavum ; elytra rugosa, viridescentia, 
marginibus flavis exceptis ; corpus subtus et pedes flava ;, 
art. 1° et 2° exceptis flavis, in exemplo unico desunt. 
Long. corp. lin. 6 ; lat. lin. 4. 

Cayenne. Received from the cabinet of M. Chevrolat. 

16. M. jiavo-cincta. 

M. parallela, lata, subdepressa, rugosa, opace viridis, corpore subtus 
thorace anteriore femoribus et elytrorum marginibus flavis ; caput 
ad basin foveolatum, impunctatum, rufo-flavum, inter oculos super 
antennarum margines nigrum ; thorax vix ad discum medium 
depressus, sed lsevis, planus, subrugosus, rufo flavus, basi et disco 
medio nigris ; scutellum subquadratum, impunctatum ; elytral&ta, 
rugosa, opace viridia, marginibus tenuiter rufo-fuscis ; antennae 
fuscse, art. l°-3 n ' rufo-flavis ; pedes fusci, femoribus flavis ; corpus 
subtus rufo-flavum. 

Long. corp. lin. 4^ ; lat. lin. 1\. 

Relatively broader, and with the thorax differently formed 
from M. circumcincta. The two species are nearly allied. 
Amazons. Taken by Mr. Bates. 

17. M. circumcincta. Dej. 

M. satis depressa, subparallela, rugosa, rufo- vel fusco-flava, an- 
tennis nigris ; elytris nigris vel nigro-cyaneis ; caput longitudina- 
liter foveolatum, flavum ; thorax impunctatus, fortiter transverse 
depressus, flavus ; scutellum fuscum ; elytra thorace paulum 
latiora et versus apicem subampliata, rugosa, nigro-cyanea, mar- 
ginibus ab humeris ad apicem rufo-flavis; antennce nigrge, art. l°-3 m 
interdum subtus flavesceutibus ; pedes et corpus subtus vel flava 
vel fusco-flava. 

Long. corp. lin. 3^-5 ; lat. lin. 2-3. 


18. M. carbonaria. 

M. subparallela, paulum depressa, leviter rugosa, opaca, flava ; ely- 
tris antennis tibiis tarsisque nigris ; caput rugosum, flavum, inter 
oculos fuscescens ; thorax ad medium longitudinaliter foveolatus, 
leviter punctatus, subpubescens; scutellum nigrum; elytra sub- 
parallela, crebre rugosa, opace nigra ; antennce filiformes, nigrse ; 
corpus subtus fusco-flavum, abdomine flavo ; pedes flavi, tibiis et 
tarsis nigris. 

Long. corp. lin. 4 ; lat. lin. 2. 

Amazons. Taken by Mr. Bates. 

19. M. nigriventris. 

M. parallela, attenuata, rugosa, flava ; antennis elytris abdomine et 
tibiis nigris ; caput longitudinaliter foveolatum ; thorax leviter 
punctatus ; scutellum fuscum ; elytra parallela, rugosa, attenuata, 

Rev. H. Clark on Dejean's Genus Coelomera. 317 

opace nigra ; antenna filiformes, nigrse ; corpus snbtus rufo- 
fuscum, abdomine nigro ; pedes rufo-flavi, tibiis et tarsis nigris. 
Long. corp. lin. 3| ; lat. lin. 1|. 


Section II. 

Elytra flavous for the most part.' Species 20-2G. 
20. M. Klugii, Dej. 

3/. robusta, parallela, rugosa, opaca, subpubescens, fusco-flava, ma- 
culis viridibus ornata ; caput foveolatum ; thorax transverse de- 
pressus, subrngosus ; scutellum rufo-fiavum ; elytra robusta, ru- 
gosa, fusco-flava, uotis quatuor utrinque viridescentibus, l a scutel- 
lari magna, longitndinali, 2 a marginali antemedia minuta, 3 a mar- 
ginali postineclia minuta, 4 a suturali postmedia circulari ; pedes 
et corpus snbtus rufo-flava ; antennae robustae, fuscse, art. 1° rufo. 

Long. corp. lin. 5-6 ; lat. lin. 2|— 3. 

21. M. rubiginosa. 

IT. robusta, parallela, crebre rugosa, rubiginosa, vittis duabus viridi- 
nigris a basi ad apicem ; caput rugosum, subpubescens, versus 
apicem flavescens ; thorax transversus, nigro-rubiginosus, lateribus 
pallidioribus ; elytra thorace latiora, parallela, rugosa, rubiginosa, 
vittis duabus (subsuturali et marginali) indistinctis indeterminatis 
nigro-viridibus a basi ad apicem ; hse vittse aliquandojinterruptse vel 
post medium omnino evanescunt ; antenna: robustse, nigrae ; pedes 
et corpus subtus rufo-flava, tibiis aliquando nigro-fuscescentibus. 

Long. corp. lin. 3£-4£; lat. lin. 2-2|. 


22. M. glauca, Dej. 

M. robusta, subparallela, crebre punctata vel subrugosa, testaceo- 
pubescens, vel flava vel rufo-flava vel fusca, antennis nigrescen- 
tibus ; caput leviter rugosum ; thorax paulum transverse depressus, 
rugosus ; scutellum triangulare, apice truncato ; elytra thorace 
latiora, leviter pubescentia ; antenna satis breves et versus apicem 
incrassatse, fuscse, art. basalibus plerumque testaceo annulatis ; 
pedes et corpus subtus rufo-fuscescentia. 

Long. corp. lin. -4^ ; lat. lin. 2\. 

New Granada; Bolivia. 

23. M. frontalis. 

M. parallela, crebre punctata, flavo-fusca, capitis fronte nigra ; caput 
fortiter longitudinaliter foveolatum, flavura ; thorax leviter punc- 
tatus, flavus ; scutellum fuscum ; elytra parallela, crebre et minute 
punctata, subtiliter pubescentia, flavo-fusca ; antenna elongatulae, 
nigne, art. l"-6 m ab infra praesertim flavescentibus ; pedes et 
corpus subtus flava. 

Long. corp. lin. 4, lat. lin. 2. 

Campeche ; Central America. 

318 Rev. II. Clark on Dejean's Genus Coelomera. 

24. M. fuscescens. 

31. parallela, crebre punctata, fuscescens, antennis et tibiis nigris ; 
caput longitudinaliter foveolatum, leviter rugosum ; thorax trans- 
verse evidenter depressus, rugosus ; elytra subtiliter pubesccntia ; 
antenna nigrre ; corpus subtus et pedes flavescentia. 

Long. corp. lin. 4£ ; lat. lin. 2£. 


25. M. nigricornis. 

31. robusta, parallela, crebre punctata vel rugosa, lsete pallide rufa, 
antennis et tarsis nigris ; caput rugosum ; thorax vix transverse 
sed evidentius juxta latus utrinque depressus, crebre punctatus ; 
scutellum subquadratum ; elytra thorace multum latiora, robusta ; 
antennae robustse, nigrse ; corpus subtus rufo-flavum ; pedes rufo- 
fusci, tibiis et tarsis nigris. 

Long. corp. lin. 4 ; lat. lin. 2\. 

Bogota. Conspicuous by its bright pale-red coloration. 

26. M. atricornis. 

31. robusta, parallela, crebrius punctata, flava vel flavo-fusca ; caput 
longitudinaliter foveolatum, punctatum ; thorax punctatus ; elytra 
parallela; antennae robustse, paulum versus apicem incrassatse, 
nigrse, art. 1° rufescente ; corpus subtus rufum; pedes rufi, tibiis et 
tarsis interdum fusco-nigris. 

Long. corp. lin. 3^ ; lat. lin. If. 

This species may be easily separated from M. nigricornis by 
its smaller size, its more depressed and more parallel form, and 
its flavous (not rufous) colour. 

Jacquelin du Val has described (in the f Histoire de Pile de 
Cuba/ Insectes, p. 304) a " Coelomera " which I am unable tore- 
cognize: the description, unfortunately, omits all notice of the an- 
tenna?, and otherwise is somewhat imperfect. It is not a Dircema. 
Probably it is a species of Monocesta, this genus being the only 
one which extends northwards as far as the United States : — 

" Coelomera opacipennis. 

" C. oblonga, testacea ; elytris brunneis, opacis, pube subtili brevis- 
sima sericeis, margine reflexo pectoretjue medio nigro-cvaneis ; 
thorace valde transverso, medio transversim impresso, basi sinuato, 
angulis posticis acutiusculis. Long. 6| millim. Cuba." 

Genus XII. Coelomera, Erichs. ; Chev. Dej. Cat. ed. 3. 399; 

D'Orbign. Diet. Univ. d'Hist. Natur. iv. 75 ; Erichson, 

Conspectus Ins. Peruan. p. 104. 

Generi Monocestce, ut bic definito, affinis ; differt (ut a Dom. 

Erichson indication est) in antennis ; art. 1° elongato, 2° brevi, 3° art. 

primo multum longiore, 4° primo oequali, 5°-l l m velut art. secundus 

Rev. H. Clark on Dejecta' s Genus Coelomera. 319 

brevibus : differt etiam in forma corporis ; in speciebus plurimis 
corpus parallelum, rarius post medium ampliatum : in reliquis genus 
Monocestam sequat. 

The above diagnosis will suffice to point out the peculiarity of 
the antenna?, which is sufficiently important to constitute a very 
natural genus : the third joint is more than usually produced, 
and the fifth and subsequent joints are very short. There is also 
a general difference in form : while one or two species [and those 
from the head quarters of Monocesta, Cayenne and the Amazons], 
C. Cayennensis, C. modesta, resemble Monocesta in the post- 
medial dilatation of the elytra, the majority of species (which are 
from Brazil) are decidedly more parallel, though robust in form ; 
and several species from New Granada and Columbia are en- 
tirely parallel and subattenuate. 

Section I. 

Species more or less broadly ovate ; elytra broadly margined. 

Species 1-7. 

1. C. modesta. 

C. depressa, lata, punctata, flavo-fusca, prothorace et antennis flavis ; 
caput ad basin longitudinaliter foveolatum, punctatum, rufo- 
flavum ; thorax satis latus, punctatus, rufo-flavus ; scutellum sub- 
quadratum, punctatum ; elytra depressa, lata, versus apicem am- 
pliata, leviter flavo-pubescentia, rugosa, flavo-fusca ; antennas rufo- 
fuscse, art. l°-3 m flavescentibus ; corpus subtus et pedes rufo-fusca. 

Long. corp. lin 1\ ; lat. lin. 5. 

This species differs from M. rufo-fusca in the greater breadth 

of its thorax, its differently formed scutellum, its more depressed 

form, and its coloration. 

2. C. rufo-fusca. 

C. lata, subpubescens, leviter rugosa, rufo-fusca ; caput longitudina- 
liter atque etiam transverse foveolatum, punctatum, rufum, fovea 
longitudinali iterumque basi nigris ; thorax vix ut in C. modesta 
latus, sed transversus, punctatus, rufus, macula utrinque nigra 
insulata ; scutellum punctatum, rufo-fuscum ; elytra satis lata, 
satis robusta, rugosa, subpubescentia, rufo-fusca; antennae art. 1° 
_4 m nigris, reliqui desunt ; pedes nigri, femoribus fusco-nigris ; 
corpus subtus rufum. 

Long. corp. lin. 6^; lat. lin. 4. 

C. rufo-fusca is certainly nearly related to the Amazonian 
C. modesta. I decide, however, that it must be a distinct spe- 
cies : its coloration is different (this of itself has no value in this 
group); but, besides coloration, the thorax is relatively much 

Brazil. A single example from the collection of M. Laferte. 

320 Rev. H. Clark on Dejean's Genus Ccelomera. 

3. C. bajula, Oliv. Ent. vi. 618. 5, pi. 2. f. 17. 

This is a not uncommon Cayenne species ; it is subject to a 
considerable variation in the form of the thorax, the sides of 
which are sometimes rounded, sometimes rectangular, — and espe- 
cially in the form of the elytra ; some examples in my cabinet 
have the elytra much compressed. Length 6^ lines, breadth 
4.\ lines. 

4. C. (Galleruca) lanio, Sahib., Dalm. 

C. derasa, Hoffmans. C. Braziliensis, Dej. Cat. C. lata, Baly, Trans. 
Ent. Soc. (1865) 344. 

C. parallela, J elytris paulum post medium ampliatis, leviter rugosa, 
elytris nigro-cyaneis ; caput leviter foveolatum, rufum ; thorax 
sparsim punctatus, vel rufus vcl flavo-rufus; scutelhtmim\mnct&tum, 
flavura ; elytra leviter rugosa, sparsim pubescentia, vel nigra vel 
nigro-cyanea ; antennae nigrse ; pedes fusci, femoribus rufis ; 
corpus subtus rufum. 

Long. corp. lin. 5^-6g ; lat. lin. 2g-3|. 

This species is nearly allied to C. Cayennensis, Fab., but is 
readily separated from it by its larger size and by the black 
basal joints of the antenna?. 

Brazil. A very common species. 

5. C. Cayennensis, Fab. Syst. El. i. 480. 11; Ent. Syst. ii. 14. 

Oliv. Ent. vi. 617. 
C. Cajennensis, Fab. Mant. i. 74. 93, and in S. Nat. Gmel. i. 4. 1669. 85. 

Differs from C. lanio of this paper in its smaller size, in the 
rugose, almost reticulated (not quite so much punctate) surface 
of the elytra, and in the black coloration of the antennae and 
underside. One or two examples have the antennae rufo- 

The species has a very extended range : I have examples not 
only from Cayenne, but from Peru, Columbia, and Brazil. It 
is probably the C. Columbica of Schonh. C. Peruana, Erichs. 
(Consp. Ins. Peruan. 165) must be referred to it. 

6. C. ruficollis, Oliv. Ent. 6. 616 ; Encycl. Ins. 6. 586 (1790). 
C. riificornis, Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. (1865), 343. 

Very nearly related to C. Cayennensis, Fab., of which indeed it 
may be but a local variety. Both C. ruficollis, Oliv., and C. 
Cayennensis, Fab., are subject to some variation, the species 
before us being distinguished by its rufous antennas and some- 
what more brightly rufous thorax. 

Brazil; Campos, Espiritu Santo. I have examples also from 
Peru, which are identical, with the exception of the colour of 
the scutellum. 

Rev. H. Clark on Dejean's Genus Coelomera. 321 

Olivier gives C. nigripennis (Fab. Ent. Syst. Em. 2. 14. 9, 
published 1775 ; Syst. El. i. 480) as a synonym of this species. 
C. nigripennis, F., is from Surinam. I cannot quite trace the 
reasons of Olivier's position, but prefer to retain his name with- 
out hesitation, as being well established, as well as based on his 
excellent authority. 

7. C. picta, Baly, Descript. of New, &c, Trans. Ent. Soc. 
Lond. 1865, 344. 

Length 5-4 lin. ; lat. 2|-2£ lin. 

A common species at Ega, Upper Amazons. 

Section II. 

Species robust, parallel, abbreviated in form. Species 8-10. 

8. C. induta. 

C. robusta, satis parallela, pallide et subtiliter pubescens, testaceo- 
fusca, tborace medio macula utrinque elytris antemediis et apice 
elytrorum late fusco-nigris ; caput subrugosum, obscure testa- 
ceum, basi nigra ; thorax satis magnus, transversus, lateribus 
antemediis subdilatatis, subpubescens, macula media uigro-fusca ; 
scutellum rufo-fuscum ; elytra robusta, subrugosa, pubescentia, 
testaceo-fusca, macula basali indetermiuata insulata (alteraque 
minore ad antemedium marginem) et dimidio apicali nigris ; 
antennce nigrse, art. l°-3 m fulvescentibus ; pedes rufo-fulvi, tibiis 
apicalibus et tarsis fulvis ; corpus subtus flavo-rufum. 

Long. corp. lin. 5| ; lat. lin. 3. 

Amazons. Taken by Mr. Bates. 

9. C. tibialis, Dej. 

C. robusta, paulum ampliata, flavo-fusca, tibiis tarsis et antennis 
nigro-fuscis ; differt a C. bajula Oliv. in corpore robusto, parum 
depresso, vix ampliato, in antennis gracilioribus, fuscis (vix nigris), 
in colore quoque corporis subtus, prothoracis et femorum. 
Long. corp. lin. 6 ; lat. lin. 3^. 

Probably a distinct species from C. bajida, which is very va- 
riablejn form and size ; it may be separated as well by its colour 
(rufo-flavous prothorax and underside) as by the greater attenua- 
tion of the antennas. 

10. C. maculicollis. 

C. parallela, robusta, subpubescens, fusco-rufa, tibiis, tarsis, antennis, 
fronte capitis et maculis thoracis tribus nigris ; caput longitudina- 
liter foveolatum, subpunctatum, ad frontem bimaculatum ; thorax 
transverse leviter depressus, fortiter punctatus, nigro maculatus, 
macula basali media et macula laterali insulatis ; scutellum fusco- 
rufum ; elytra thorace latiora, parallela, apice rotundata, subtiliter 

Ann. # Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. xvi. 22 


Rev. IT. Clark on Dejecta's Genus Ccelomera. 

pubescentia, crebre punctata ; antennae robustse, nigrae ; corpus 
subtus rufo-flavum ; pedes mfo-navi, tibiis et tarsis nigro-fuscis. 
Long. corp. lin. 5 ; lat. lin. 2.}. 

I have received this very distinct species from M. Chevrolat's 
collection, with a label which I read " Honduras." 

11. C. an' at a. 

C. parallela, satis attenuata, punctata, impubescens, nigra, elytris 
seiatis ; caput baud foveolatum, puuetatum ; thorax vix elytra 
latitudine sequans, impunctatus, fusco-flavus ; scutellum apice ro- 
tundatum, levissime punctatum ; elytra, parallelo-punctata, loevia, 
nitida, impubescentia, serata ; antennas nigrse, corpus subtus ni- 
grum, abdomine rufo ; pedes nigri, femoribus rufis. 

Long. corp. lin. G| ; lat. lin. 3. 


Section III. 

Species parallel, attenuate in form. Sp. 1 1—1 G. 
1.2. C. submetallica. 

C. subparallela, leviter pubescens, punctata, rufa, tborace flavo- 
rufo, elytris metallice rufo-purpureis ; caput leviter foveolatum, 
impunctatum, rufum, basi nigra ; thorax thorace G. cerates latior, 
in medio transverse depressus, impunctatus, navo-rufus ; scutellum 
leviter punctatum, flavum ; elytra crebre punctata vel rugosa, 
metallice purpurea ; antennae nigra; ; corpus subtus rufum ; pedes 
nigro-fusci, femoribus rufo-flavis. 

Long. corp. lin. G| ; lat. lin. 3|. 

Broader both in body and in relative breadth of thorax than 
C. cerata; the coloration also of the whole body is different. 

13. C. parallela. 

C. elongata, parallela, leviter rngosa, subtiliter testaceo pubescens, 
nigra, tborace et abdomine rufis ; caput leviter ad medium foveo- 
latum, punctatum ; thorax impunctatus ; scutellum impunctatum, 
nigrum ; elytra parallela, testaceo pubescentia, rugosa ; antennae 
nigrse ; pedes nigri, femoribus rufo-fuscis ; corpus subtus nigrum, 
abdomine rufo. 

Long. corp. lin. G| ; lat. lin. 6|. 

C. parallela differs abundantly in form from most of its con- 
geners, being attenuate and parallel ; it resembles C. violacei- 
pennis, but may be separated from it by its fuscous-black, thickly 
pubescent, and rugose elytra. 

New Granada. 

14. C. violaceipennis. 

C. elongata, parallela, subcylindrica, vix pubescens, punctata, nigra, 
abdomine pedibus et tborace rufis, elytris nigro-violaceis ; caput 
longitudinaliter foveolatum, impunctatum, nigro-fuscum ; thorax 

Rev. II. Clark on Djjean's Genus Coelomera. 323 

transversus, lateribus antemediis subrotundatis, in medio trans- 
verse valde depressus,impunctatus, flavus ; scutellum iinpunctatum, 
rufo-fuscum ; elytra parallela, impubescentia, punctata, nigro- 
violacea ; antennce rufo-mscse ; pedes rufo-fusci, femoribus runs ; 
corpus sub t us nigrum, abdomine rufo. 
■ Long. corp. lin. 7; lat. lin. 3. 

Nearly allied to C. parallela of this paper, but separable from 
it by the blue (not fuscous-black) colour of the elytra, which arc 
impubescent, nearly glabrous, and distinctly punctate, not 


15. C. tenuicornis. 

C. elongata, subparallela, subpubescens, nigra, femoribus et thorace 
rufis ; caput longitudinaliter ad medium et transverse inter 
oculos foveolatum, punctatum, nigrum ; thorax penitus planus, 
vix ut in O. parallela fortiter transverse depressus, rufus ; scu- 
tellum leviter punctatum, nigrum ; elytra subparallela, elongata, 
rugosa, nigra ; antennce subgraciles, nigrse ; pedes nigri, femoribus 
rufo-fuscis ; corpus subtus nigrum. 

Long. corp. lin. 5g-6g ; lat. lin. 2|-3j. 

Very nearly allied to C. parallela, but differing from it in its 
less parallel form, the transverse fovea on thevhead, the less 
marked transverse depression of the thorax, and the colour of 
the underside ; the antennae, also, are evidently somewhat more 


16. C. binotata, Dej. 

C. parallela, subrugosa, rufo-flava, elytris et maculis duabus tho- 
racis nigro-cyaneis ; caput leviter punctatum, foveolatum, nigrum; 
thorax sparsim punctatus, flavo-rufus, macula utrinque circulari 
submedia nigra ; scutellum impunctatum, tlavum ; elytra leviter 
rugosa, subpubescentia, nigro-cyanea ; antennce nigrae ; corpus 
subtus rufo-fuscum ; pedes nigro-fusci, femoribus rufo-flavescen- 

Long. corp. lin. 6 ; lat. lin. 3. 

To be distinguished from all its congeners by the two con- 
stant black maculations on the thorax ; in size not unlike M. 
Brasiliensis, but differing in coloration, a trifle more parallel 
and narrower, and with the thorax not quite so obviously de- 


Genus XIII. Coraia. 

Satis elongata, parallela et robusta. Caput verticale. Palpi maxil- 
lares elongati. Thorax subquadratus, penitus transversus, margine 
anteriore recto, angiitis anticis distinctis (incurvatis, corpus arete 
amplectentibus), lateribus atque etiam angulis posticis subrotundatis; 


324 Rev. H. Clark on Dejean's Genus Ccelomera. 

discus plus minus transverse et inasqualiter depressus. Scutellum 
subtriangulare, apice truncate Elytra parallela, pubescentia, punc- 
tata, paulum latitudine thoracem superantia. Antennce robustse, 
elongatse, filiformes, longitudine corpus penitus sequantes, art. 1° ad 
apicem distincte incrassato, art. 3° et 4° subsequalibus et art. primo 
brevioribus, art. 2° brevi, art. 5°-10 m sequalibus et penitus art. ter- 
tiiuu sequantibus, art. 11° longiore et attenuate Pedes elongati, 
robusti, tarsorum art. l°et 2° asqualibus, unguiculis utrinque bifidis. 

Coraia is a form which, by its almost quadrate thorax, its 
long and robust antennas, and its parallel body, reminds us of a 
Longicorn. It is allied to Monocesta, but differs from all the 
species composing that genus : it is elongate and very parallel, 
instead of being (as in many species of Monocesta) broad and 
apically dilated ; the antennas are relatively considerably longer, 
and the form of the thorax is different. The genus Coraia is 
related to Ccelomera and Monocesta by the bipectinated unguiculi 
of the foot, by the relative lengths of the joints of the antennas, 
and by the broadly transverse depression on the disk of the 
thorax. Coraia differs from Galleruca (inter alia) by the greater 
relative length of the antennas. It may be separated from Nes- 
tinus by its much more robust antennas, the third joint of which 
is equal to the fourth (in Nestinus the fourth being the longer), 
in its parallel form of body, and in the form of the thorax ; the 
anterior angles closely embrace the sides, being depressed in 
position, not subporrect. 

C. maculicollis. 

C. elongata, parallela, vix depressa, rufo-fusca, humeris, thoracis ma- 
culis, tibiis, tarsis, femoribus maculis antennisque nigro-fuscis ; 
caput super antennarum bases bituberculatum, rugosum, rufo- 
flavum, labro tuberculis et basi late nigris ; thorax rums, macula 
media longitudinali et lateribus mediis (late) nigris ; scutellum 
punctatum, rufo-fuscum ; elytra thorace paulum latiora, parallela, 
rugosa, humeris et margine tenui elytrorum antemedio nigris ; 
antennee nigrse ; corpus subtus rufo-fuscum ; pedes nigri, femori- 
bus rufis, ad medium nigro maculatis. 

Long. corp. lin. 5| ; lat. lin. 2\. 

Not an uncommon species in Mexico. I have received it 
under the name of astuta, Chevr. 

Genus XIV. Nestinus. 

Parallela. Caput subverticale. Thorax transversus, margine an- 
teriorc subemarginato, angulis anticis modice productis, lateribus at- 
que etiam angulis posticis subrotundatis, marginibus undique leviter 
marginatis, disco piano vel leviter depresso. Scutellum subtri- 
angulare, apice rotundato. Elytra thorace paulum latiora, crebre 
punctata, plerumque submetallescentia. Antennce graciles, elougatas, 

Rev. H. Clark on Dejean's Genus Ccelomera. 325 

filiforraes, corpus longitudine penitus sequantes, art. 1° subgloboso, 
2° minore, 3° primum sequante, 4° et 5° tertium superantibus et sub- 
aequalibus, 6°-ll m subsequalibus. Pedes elongati, tarsorum art. 
basali longitudine art. 2 m superante, unguiculis utrinque bifidis. 

Nestinus approaches Coraia in the length of the antenna and 
the relative length of the basal joint of the tarsus ; it differs from 
that genus in the slender form of the autennse, in the fourth 
joint being longer than the third, and also in the form of the 
thorax. The known species that represent the genus are three 
or four in number, and all from Mexico. 

1. N. bimaculatus. 

N. parallelus, rugosus, fusco-flavus ; thorace et elytrorum apicibus 
nigro maculatis ; caput ad basin leviter foveolatum, punctatum, 
fusco-flavum, fovea tenuiter nigra ; thorax crebre punctatus, 
macula media insulata, alteraque etiam utrinque laterali nigris ; 
scutellum impunctatum, nigro-fuscum ; elytra fortiter et crebre 
punctata, fusco-flava, macula utrinque apicali circulari insulata 
nigro-cyanea ; corpus subtus, pedes et antenna; flavo-fusca. 

Long. corp. lin. 6i ; lat. lin. 2J. 


2. N. regalis. 

N. elongatus, subparallelus, fortiter punctatus vel rugosus, pallide 
flavus, elytris vel seneo vel aureo metallescentibus, antennis et 
tibiis nigris ; caput leviter foveolatum, punctatum, pallide flavum, 
macula basali media nigra ; thorax punctatus, pallide flavus, ma- 
cula media minuta, et altera utrinque media laterali nigris ; scu- 
tellum impunctatum, rufo-flavum ; elytra fortiter et crebre punc- 
tata vel seneo- vel aureo-metallescentia ; antenna nigrse ; pedes 
nigri, femoribus flavo-fuscis ; corpus subtus flavo-fuscum. 

Long. corp. lin. 4^-5^ ; lat. lin. 2-2f . 

Mexico. I possess an example from California, which pre- 
sents no variation from the Mexican form. 

3. iV. incertus. 

N. subparallelus, punctatus, lsevis, flavus ; elytris fusco-viridescenti- 
bus, thorace fusco-flavo, antennis fuscis ; caput crebre punctatum, 
flavum, basi late nigra ; thorax transversus, latus, subdepressus, 
planus, leevis, angulis posticis rotundatis, crebre punctatus, fusco- 
flavus ; scutellum leviter punctatum, flavum ; elytra parallela, 
lsevia, crebre punctata ; antennae robustte, nigrse ; pedes rufo-flavi, 
tarsis fuscis ; corpus subtus rufo-flavum. 

Long. corp. lin. 6 ; lat. lin. 3. 

A somewhat aberrant form of Nestinus, but which agrees in 
the main with the generic diagnosis. . It is possible that here- 
after it may constitute a separate genus. 


3.26 llcv. S. Ilaughton on the Muscular Anatomy 

XXXVI. — On, the Muscular Anatomy of the Leg of the Crocodile. 
By the Rev. Samuel Haugiiton, M.D., Fellow of Trinity 
College, Dublin. 

[Plate XVI.] 

During the Easter recess of 1864, I had an opportunity of 
explaining- to Professor Gratiolet*, of Paris, the investigations 
I had made with respect to the mechanism of the leg of the 
Ostrich, and the theory I had formed to explain it. This dis- 
tinguished anatomist did me the honour of approving of my 
explanation, and urged me to procure a Crocodile, in the poste- 
rior limb of which he assured me I should find a mechanical 
problem exceeding in complexity that presented by the leg of 
the Ostrich, and as yet unsolved by anatomists. 

During the month of March last I was furnished with a 
young Crocodile from Egypt, by Mr. Thomas Moore, of Liver- 
pool, to whom I had communicated my earnest desire to have 
an opportunity of dissecting such an animal ; and the results of 
my examination fully bear out the anticipation of Prof. Gratiolet, 
and also furnish a complete confirmation of the principles I 
made use of in my theory of the leg of the Ostrich. 

The interlacing of tendons in the hind leg of the Crocodile 
is very remarkable, and more complex than in the Ostrich, 
although in one respect it somewhat resembles it. 

* The incalculable loss that science has sustained, in the early part of 
the present year, by the premature death of this distinguished anatomist 
is exceeded by the loss experienced by his friends, to whom his genial 
social qualities endeared him even more than his brilliant scientific attain- 
ments. 1 extract from the ' Journal des Debats ' of the 19th of February 
1865 the following just tribute to his memory : — 

" Les sciences vienneut de faire une perte aussi cruelle qu'imprevue : 
M. Gratiolet, professeur de zoologie a la Faculte des Sciences de Paris, a 
succombe hier matin a une attaque d'apoplexie. 

" M. Gratiolet n'avait pas cinquante ans ; avant hier, encore plein de vie 
ct de sante, il travaillait a son laboratoire du Museum d'Histoire Natu- 
relle, lorsque, a deux heures, frappe d'une congestion subite, il dut etre 
ramene a son domicile ; quelques heures plus tard, il avait perdu connais- 
sance ; hier matin a qnatre heures, il rendait le dernier soupir. 

" Nous ne saurions peindre l'emotion profonde qu'a causee dans le 
monde scientifique l'annonce de cette mort prematuree. M. Gratiolet 
etait aime de tous ; son affabilite, la droiture de son caractere, lui avaieut 
concilie toutes les sympathies. Ses travaux d'anatomie comparee, ses re- 
cherches sur le systeme nerveux et sur le ceiveau, etc., l'avaieut mis au 
nombre des naturidistes les plus distingm's de notrc pays; sou merveilleux 
talent d'elocution l'avait place au premier rang parmi nos professeurs les 
plus rcnoinmcs, et l'aptitude de son esprit pour les etudes metaphysiques 
avait imprimc a ses ceuvres un caractere d'originalite' qu'appreciaient les 
philoso])hes aussi bien que les savans. 

" La mort est venue le frapper au moment oil, apres de longues annees 
de lutte, il semblait sur le point de recueillir le fruit de ses laborieux 

of the Ley of the Crocodile. 327 

On removing the skin and dissecting away the fat, the mus- 
cles shown in PI. XVI. fig. A are exposed. 

1. M. gluteus maximus (b). Origin: from central half of 
the ilio-ischiadic line. Insertion : into the fascia outside and 
above the knee-joint. This is a broad flat muscle, and straps 
down the tendon of the rectus femoris in its passage over the 
knee. 015 oz. 

2. M. rectus femoris (a). Origin: from anterior spine of 
ilium, close to the acetabulum. Insertion: as in leg of Ostrich, 
into a tendon passing over the knee, outwards, and terminating 
in a remarkable muscle* (x) in the calf of the leg, associated 
with the. gastrocnemius (u), and deriving a second origin from 
the agitator caudse (c), as shown in the figure. 008 oz. 

3. M. agitator caudae (c). Origin: from the ischiadic line, 
behind the glutseus maximus. Insertion : by a double tendon. 
(1) One tendon passes through a pulley on the outside of the 
knee, formed by the tendon of the biceps (rf) as it passes to its 
fibular insertion, and is inserted in the head of the muscle (x) 
in the calf of the leg. (2) The second insertion is by means 
of a tendon that goes to the top and front of the tibia ; this 
second tendon also serves to strap down the tendon of the rectus 
femoris {a). 0*03 oz. 

4. M. biceps femoris (d). Origin: from the ilio-ischium, 
under and behind the origin of the glutseus maximus. Inser- 
tion : partly into the top of the fibula, forming a pulley for the 
agitator caudse (c), and an additional strap for the rectus fe- 
moris (a), and partly, by means of another tendon, into the 
head of the peronaeus longus (y). - 05 oz. 

5. M. semitendinosus (e). Origin: from the posterior point 
of the tuber ischii. Insertion : by a remarkable looped tendon 
having one end inserted into the back of lower end of femur, 
and the other end into the os calcis. 0'18 oz. 

6. M. semimembranosus (/). Origin: tuber ischii. Inser- 
tion : into the top of the tibia, by a tendon common to this 
muscle and the gracilis. - ll oz. 

The muscles of the calf, shown in the figure, are the follow- 
ing :— 

7. M. gastrocnemius (u). This muscle, as usual, has an outer 
and inner head. 0'14 oz. Outer head: — Origin : from the tendon 
of the great caudal extensor of the thigh, half an inch from its 
insertion into the outer condyle. Insertion : into the under side 
of the outer tarsal bone (vide a, fig. B) and into the plantar 
fascia. 0*11 oz. Inner head: — Origin: from the top of fibula 
and inner condyle of femur. Insertion : by a tendon, which 
unites with that of the outer head before reaching the os calcis, 

* This muscle may be the plantaris. 

328 llev. S. Haughton on the Muscular Anatomy 

under which it passes to be inserted into the outer and under 
side of the outer tarsal bone. O03 oz. 

8. M. plantaris ? (a?). Origin, double: from rectus femoris 
and from agitator caudse. Insertion : having become partially 
blended with the outer gastrocnemius, it is inserted into the os 
*alcis and under surface of the plantar fascia. 0*04 oz. 

9. M. peronseus longus (y). Origin: from the shaft of the 
fibula and from the tendon of the biceps femoris [d). Insertion: 
into the outer tarsal bone, uniting with the tendon of the 
gastrocnemius. 0*03 oz. 

10. Mm. tibialis anticus and extensor digitorum communis. 
Insertion : into the tarsal ends of first, second, and third meta- 
tarsal bones. 0*11. 

The interlacing of muscles in the thigh and leg of the Croco- 
dile, just described, is very remarkable, and more complicated 
even than that found in the Ostrich ; and at first I was dis- 
posed to think that it threw some doubt on the explanation I 
had given previously of the reason for such an arrangement in 
the bird's leg. In the case of the Ostrich, the necessity for 
strict simultaneity of action was made evident by the great force 
of the muscles employed, and the great delicacy of the bones on 
which they had to act. What could there be, in the case of the 
Crocodile, to correspond to such a peculiarity in the case of the 
Ostrich ? After some careful dissection, I found the ready 
answer to my question in the remarkable muscle which I shall 
now describe. 

On clearing away the superficial muscles of the thigh and 
tail, I found the enormous mass of muscle, figured at b, fig. 13, 
PL XVI., which acts as the chief and powerful extensor of the 
thigh : — 

11. M. extensor femoris caudalis* (b). Origin : from the 
transverse and inferior spinous processes of the caudal vertebrae, 
from the third to the fifteenth inclusive. Insertion : into the 
back of the upper part of the femur, and into a great round 

* This remarkable muscle is noticed and accurately described by Meckel 
in torn. iii. }). 152, 153 of his ' System der vergleichenden Anatomie,' Halle, 
J.828; but it is very strange that he transposes its origin and insertion, 
and seems not to have had any idea of its rial use. It is regarded from 
his point of view as a descriptive anatomist, and without the remotest 
reference to its final cause. He says, " Der zvveite, tiefere, vveit dickere 
Musk el ist von dem ersten [the superficial muscle of the tail] wie einer 
breiten Binde umgeben, entspringt mit zwei ganz getrennten ; einer weit 
kurzern, breiten Sehne oben von den hintein Fliiehe des Obcrschenkel- 
beines ; durch eine weit langere, sehlanke, unten zwischen den beiden 
Gelenkknorren desselben Knochens, und setzt sich an die ganze Seiten- 
fliiche der untcrn Dornen, so wie der Zwischendornenhaut und die untere 
Flache der Wurzeln der Querforts'atze." 

of the Leg of the Crocodile. 329 

tendon, which receives, in particular, the anterior fibres of this 
enormous muscle, and, passing down the back of the femur, is 
inserted by a strong common aponeurosis into the outer con- 
dyle of the femur and into the head of the fibula. This com- 
mon aponeurosis also gives a partial origin to the gastrocnemius 
(a, fig. B) and to the plantaris {x, fig. A). 1*81 oz. 

There are two muscles, accessory to this great caudal extensor 
in their action, which are as follows : — 

12. M. extensori femoris caudali accessorius. Origin : from 
the fascia covering the great caudal extensor, and by a tendinous 
head from the quadratus femoris, which is also an accessory to 
the great caudal. Insertion : into the looped tendon of the 
semimembranosus already described. 001 oz. 

13. M. quadratus femoris. Origin : posterior, superior, and 
inner surface of the pubis, near its symphysis. Insertion : into 
the back of the femur, with the action and position of the 
quadratus femoris in mammal quadrupeds, and into the tendon 
of the great caudal extensor. O05 oz. 

The effect of the interlacing of the tendons of the various 
muscles already described must be to produce simultaneity of 
action among them, such as I have already endeavoured to de- 
scribe in my account of the leg of the Ostrich ; and in the pre- 
sent instance of the Crocodile there seems to be a similar prin- 
ciple involved. The Crocodile, resting on mud, progresses 
chiefly by using his hind feet as paddles ; and in this use of 
them the great caudal extensor of the thigh is the most powerful 
and important muscle employed. And it seems to me that the 
simultaneity of action of all parts of the leg, rendered necessary 
by the employment of so powerful a muscle, is fully secured by 
the interlacing of the tendons I have described, which renders 
it impossible for one set of muscles to act without the others 
being also exerted. 

The remaining muscles of the posterior limb are as follows : — 

14. M. glutseus medius. Origin : from the central part of 
the ilio-ischiadic surface. Insertion : its tendon passes over the 
great trochanter, to be inserted into a line down the upper half 
of the outside of the femur, between the origins of the two por- 
tions of the vastus externus. 0*06 oz. 

15. M. glutseus minimus. Origin : from the anterior point 
of the ilium. Insertion : into the inner side of the knee, under 
the fascia of the rectus femoris. 0*02 oz. 

16. Mm. vastus interims, externus, et crurseus. The vastus 
externus consists of two distinct muscles, as in the Ostrich. 
0-22 oz. 

17. M. psoas. This large muscle takes an origin as high as 
the last rib, and is inserted into the lesser trochanter and the 

330 On the Muscular Anatomy of the Leg of the Crocodile. 

intertrochanteric line leading to the outer side of the femur. It 
lies outside the iliacus. 057 oz. 

18. M. iliacus. Origin : from the anterior transverse surface 
of the ilium, with a slip from the spine. Insertion : altogether 
into the lesser trochanter. Oil oz. 

19. M. sartorius. Origin : behind the origin of the rectus, 
on the inner side, at the junction of the ilium and marsupial 
bone. Insertion : into the fascia of the inner side of the thigh, 
for two-thirds of its length. 004 oz. 

20. M. gracilis takes an origin from two heads, one at the 
posterior point of the pubis and the other on the pectineal line. 
Insertion : into the head of the tibia by a tendon common to it 
with the semimembranosus. - 08 oz. 

21. M. pectinams. Origin: between the two heads of gra- 
cilis, from the central part of the surface of the pubis and from 
the pectineal line. Insertion : into the top of the linea aspera. 
0-06 oz. 

22. Mm. adductores. There are three adductor muscles: — 
1st adductor. Origin : anterior pectineal line of pubis. In- 
sertion : into the upper half of the linea aspera. 0'13 oz. 

2nd adductor. Origin : from posterior edge of pubis, its middle 
third. Insertion : into the middle of the linea aspera. 003 oz. 

3rd adductor. Origin : from the posterior edge of the pubis, 
close to the symphysis. Insertion : into the back of the top of 
the fibula, with a fascial union with the tendon of semitendi- 
nosus. 005 oz. 

23. M. obturator externus ? Origin: from the tuber ischii, 
the posterior edge of the ischium, and the obturator membrane. 
Insertion : an oblique line in the back of the femur, below the 
insertion of the quadratus femoris. - 13 oz. 

24. M. marsupialis externus. 0"07 oz. 

25. M. marsupialis internus. O'lO oz. 

These two muscles take their origin respectively from the 
outer surface of the marsupial bone, and from its inner surface 
and the last abdominal rib ; and they arc inserted by a common 
tendon into the top of the posterior intertrochanteric line. 
Their action is to rotate the femur directly inwards. 

20. M. flexor proprius hallucis. Origin : from the outer 
condyle of femur. Insertion: into the first, second, and third 
toes. 002 oz. 

27. M. flexor digitorum communis. Origin : from the fibula 
and tibia. Insertion: into the first, second, and third toes. 
0-05 oz. 

28. M. tibialis posticus. This muscle is inserted into the 
tarsal ends of the first, second, and third metatarsal bones. 
0-06 oz. 

Prof. G. Gulliver on Raphides and other Crystals in Plants. 331 

29. M. peronreo-calcaneus. Origin : from lower part of 
shaft of the fibula. Insertion : into the upper surface of the 
calcaneum. 001 oz. 

XXXVII. — Observations on Raphides and other Crystals in Plants. 
By George Gulliver, F.R.S. 

[Continued from p. 117-] 

Vitacea and Araliacece. — In the last communication (' Annals' 
for Aug. 1865) it was stated that raphides abound in all the 
plants, therein specified, which I had examined of the order 
Vitacea?, while every species of the allied or related orders, of 
which comparative examinations were made, proved to be devoid 
of this raphidian character. I have had an opportunity, through 
the courtesy of a botanical friend, of dissecting a dried fragment 
of the receptacle-stalk of that most curious plant, Pterisanthes 
(Vitis Pterisanthes, Mic, /3. borneensis), a bit of the dried leaf- 
blade and fruit-shell of Bersama abassynica, Fresen., and a part 
of the dried leaf and flower of Natalia lucens, Hochst. (Rhaganus 
lucens, E. Meyer). To the same genus, I have been told, Ber- 
sama abassynica is referred by Hooker and Bentham. 

Pterisanthes, like Vitis, Cissns, and Leea, abounds in true 
raphides and sphperaphides. The raphides of Pterisanthes are 
about T -^rth of an inch long and -nnhro thick; the average 
diameter of the sphperaphides is -^Vo-th of an inch. The Ber- 
sama and Natalia are destitute of true raphides, but contain 
numerous crystal-prisms, about -o-foth of an inch long and 
-n-rrVb-th thick. These may be well seen in the leaf and inner 
membrane of the fruit-shell of Bersama, and in the leaf, calyx, 
petals, and pedicel of Natalia. The prisms have four equal 
faces, and their ends slope off either from angle to angle or 
from face to face. 

Thus species of all the genera adopted by Lindley under the 
order Vitacese — Cissus, Vitis, Pterisanthes, Leea, and Rhaganus 
— have now been examined, though too often in imperfect or 
unsatisfactory fragments ; and in every one of these plants true 
raphides were found, except the Bersama and Natalia (Rhaganus), 
in which raphides are replaced by crystal-prisms. It may be 
recollected that a like phenomenon occurs in the last order 
(ltoxburghiacese) of the raphidian class Dictyogense, as described 
in the 'Annals' for June 18C5. 

Of Araliacese and Vitacese, the comparative structure in the 
leaves and some other parts has already been described ('Annals ' 
for August 1865). I have lately examined fresh leaves and twigs 
of Aralia spinosa, and a bit of a dried leaf-blade of A. racemosa. 

332 Prof. G. Gulliver on Raphides and other Crystals in Plants. 

These plants, like their congeners of the same order, abound in 
sphreraphides, but are destitute of raphides. Nothing of the 
kind can be more beautiful than the sphferaphid tissue ('Annals/ 
Sept. 1863), extending beneath the cuticle of the whole leaf and 
in the bark, of A. spinosa. These sphseraphides are about 
,-yLyth of an inch in diameter; they are somewhat larger in the 
bark, and larger still in the pith. 

" If," says Prof. Lindley, " the Vine is compared with Aralia 
racemosa, the relationship of Vitacese to it will be too obvious 
to be mistaken. Suppose that Aralia racemosa had an adherent 
calyx, erect ovules, with stamens opposite the petals, and it 
would be a Vitis." But now, while recognizing the similarity 
or identity of the spb.Eerapb.ides of Araliacese and Vitacese, we 
perceive that Aralia would require also the raphidian character 
to be a Vitis. This difference is so remarkable that it may be 
very easily and quickly seen by a comparison of the cells in the 
leaves and other parts of the species before named of Vitis and 
Aralia. Indeed the contrast in this respect between these plants 
forms a very pretty microscopic object, and for this purpose the 
leaves of Vitis apiifolia and Aralia spinosa answer admirably. 

Callece, Orontiea, and Acorea. — We have already seen, under 
the head of the raphidian order Aracese ('Annals/ May 1865, 
p. 381) how raphides could not be found in Acorus calamus. 
In a fragment of a dried leaf of Gymnostachys anceps I found a 
few raphides or raphis-like objects ; but this scarcely affects the 
fact of the deficiency of raphides in Acorese, and their profusion 
in the members of the two other tribes of Orontiacese — a re- 
markable difference, which may be well seen by a comparison of 
Calla, Monstera, Pothos, and Orontium with Acorus and Gym- 

Hcemodoreat, Conostylea, and Velloziea. — Besides the species 
formerly mentioned as affording numerous raphidian cells, my 
dissections of Haimodorum planifolium, Anigosanthus rufus, and 
A. humilis show a more or less abundance of raphides in all 
these plants. But Vellozia is probably devoid of raphides ; for 
I could not detect them either in the withered leaves or bark of 
an old dead trunk of this plant. Hence a comparative examina- 
tion of the cellular structure of the Conostyles of New Holland and 
the Vellozias, as well as of all the other species now placed by 
botanists under Hsemodoraccse, appears to be very needful and 
likely to increase our knowledge of the natural affinities of this 
curious order. After describing some analogy between the 
stems of Pandanus and Vellozia, Prof. Lindley judiciously says, 
"Don proposed to make an order of the Vellozias; but, till their 
structure and that of the Bloodroots shall have been thoroughly 
investigated, this step would be premature." 

Prof. F. M'Coy on the Cretaceous Deposits of Australia. 333 

Pandanacece. — This order, like all the rest of Lindley's Aral 
Alliance, abounds in raphides. Besides the plants noticed in 
the 'Annals' for May 1864, I have lately examined a leaf and 
the bark of Pandanus odoratissimus and the root and a leaf of 
Freycinetia imbricata. In the leaf of the former plant raphides 
swarm, and occur more or less plentifully in the mesophlceum, 
endophlceum, and alburnum ; of the latter plant raphides are 
very abundant in the root, but less so in the leaf. 

Thus, as far as these observations warrant the inference, 
Pterisanthes and Leea have the intimate structure of a Vitis, 
while the two species of Rhaganus (Bersama or Natalia) depart 
from that structure, but agree well together. Acorus and Gym- 
nostachys are deficient in the raphidian character of their allies ; 
and the Vellozise differ in like manner from Hsernodorese, Cono- 
stylese, Pandanese, and Cy clan these. 

Edenbridge, Oct. 14, 1865. 

XXXVIII. — Note on the Cretaceous Deposits of Australia. By 
Frederick M f Coy, Professor of Natural Science in the Uni- 
versity of Melbourne, and Director of the National Museum 
of Victoria. 

Messrs. D. Carson and J. Sutherland, of Collins Street, Mel- 
bourne, recently placed in my hands, for our public Museum, 
a series of specimens which they collected on the western bank 
of the Flinders River, at the base of Walker's Table Mountain, 
nearly in the middle of the continent, in lat. 21° 13' and 
long. 143° 25'. The examination of these enables me to an- 
nounce for the first time with certainty the existence of the 
Cretaceous formations in Australia. Mr. Gregory doubtfully 
indicated Cretaceous fossils in his last paper to the Geological 
Society, but without any generic or specific recognition of fos- 
sils of that age ; and his materials, when referred to by the officers 
of the Geological Society, were only quoted as Mesozoic. Mr. 
Selwyn also alluded formerly to a specimen of an Echinide in 
flint, given to him as found in gravel in sinking a well at 
Prahran, near Melbourne, having been identified by me as the 
European Cretaceous Conulus albogalerus ; and I had a flint 
Ananchyies ovatus of the same age, given to me as found at 
Richmond, near Melbourne also ; but both of those specimens 
were unsatisfactory, as far as the proof of their having really 
belonged to any Australian stratum. I can now, however, re- 
cognize the Lower Chalk ; and this nearly fills up the great 
series of marine Mesozoic formations supposed to be absent in 
Australia when I left Europe, but most of which I have recog- 

331 Mr. II. L. Stiiitli on a new Growing Slide for the Microscope. 

nized from fossil evidence. The most common of the fossils is 
a species of Inoccramus with coarsely fibrous shell, nearly ^ inch 
thick, agreeing in size and shape almost exactly with the English 
Inoceramus mytiloides (Sow.), from which it differs in having 
the hinge-line rather longer, the anterior end more pointed, and 
the superior posterior angle rather more obtuse. This species 
I have named, in a paper read recently before the Royal Society 
of Victoria, /. Carsoni (M'Coy), in honour of one of the donors. 
The second most common fossil is a much larger and broader 
species of the same genus, which I at the same time named 
Inoceramus Sutherlandi (M'Coy), after the other donor of the spe- 
cimens, which were so painfully carried, from the remote point 
indicated to the settled districts, on their saddle. This second 
species, in form, size, and concentric undulations of the surface, 
nearly agrees with the French and English common Cretaceous 
/. Cuvieri, but is less curved at the ventral margin near the beak. 
The next shell is an Ammonite, in size, number and involu- 
tion of whorls, shape, markings, and septa, so nearly identical 
with the very common A. Beudanti (13r.) of the French Lower 
Chalk, that, but for being slightly less compressed, and a slight 
difference in some of the septal lobes, it could scarcely be sepa- 
rated, even as a variety. I have named it Ammonites Flindersi 
(M'Coy), to call attention to the locality. It may be described 
as follows : — 

Ammonites Flindersi. 

Discoid, moderately compressed ; periphery narrow, obtusely 
rounded ; whorls <l\, about one-fourth of the width of each ex- 
posed in an obtusely angular-edged, flat-sided umbilicus ; sur- 
face crossed by obtuse sigmoid strise, some of which are more 
prominent than the more numerous intervening ones. Diameter 
6 inches, proportional thickness T VV> width of last whorl -rj&r- 
Seven much divided lobes in the septa of each side, two of which 
arc within the edge of the umbilicus. 

With these shells three vertebra of a large Teleosteous fish 

The matrix of these specimens is an olive calcarco-argillaceous 

XXXIX. — On a new Growing Slide for the Microscope. 
By H. L. Smith, Kenyon College, U.S.* 

In studying the growth and conjugation of the Diatomacese, I 

have felt the want of some means of keeping them alive for a 

long time Tinder the microscope, and have devised for this pur- 

* From Silliman's American Journal of Science, September 18G5. 

Mi*. II. L. Smith on a new Growing Slide for the Microscope. 335 

pose the slide to be described, which appears fully to meet all 
requisitions ; and, as it can be readily made by any tolerably 
expert microscopist, it will, I am certain, be considered a valu- 
able addition to microscopical apparatus. 

The whole slide, as I have constructed it, is a trifle more than 
jjth of an inch in thickness. It consists of two rectangular glass 
plates, 3x2 inches and about ir-,th. of an inch thick, separated 
by thin strips of glass of the same thickness, cemented to the 
interior opposed faces, as shown in the figure. 

This closed cell, ultimately destined to be filled with water, is 
not of such thickness as to prevent the use of the achromatic 
condenser — a very important requisite. The glass I use is such 
as is employed for the small cheap looking-glasses, and is easily 

The upper plate has a small hole (a) drilled through it. This 
is effected by means of the or- 
dinary writing-diamond and the 
sharp edge of a broken steel brooch 
or small rat-tail file. A hole can 
be drilled through glass of this 
thickness in a few minutes. Oue 
corner of the upper glass is re- 
moved, as at b, and a small strip 
of glass cemented at c serves to 
prevent the thin glass cover placed 
over the object from sliding. Another slip of glass is cemented 
on the lower side of the cell at d, but not extending as far as the 
removed part at b. The object of this is to prevent the water 
in the cell from being removed by capillary attraction, in case 
the slide in the neighbourhood of b should be a little wetted. 
This strip is not, however, absolutely necessary. 

To use the slide, fill the space between the two plates with 
clean water, introduced at b by means of a pipette, and also place 
a drop on a to remove the air. The object being put on the top 
of the slide and wetted, is now to be covered with a large square 
of thin glass, <?, at the same time covering the hole a. The 
slide can now be placed upright, or in any position, as no water 
can escape. It is, in fact, only a new application of the old 
principle of the bird-fountain. As the water evaporates from 
under the cover, more is supplied through the hole a, and from 
time to time an air-bubble enters at b ; thus a constant circula- 
tion is maintained. A cell of the size named will need replen- 
ishing only about once in three days, and this is readily effected 
without disturbing the object. I have been enabled to make 
observations by means of this slide which it would have been 
very difficult, if not impossible, to have made without it. 

33G Mr. J. Blackwall on new Species of Araneidea 

XL. — Descriptions of recently discovered Species, and Characters 
of a new Genus, of Araneidea from the East of Central Africa. 
By John Blackwall, F.L.S. 

The Spiders described in the following pages were captured in 
the region through which the river Shire flows to its confluence 
with the Zambesi, by Mr. Horace Waller, at the particular request 
of Mr. Richard Thornton, made shortly before he fell a victim 
to the climate of Africa. These specimens were comprised in a 
collection of Araneidea forwarded by the relatives of Mr. Thornton 
to my friend Mr. Meade, who transmitted it to me for the pur- 
pose of having its contents examined and descriptions made of 
such species as might appear to be new to arachnologists, being 
prevented himself from bestowing the requisite time on the 
undertaking, for which he is so well qualified, by his numerous 
professional engagements. 

The late Mr. R. Thornton accompanied Dr. Livingstone in his 
last expedition to South Africa, in the capacity of geologist ; and 
Mr. H. Waller held the appointment of lay superintendent of 
the mission to the Zambesi. 

Tribe Octonoculina. 

Family Lycosid^e. 

Genus Ctenus, Walck. 

Ctenus velox. 

Length of the female T Vths of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax \, breadth \ ; breadth of the abdomen ± ; length of a 
posterior leg l^V ; length of a leg of the third pair -fib 

The eyes are disposed on the anterior part of the cephalothorax 
in three transverse rows ; the two anterior ones, with the two 
intermediate ones of the four constituting the second row, de- 
scribe a trapezoid whose shortest side is before; and each of the 
two eyes forming the posterior row, with a lateral one of the 
second row, is seated on a tubercle ; the intermediate eyes of the 
second row are the largest, and the lateral ones, which are in a 
line with them, much the smallest of the eight. The cephalo- 
thorax is truncated in front, compressed before, and rounded on 
the sides, which are depressed and marked with furrows con- 
verging towards a narrow indentation in the medial line of the 
posterior region ; it is clothed with short, dull-yellowish hairs, 
and is of a reddish-brown colour, with narrow, dark-brown 
lateral margins, parallel to which a broad, rather obscure, yel- 
lowish-brown band, having its superior margin somewhat den- 
tated, extends along each side ; a narrow, pale red-brown band 
passes from between the posterior pair of eyes to its base, and 

from the East of Central Africa. 337 

comprises in its anterior part a fine dark-brown line that termi- 
nates at the medial indentation. The falces are powerful, coni- 
cal, vertical, armed with teeth on the inner surface, provided 
with long yellowish hairs, and have a dark-brown hue. The 
maxillse are long, straight, and truncated obliquely at the extre- 
mity on the inner side, which is fringed with reddish hairs ; 
and the lip is short, broad, and somewhat quadrate, but rounded 
on the sides. These parts are of a reddish-brown colour, the 
outer side of the maxilke and the base of the lip being much the 
darkest. The sternum, which has a broad oval form, is clothed 
with short greyish hairs, interspersed with long upright ones of 
a darker hue, and is of a pale red-brown colour. The legs are 
long, provided with hairs and sessile spines, and of a reddish- 
brown hue ; the fourth pair is the longest, then the first, and 
the third pair is the shortest ; the metatarsi and tarsi have hair- 
like papillae on their inferior surface, and the latter are termi- 
nated by two curved claws, pectinated at their base. The palpi 
are long, and resemble the legs in colour (with the exception of 
the base of the humeral joint, which has a brighter tinge of red), 
and have a short, curved, pectinated claw at their extremity. 
The abdomen is oviform, hairy, convex above, and projects a 
little over the base of the cephalothorax ; the upper part and 
sides are of a brown colour freckled with yellowish grey, and a 
broad dentated band of a yellower hue, bordered with black, 
extends along the middle of the former, and comprises a longi- 
tudinal yellow band in its anterior half; a broad, triangular, 
black mark, having its truncated apex directed backwards, and 
comprising within its base two oval white spots placed trans- 
versely, occurs on the under part ; it is bounded on each side 
by a bright orange-red band, and these bands converge to the 
spinners, where they meet; the sexual organs, which are highly 
developed, have a large process directed backwards from their 
anterior margin, and, with the branchial opercula, are of a dark 
reddish-brown hue, the latter being the paler. 

The specimen from which the description was made was the 
only one of the species in the collection. 

Ctenns vividus. 

Length of the female -A-Jths of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax -H-, breadth -^ ; breadth of the abdomen -fV '■> length of 
an anterior leg 1-^ ; length of a leg of the third pair 1-^. 

The disposition and relative size of the eyes of this species are 
similar to those of Ctenus velox. The legs are long, robust, 
provided with hairs and sessile spines, and of a yellowish-brown 
colour; the first pair is the longest, then the fourth, and the 
third pair is the shortest ; the metatarsi and tarsi have hair-like 

Ann. # Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. xvi. ' 23 

338 Mr. J. Blackwall on new Species of Arancidca 

papillre on their inferior surface, and the latter are terminated 
by two curved claws, pectinated at their base. The palpi are 
long, and resemble the legs in colour; and the digital joint, 
which is strongly tinged with brown, has a short, curved, pecti- 
nated claw at its extremity. The cephalothorax is truncated 
in front, compressed before, and rounded on the sides, which 
are depressed and marked with furrows converging towards a 
narrow indentation in the medial line of the posterior region ; it 
is clothed with hairs, and of a brown colour, with a broad yel- 
lowish-brown band (whose superior margin is somewhat dentated) 
extending along each side, and a narrow longitudinal one in the 
middle, which comprises a fine brown line in its anterior part. 
The falees are powerful, conical, vertical, and densely clothed 
with yellow hairs at the base in front ; the maxillae are straight, 
enlarged at the extremity, which is rounded on the outer side, 
and obliquely truncated on the inner side, where it is supplied 
with long hairs ; and the lip is short, broad, and somewhat 
quadrate, but rounded on the sides. These parts have a red- 
brown hue, the falees being much the darkest. The sternum 
has a broad oval form, with small eminences on the sides, oppo- 
site to the legs ; it is thinly clothed with long hairs, and of a 
dark-brown hue, with a faint tinge of yellow in the medial line. 
The abdomen is oviform, hairy, convex above, and projects a 
little over the base of the cephalothorax j it is of a dull pale- 
yellow colour, streaked and spotted with brown, the under part, 
which is the yellowest, being marked with the fewest and smallest 
spots ; a bi*oad, dentated, dull-yellow band, bordered with brown, 
and comprising a longitudinal row of irregular brown spots, ex- 
tends along the middle of the upper part, and on each side of it 
there is a series of brownish- black spots ; the sexual organs are 
moderately developed, with a large process directed backwards 
from their anterior margin, whose extremity is dilated; these 
organs, with the branchial opercula, are of a brownish-yellow 
colour, the latter being the paler. 

The collection contained six females of this species, five of 
which were immature. 

Genus Pasithea, Blackw. 
Pasithea pulchra. 

Length of the female -f-f.ths of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax -fV, breadth ^ 5 T ; breadth of the abdomen -pVj length of 
an anterior leg 1-^; length of a leg of the third pair 1^. 

The eyes are unequal in size, and disposed in three transverse 
rows on the anterior part of the cephalothorax, high above its 
frontal margin; the four posterior ones form a curved row 

from the East of Central Africa. 339 

whose convexity is directed backwards, and the other four de- 
scribe a trapezoid whose shortest side is before ; the posterior 
eyes of the trapezoid are seated on tubercles, and are the largest, 
and the anterior ones, which are near to each other, are much 
the smallest of the eight ; the entire group describes a sector of 
a circle, whose radii converge towards the frontal margin. The 
cephalothorax is convex, glossy, compressed before, vertical in 
front, rounded on the sides, which are marked with slight fur- 
rows converging towards an indentation in the medial line of 
the posterior region, and has a few black bristles behind and 
before the eyes; it is of a yellow-brown colour, with a broad, 
angular, pale-yellowish mark on the posterior part of the ce- 
phalic region, whose vertex extends to the medial indentation, 
and has a small red spot on each side, towards its termination ; 
this angle is bisected by a faint line of the same hue, which 
originates at the intermediate eyes of the posterior row; the 
space comprised between the large posterior eyes of the trapezoid 
and those of the posterior row is of a dark-brown colour; a red- 
brown line extends from each minute anterior eye to the frontal 
margin, and there is a parallel one of the same hue on each of 
its external angles. The falces are long, powerful, subcorneal, 
and vertical ; they are of a dull-yellow colour, with longitudinal 
lines of a red-brown hue, corresponding to those in front of the 
cephalothorax, the exterior ones being the shortest. The maxillae 
are long, convex near the base, which is curved towards the lip, 
but straight and pointed at the extremity ; the lip is much 
shorter than the maxilla?, somewhat triangular, and hollowed at 
the apex ; and the sternum is heart-shaped, with a few black 
bristles distributed over its surface. These parts are of a pale- 
yellowish colour tinged with green, the sternum being the palest. 
The legs are very long, slender, provided with hairs and long 
spines, and are of a yellow colour, spotted with brownish black, 
a longitudinal red line, of greater or less extent, occurring on 
the inferior surface of the femora ; the first pair is the longest, 
then the second, and the third pair is the shortest ; each tarsus 
is terminated by three claws ; the two superior ones are curved 
and pectinated, and the inferior one is inflected near its base. 
The palpi resemble the legs in colour, but are without any red 
line on their inferior surface, and have a curved pectinated claw 
at their extremity. The abdomen is of an oblong-oviform figure, 
somewhat pointed at the spinners, convex above, and projects a 
little over the base of the cephalothorax ; it is sparingly supplied 
with hairs, and of a pale-yellow colour, finely reticulated with 
dull green ; a yellow band, streaked and freckled with red, and 
strongly dentated on its inner margin, extends from the anterior 
extremity of the upper part along each side of the medial line 


340 Mr. J. Blackwall on new Species of Araneidea 

to the spinners, where the two meet ; and in the anterior part 
of the space comprised between the two bands there is a short 
longitudinal one, of a dark dull-greenish colour, which is 
rather irregular in outline, ramified at its posterior extremity, 
and has a short transverse bar of the same hue near its anterior 
extremity ; a somewhat obscure yellow band extends along each 
side of the medial line of the under part, and two nearly parallel, 
irregular, fine, black lines pass from the sexual organs halfway 
towards the spinners; the sexual organs are highly developed, 
with a strong septum in the middle, and are of a very dark 
greenish colour, tinged with red, that of the spinners being pale 

Two adult females were comprised in the collection, one of 
which had deposited its ova. 

It is proposed to transfer the Spiders of the genus Pasithea 
from the family Thomisida, in which they were originally placed, 
to that of the Lycosidce, as, by the disposition of their eyes and 
the structure of their legs, they evidently possess a relation of 
affinity to certain species of the genus Sphasus. 

Family Thomisida. 

Genus Selenops, Dufour. 

Selenops alacer. 

Length of the female fths of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax -fa, breadth -fa ; breadth of the abdomen ^ ; length of 
a leg of the third pair \-fa-, length of a leg of the first pair 1. 

The eyes are disposed on the anterior part of the cephalo- 
thorax ; four, nearly equal in size, form, immediately above the 
frontal margin, a slightly curved transverse row, whose convexity 
is directed forwards; the eyes of each lateral pair are seated 
obliquely on a tubercle apart, the two anterior ones, which are 
oval and the smallest and lightest-coloured, being situated a 
little in advance of the lateral eyes of the transverse row ; and 
this row, if extended, would include in its curve the two posterior 
eyes, which are the largest of the eight. The cephalothorax is 
large, depressed, compressed before, slightly rounded in front, 
and greatly so on the sides, which are strongly marked with 
furrows converging towards an oblong indentation in the medial 
line of the posterior region ; it is of a red-brown colour, and is 
supplied with hoary hairs having a yellowish tint. The falces 
are short, powerful, conical, very convex in front, vertical, and 
armed with a few teeth on the inner surface ; the maxilla? are 
straight, and increase in breadth towards the extremity, which 
is obliquely truncated on the inner side; and the lip is semi- 
circular. These parts are of a dark-brown colour, tinged with 

from the East of Central Africa. 341 

red ; the falces are the darkest, and the extremity of the maxillae 
and apex of the lip have a brownish-yellow hue. The sternum 
is nearly circular ; the legs are long, robust, and provided with 
hairs and spines ; their relative length could not be ascertained, 
as the second pair was missing ; but the third pair is a little 
longer than the fourth, which somewhat surpasses the first pair; 
each tarsus is terminated by two plain, curved claws, and below 
them there is a scopula; the palpi are short, and the digital 
joint, which is provided with spines, has a curved, minutely 
pectinated claw at its extremity. These parts are of a red-brown 
colour ; the sternum is the palest, and the metatarsal joint of 
the legs and the digital joint of the palpi are the darkest-coloured. 
The abdomen is of a depressed oviform figure, and the anterior 
extremity, which is fringed with fine bristles, and has the ap- 
pearance of having been cut directly across, projects very little 
over the base of the cephalothorax ; it is clothed with hoary 
hairs having a yellowish tint, and is of a dull brownish-yellow 
colour, obscurely freckled with brown, particularly on the upper 
part and sides ; the sexual organs are moderately developed, 
and have a triangular reddish-brown process connected with 
each lateral margin, whose vertices nearly meet, a small semi- 
circular one of the same hue directed forwards from the posterior 
margin, and a larger semicircular process of a reddish-yellow 
colour, directed backwards from the anterior margin. 

The collection contained two adult females of this species. 

Family Theridiid^e. 

Genus Latrodectus, Walck. 

Latroolectus ductus. 

Length of the female f-ths of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax J-, breadth -^; breadth of the abdomen -i; length of an 
anterior leg £ ; length of a leg of the third pair ■£-. 

The abdomen is very convex above, thinly clothed with hairs, 
and projects over the base of the cephalothorax; it is of a 
brownish-black colour, with an oblong mark extending upwards 
from the spinners, and three curved transverse bands of a deep 
orange-colour on the upper part; the first of these bands is the 
shortest, and is situated in front, the second is longer, and the 
third, which is much the longest, and curved very obliquely, 
increases in breadth towards its extremities, whose pointed ter- 
mination is in contact with the posterior extremity of the oblong 
orange-coloured mark above the spinners ; the sexual organs are 
well developed, and of a dark-brown hue, tinged with red, that 
of the branchial opercula being red-brown. Immature females 
are of a pale-yellow hue where adults are orange-coloured. The 

342 Mr. J. Blackvvall on new Species of Araneidea 

eyes are disposed on the anterior part of the cephalothorax, high 
above the frontal margin, in two transverse, nearly straight 
rows ; the four intermediate ones almost form a square, the two 
anterior ones, which are seated on a prominence, being rather 
nearer to each other than the two posterior ones ; the lateral 
eyes of both rows are the largest, and each is placed on a tubercle. 
The cephalothorax is oval, somewhat convex, hairy, and has a 
large indentation in the medial line of the posterior region ; the 
maxilla? are short, obliquely truncated at the extremity, on the 
outer side, and inclined towards the lip, which is broad and 
semicircular ; the sternum is heart-shaped ; the legs are robust 
and hairy ; the first pair is the longest, then the fourth, and the 
third pair is the shortest ; each tarsus is terminated by three 
claws ; the two superior ones are curved and pectinated, and the 
inferior one is inflected near its base ; the palpi are moderately 
long, and have a curved, pectinated claw at their extremity. 
These parts are of a dark-brown colour, the extremity of the 
maxilla? having a yellowish-brown tint. The falces are conical, 
vertical, and of a red-brown hue. 

An adult and an immature female of this Latrodectus were 
comprised in the collection. 

Family Epeirid^e. 

Genus Epeira, Walck. 

Epe'ira vigilans. 

Length of the female -firths °f an mcn '■> length of the cephalo- 
thorax \, breadth \ ; breadth of the abdomen -f ; length of an 
anterior leg -f§- ; length of a leg of the third pair -fa. 

The cephalothorax is convex, compressed before, rounded in 
front and on the sides, with an indentation in the medial line of 
the posterior region ; it is thinly clothed with yellowish-grey 
hairs, and is of a red-brown colour, the sides being much the 
darkest. The falces are powerful, conical, vertical, and armed 
with teeth on the inner surface ; the maxilla? are short, straight, 
and enlarged and rounded at the extremity ; and the lip is semi- 
circular, but somewhat pointed at the apex. These parts are of 
a pale red-brown colour, the extremity of the maxilla? and the 
apex of the lip having a pale-yellow hue. The sternum is heart- 
shaped, with small eminences on the sides, opposite to the legs, 
and is of a dull-yellow colour, tinged with brown on the lateral 
margins. The eyes are disposed on the anterior part of the 
cephalothorax in two transverse rows; the four intermediate ones 
are seated on a protuberance, and describe a trapezoid, the two 
anterior ones, which are the largest of the eight, being wider 
apart than the posterior ones ; the eyes of each lateral pair are 

from the East of Central Africa. 343 

placed obliquely on a small tubercle, and are near to eacli other, 
but not in contact. The legs are long, provided with hairs and 
spines, and of a red-brown colour, strongly tinged with brown 
at the extremity of the joints ; the first pair is the longest, then 
the second, and the third pair is the shortest ; the tarsi are ter- 
minated by claws of the usual number and structure. The palpi 
are of a red-brown hue, and have a curved, pectinated claw at 
their extremity. The abdomen is of a depressed oviform figure, 
and projects over the base of the cephalothorax ; it is thinly 
clothed with short pale hairs, and of a dull-yellow colour, with 
a large oval brown mark on each side of its anterior extremity ; 
a triangular brown spot, whose vertex extends between the two 
oval marks, occurs in the medial line of the upper part, and 
comprises three pairs of short oblique black streaks ; this tri- 
angular spot, which has a strongly marked streak of the same 
hue directed obliquely outwards and backwards from each side, 
is followed by a large, pale-brown, leaf-shaped mark that tapers 
to the spinners, and has its sinuous margins bordered by a fine 
black line whose continuity is much interrupted ; the middle of 
this mark is occupied by a longitudinal, taper, yellow band, 
crossed by lines of the same hue, and comprising some short 
black streaks in its anterior part, and several fine, long, brown 
lines in its posterior part ; two depressed dark-brown spots, 
situated on each side of the medial line, nearly form a square, 
the two posterior ones being larger and rather wider apart than 
the anterior ones ; the sides are marked transversely with nu- 
merous fine brown lines, most of which meet at their superior 
extremities ; the under part has longitudinal brown streaks on 
its sides, and a large dark-brown mark in the middle, whose 
contracted extremity extends to the spinners ; it has an obscure 
yellowish hue in the medial line, and is bordered anteriorly and 
laterally with yellow, two spots of the same hue occurring on 
each side of the brown spinners ; the sexual organs, which are 
not highly developed, have a long process directed backwards 
from their anterior margin, whose surface is concave and extre- 
mity rounded; they are of a red-brown colour, that of the 
branchial opercula being yellowish-brown. 

Three adult females of Epe'ira vigilans were included in the 

Genus Nephila, Leach. 
Nephila Keyserlingii. 

Length of the female 1-f^ inch; length of the cephalo- 
thorax W, breadth -^ ; breadth of the abdomen \ ; length of 
an anterior leg 2^-; length of a leg of the third pair 1^-. 

The eyes are disposed on the anterior part of the cephalo- 

344 Mr. J. Blackwall on new Species of Araneiclea 

thorax in two transverse rows ; the four intermediate ones 
nearly form a square, the two anterior ones, which are seated 
on a protuberance, and are rather nearer to each other than the 
two posterior ones, being the largest of the eight ; the eyes of 
each lateral pair are placed obliquely on a prominent tubercle, 
and are separated by a considerable interval. The cephalo- 
thorax is long, somewhat convex, particularly in the cephalic 
region, truncated in front, compressed before, moderately rounded 
on the sides, which are marked with furrows converging towards 
a transverse pair of indentations in the medial line of the poste- 
rior region, and has two conical glossy eminences placed trans- 
versely near its middle ; it is of a dark-brown colour, which is 
almost concealed by a covering of short, adpressed, white hairs 
having a silvery lustre. The falces are powerful, conical, ver- 
tical, glossy, convex at the base, in front, and armed with teeth 
on the inner surface; the maxilla? are short, strong, and greatly 
enlarged and rounded at the extremity ; and the lip is somewhat 
oval. These parts are of a very dark brown colour, the extremity 
of the maxill?e, the apex of the lip, and a line extending along 
the middle of the latter having a dull-yellow hue. The sternum 
is heart-shaped and glossy, with prominences on the sides, and 
a somewhat pointed one opposite to the base of the lip ; it is of 
a bright yellow colour, with a large, irregular, transverse dark- 
brown mark in the middle, and narrow lateral margins of a 
similar hue. The legs are very long, slender, provided with fine 
spines and hairs, the latter being the longest and densest on the 
inferior surface and sides of the tibia? of all the legs except those 
of the third pair; they are of a yellow colour; a broad annulus 
near the middle and a narrow one at the extremity of the femora, 
the genua, the base, and a broad annulus near the middle of the 
tibia? of the first and second pairs, the extremity of the femora, 
the genua and tibiae of the third pair, and the extremity of the 
femora, the genua, and about two-thirds of the tibia? from the 
base of the fourth pair, with the metatarsi and tarsi of all the 
legs, have a dark-brown hue ; the first pair is the longest, then 
the second, and the third pair is the shortest ; the tarsi are ter- 
minated by claws of the usual number and structure. The palpi 
are short, and of a yellow colour, the digital joint, which has a 
curved, slightly pectinated claw at its extremity, being strongly 
tinged with brown. The abdomen is subcylindrical, projecting 
over the base of the cephalothorax, and is broader at the anterior 
than at the posterior extremity, which is rounded and extends 
beyond the spinners ; it is thinly clothed with short hoary hairs 
on the upper part and sides, and is of an olive-brown colour, the 
under part being the darkest ; a broad, yellow, transverse band 
near the anterior extremity passes along the upper part of each 

from the East of Central Africa. 345 

side to the posterior extremity, its posterior half being irregular 
in outline, particularly on its superior margin ; four large yellow- 
spots are disposed longitudinally in the medial line, and a series 
of four small, depressed, brown spots occurs on each side of it ; 
several fine brown lines extend along the middle, which are most 
conspicuous on the yellow spots ; a yellow band, whose posterior 
half is broken into spots and streaks, some of which are covered 
with white hairs, passes along the lower part of each side to the 
spinners, and above those organs there are six small yellow spots 
disposed in pairs ; on the under part a yellow, curved, transverse 
band passes immediately below the sexual organs, and midway 
between those organs and the spinners there is an irregular 
transverse band of the same hue; the sexual organs are well 
developed and prominent, the anterior margin being oval, and 
the posterior one somewhat triangular; these organs, with the 
spinners and branchial opercula, have a dark-brown hue, that 
of the inner margin of the opercula being pale-yellow. 

The collection contained four females of this large and hand- 
some species of Nephila, with which I have connected the name 
of M. Keyserling, whose researches in this department of arach- 
nology have contributed greatly to extend our knowledge of the 

Nephila venusta. 

Length of the female ^ths of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax -^, breadth -^V; breadth of the abdomen -^ ; length of 
an anterior leg If ; length of a leg of the third pair i. 

The legs are long, slender, provided with fine spines and hairs, 
the latter being the longest and most abundant on the tibise and 
base of the metatarsi of the first, second, and fourth pairs ; they 
are of a reddish-brown colour, the metatarsi and tarsi being the 
darkest ; the first pair is the longest, then the second, and the 
third pair is the shortest; the tarsi are terminated by claws of 
the usual number and structure. The palpi are short, and paler 
than the legs, the extremity of the radial and the whole of the 
digital joint being strongly tinged with brown ; the latter is 
supplied with long hairs and spines, and has a curved, slightly 
pectinated claw at its extremity. The eyes are disposed on the 
anterior part of the cephalothorax in two transverse rows ; the 
four intermediate ones nearly form a square, the two anterior 
ones, which are seated on a protuberance, and are rather nearer 
to each other than the two posterior ones, being the largest of 
the eight ; the eyes of each lateral pair are placed obliquely on 
a prominent tubercle, and are separated by a considerable in- 
terval. The cephalothorax is long, somewhat convex, particu- 
larly in the cephalic region, truncated in front, compressed be- 
fore, moderately rounded on the sides, which are marked with 

346 Mr. J. Blackvvall on new Species of Araneidea 

furrows converging towards a transverse pair of indentations in 
the medial line of the posterior region, and has two small, coni- 
cal, glossy eminences placed transversely near its middle, and 
numerous very minute ones on its lateral margins ; it is of a 
very dark brown colour, which is almost concealed by a covering 
of short, adpressed white hairs having a silvery lustre. The falces 
are powerful, conical, vertical, glossy, and armed with teeth on 
the inner surface ; the maxillae are short, strong, and greatly 
enlarged and rounded at the extremity ; and the lip is somewhat 
oval. These parts are of a dark-brown colour, the falces being 
much the darkest; the maxillae have a yellow-brown hue at their 
extremity, on the inner surface, and the lip is marked with a 
longitudinal yellow band, which is contracted in the middle. 
The sternum is heart-shaped and glossy, with prominences on 
the sides and a pointed one opposite to the base of the lip ; it is 
of a bright-yellow colour. The abdomen is subcylindrical, pro- 
jecting over the base of the cephalothorax, and its posterior ex- 
tremity, which is rounded, extends a little beyond the spinners ; 
it is of a yellow-brown colour, reticulated and spotted with pale 
dull-yellow on the upper part and sides, the anterior extremity 
being the yellowest ; many of the spots, which vary in size and 
form, are covered with white hairs having a silvery lustre; a 
series of three depressed spots occurs on each side of the medial 
line, and on its posterior half four fine lines are disposed longi- 
tudinally ; these spots and lines have a brown hue, and two 
large irregular spots of a darker brown are situated on the lower 
part of each side ; the under part is of an olive-brown colour, 
with four slightly curved, pale-yellow lines, which describe a 
quadrilateral figure in the middle ; the spinners and the branchial 
opercula are of a brown colour, the inner margin of the latter 
having a dull-yellow hue; the sexual organs are well developed, 
with a longitudinal septum in the middle, and the anterior mar- 
gin presents two prominent, glossy convexities; their colour is 
dark-brown tinged with red. 

Two adult females of Nephila venusta were included in the 

Genus Argyopes, Savigny. 
Argyopes caudatus. 
Length of the female l t \ inch ; length of the cephalothorax f, 
breadth } ; breadth of the abdomen -^ ; length of an anterior 
leg 2; length of a leg of the third pair 1-pL. 

The abdomen is large, and of a depressed oviform figure ; its 
anterior extremity, which has the appearance of having been 
cut directly across, projects over the base of the cephalothorax, 
and its posterior extremity extends greatly beyond the spinners; 

from the East of Central Africa. 347 

three strong conical prominences project from each side; and it 
is terminated by a membranous caudal appendage, with a minute 
conical prominence on each side of its base ; the upper part is 
clothed with hoary hairs, and is of a yellow colour, with a broad, 
semilunar, brown mark at its anterior extremity, whose convexity 
is directed upwards ; to this mark succeed five transverse bands 
of a darker hue, whose margins are very irregular, the first and 
last having their continuity interrupted in the middle; there is 
a series of four depressed brown spots on each side of the medial 
line, and four fine lines of a similar hue are disposed longitudi- 
nally on the posterior part ; the colour of the caudal appendage 
is brown, and above it there is an oblong yellow spot ; the sides 
and under part have a brown hue; the former are corrugated 
and marked with brownish-yellow spots and streaks, which are 
almost concealed by hoary hairs, and the yellow lateral tubercles 
are marked transversely with brown in the middle ; a series of 
large, irregular, yellow spots extends along each side of the me- 
dial line of the under part, and minute spots of a similar hue 
occur in the interval between the two; the sexual organs, which 
are moderately developed, have a long, pale reddish-brown pro- 
cess in connexion with their anterior margin that is directed 
backwards, and their predominant colour, with that of the 
branchial opercula, is dark-brown faintly tinged with red, the 
latter being the paler. The eyes are disposed on the anterior 
part of the cephalothorax in two transverse rows ; the four in- 
termediate ones nearly form a square, the two anterior ones, 
which are seated on a small protuberance, being the largest of 
the eight ; the eyes of each lateral pair are placed obliquely on 
a tubercle, and are near to each other, but not in contact, the 
anterior ones being much the smallest. The cephalothorax is 
compressed before, rounded in front and on the sides, slightly 
convex, with a broad, shallow indentation in the medial line of 
the posterior region ; it is of a dark-brown colour, with a broad 
pale reddish-brown band extending from the front to the medial 
indentation, and brownish-yellow lateral margins ; these colours 
are concealed, except at the base, by a dense covering of white 
adpressed hairs. The falces are powerful, conical, vertical, armed 
with teeth on the inner surface, and of a red -brown colour. 
The maxilla? are short, strong, and greatly enlarged and rounded 
at the extremity ; the lip is semicircular, but somewhat pointed 
at the apex ; and the sternum is heart-shaped, hairy, and has 
eminences on the sides opposite to the legs. These parts are of 
a dark-brown colour; the extremity of the maxillae and the 
apex of the lip have a brownish-yellow hue; and a band extend- 
ing along the middle of the sternum, from each side of which a 
streak is directed obliquely backwards and outwards, and two 

318 Mr. J. Blackvvall on new Species of Araneidea 

minute spots on each side of its auterior part are of a yellow 
colour. The legs are long, provided with hairs and spines, and 
are of a dark-brown colour, the inferior surface of the coxse and 
of the femora, especially at their base, being strongly tinged 
with dull-yellow ; the first pair is the longest, then the second, 
and the third pair is the shortest ; the tarsi are terminated by 
claws of the usual number and structure. The palpi are of a 
dull-yellow colour, the digital joint (which is supplied with spines 
and terminated by a curved, pectinated claw) being tinged with 
brown at its extremity. 

The collection contained four adult females of this species. 

Genus Eurysoma, Koch. 
Eurysoma Thorntoni. 

Length of the female -i-f- ths of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax -fy, breadth J-; breadth of the abdomen -^j length of a 
posterior leg •£■ ; length of a leg of the third pair ^. 

The eyes are situated near the frontal margin of the cephalo- 
thorax ; the four intermediate ones are seated on a protuberance 
and form a square, the two anterior ones being the largest and 
darkest-coloured of the eight ; the eyes of each lateral pair are 
placed a little apart on a tubercle, and are distant from the four 
intermediate ones. The cephalothorax is convex, glossy, de- 
pressed towards the extremities, compressed before, broadly 
truncated in front, rounded on the sides, which are marked with 
furrows converging towards an indentation in the medial line of 
the posterior region, and is of a yellow-red colour. The falces 
are short, powerful, conical, armed with teeth on the inner sur- 
face, inclined towards the sternum, and of a brown colour, faintly 
tinged with red. The maxillae are straight, and enlarged and 
rounded at the extremity; the lip is semicircular; and the ster- 
num is heart-shaped, with eminences on the sides, opposite to 
the legs. These parts are of a yellow colour, the maxillae and 
lip having a tinge of brown. The legs are short, provided with 
hairs, and are of a dark-brown colour, with the exception of the 
coxse and about two- thirds of the femora from the base, which 
have a yellow hue ; the fourth pair is the longest, then the first, 
and the third pair is the shortest ; the tarsi are terminated by 
claws of the usual number and structure. The palpi, which are 
short, resemble the legs in colour, and have a curved, pectinated 
claw at their extremity. The abdomen is nearly circular, rather 
broader than long, without spines, glossy, moderately convex 
above, and projects greatly over the base of the cephalothorax ; 
the upper part is of a deep-black hue, marked with numerous 
circular depressions, and with twenty-two bright-yellow spots, 

from the East of Central Africa. 349 

of various shapes and sizes ; sixteen occur on the margins, two 
in the medial line, and two on each side ; the two smallest are 
situated on the frontal margin, and between them there are two 
others of an oval form ; these latter spots are followed by a cir- 
cular one in the medial line, to which succeeds a large one of 
an oblong heart-shape, veined with pale-brown; the anterior 
spot on the side is large and reniform, and the posterior spot is 
connected with a marginal one ; the under part is much corru- 
gated, and of a brownish-black colour, that of the spinners, 
which are encircled by a rim, being dark-brown ; a large semi- 
circular band behind the spinners, and the space surrounding 
the pedicle by which the cephalothorax is attached to the abdo- 
men, including the branchial opercula, are of a yellow hue, with 
transverse, forked, soot-coloured lines; the sexual organs are 
moderately developed, and of a dark-brown colour, tinged with 
red, that of the anterior margin, which is semicircular and rather 
prominent, being brownish-yellow. 

This elegantly marked Eurysoma, two specimens of which 
were comprised in the collection, is dedicated to the memory of 
of the late Richard Thornton, Esq., whose premature death, 
deeply deplored by his friends, has removed from his sphere of 
usefulness here an intelligent and zealous votary of natural 

Eurysoma Walleri. 

Length of the female -i-rths of an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax -^j-, breadth -fa; breadth of the abdomen -±-f ; length of 
a posterior leg 44 > length of a leg of the third pair ■£?. 

The cephalothorax is convex, depressed towards the extremi- 
ties, glossy, compressed before, broadly truncated in front, 
rounded on the sides, which are marked with slight furrows con- 
verging towards an indentation in the medial line of the poste- 
rior region, and is of a brownish-yellow colour. The falces are 
short, powerful, conical, armed with teeth on the inner surface, 
inclined towards the sternum, and of a brown hue, tinged with 
yellow on the sides and at the base. The maxillae are straight, 
and enlarged and rounded at the extremity; the lip is semi- 
circular ; and the sternum is heart-shaped, with eminences on 
the sides, opposite to the legs. These parts have a yellow hue, 
the maxilla? and lip being tinged with brown. The eyes are 
situated near the frontal margin of the cephalothorax; the four 
intermediate ones are seated on a protuberance, and form a 
square, the two anterior ones being the largest and darkest- 
coloured of the eight ; the eyes of each lateral pair are placed 
apart on a tubercle, and are distant from the four intermediate 
ones. The legs are short, provided with hairs, and are of a 
yellow colour, with brownish-black annuli, each femur having a 

350 Mr. J. Blackwall on a new Genus of Araneidea 

single annulus at its extremity ; the fourth pair is the longest, 
then the first, and the third pair is the shortest ; the tarsi are 
terminated by claws of the usual number and structure. The 
palpi are short, somewhat darker-coloured than the legs, and 
have a curved, pectinated claw al their extremity. The abdomen 
is nearly circular, rather broader than long, without spines, 
glossy, moderately convex above, and projects greatly over the 
base of the cephalothorax; it is of a yellow colour, with five 
depressed brownish-black spots, forming, near the frontal mar- 
gin, a transverse curved row whose convexity is directed back- 
wards, the two exterior spots being the smallest of the five ; 
four similar spots occur on each side, parallel to the margin ; 
four smaller ones form a transverse, slightly curved row near 
the posterior margin, whose convexity is directed forwards ; and 
there are three similar spots on each side of the medial line, 
those constituting the intermediate pair being the largest and 
widest apart ; the under part is much corrugated, and has a 
large, triangular, dark-brown mark in the middle, comprising 
within its vertex the spinners, which are encircled by a rim ; 
the whole is encompassed by a broad yellow margin marked 
with depressed brownish-black spots, from which lines of the 
same hue pass towards the centre ; the sexual organs are mo- 
derately developed, with a small, oval, brownish-yellow process 
in connexion with their anterior margin, and are of a dark-brown 
hue, tinged with red, that of the branchial opercula being 

I have conferred upon this species the name of Horace Waller, 
Esq., an ardent naturalist, an J the friend and fellow-traveller of 
Mr. Thornton. 

Eurysoma Walleri bears a strong resemblance to the Gaste- 
racantha hemispharica of M. Koch (Die Arachniden, Band xi. 
p. 49, tab. 373. fig. 874), but differs from it in the number, 
distribution, and relative size of the depressed brownish-black 
spots on the abdomen, and also in some other particulars. The 
generic name Gasteracantha being quite inapplicable to a spider 
absolutely devoid of spines, I have placed this species, notwith- 
standing the numerous depressed dark-coloured spots with 
which its carapace is marked, in the genus Eurysoma, to which, 
for the same reason, I think it would be expedient to transfer 
Gasteracantha hemispharica. 

Genus Pycnacantha, Blackw. 

Eyes small, disposed on the anterior part of the cephalo- 
thorax ; the four intermediate ones are seated on a narrow, pro- 
minent protuberance directed obliquely upwards and forwards, 
and nearly describe a square; the two superior ones are placed 

from the East of Central Africa. 35 1 

on the summit of the protuberance, and the two inferior ones, 
which are rather wider apart and the largest of the eight, are 
situated near its middle, in front ; the lateral eyes are the small- 
est ; those of each pair are seated obliquely on the outer side of 
a slender, elevated, upright tuoercle, a little below its somewhat 
pointed extremity, and are separated by a moderately wide 

Maxilla short, straight, and enlarged and rounded at the 

Lip semicircular, but slightly pointed at the apex. 

Legs moderately robust ; the first and second pairs are much 
longer than the third and fourth pairs, the first pair being the 
longest and the third the shortest. 

Abdomen subglobose, provided on the upper part and sides 
with numerous, close-set, sharp-pointed spines, varying greatly 
in their dimensions. 

Pycnacantha Meadii. 

Length of the female \ an inch ; length of the cephalo- 
thorax ■}-, breadth £j breadth of the abdomen J-; length of an 
anterior leg -fa; length of a leg of the third pair •§•. 

The cephalothorax is compressed before, truncated in front, 
with prominent lateral angles, broadly rounded on the sides, 
somewhat convex, and has a shallow indentation in the medial 
line of the posterior region ; it is thinly clothed with short, 
whitish hairs, and of a dull-yellow colour, the base being much 
the palest ; a narrow brown band passes from between the lateral 
tubercles to the medial indentation ; a longitudinal one, of a 
similar hue, but somewhat paler, whose posterior part is much 
the broadest, occurs on each side, and small black prominences, 
which are most numerous on the medial band, are distributed 
over its surface. The falces are conical, vertical, armed with 
teeth on the inner surface, and of a pale-yellow colour in front, 
the outer side and extremity having a reddish-brown hue. The 
maxillse and lip are of a dark reddish-brown colour, the extremity 
of the former and the apex of the latter having a yellowish-white 
hue. The sternum is heart-shaped, with small eminences on the 
sides, opposite to the legs, and is of a yellow colour, with dark- 
brown margins. The legs are provided with hairs and spines, 
two parallel rows of the latter occurring on the inferior surface 
of the metatarsi and tarsi of the first and second pairs ; they 
have a pale dull-yellow hue, and the tarsi are terminated by 
claws of the usual number and structure. The palpi resemble 
the legs in colour, and have a short, curved, pectinated claw at 
their extremity. The abdomen, which is clothed with short, 
pale hairs, is of a subglobose form, very convex above, projecting 

352 Mr. H. Seeley on two new Plesiosaurs from the Lias. 

over the base of the cephalothorax, and is armed on the upper 
part and sides with about fifty sharp-pointed yellow spines; 
two, much larger than the rest, are unequally forked, having a" 
short spine on their outer side, and are of a red-brown colour, 
the anterior surface of the prongs and a broad annulus at their 
base being much the darkest; these spines are placed trans- 
versely on the most elevated part of the abdomen ; it is of a 
pale dull-yellow hue, and has small black prominences distri- 
buted over its upper part and sides ; the former has a narrow 
brown band extending from its anterior extremity to the spin- 
ners, near the middle of which there are two short brown lines 
curved towards each other, comprising in the interval between 
them a pair of spines ; and the latter are marked with dark- 
brown transverse lines, bordered anteriorly with pale yellow ; 
the under part is corrugated, and minute, depressed, brown 
spots are disposed in rows in the curved transverse furrows; 
the sexual organs present a narrow transverse orifice, and have 
a reddish-brown hue, that of the branchial opercula being yel- 

I have much pleasure in associating the name of my valued 
friend and correspondent, R. H. Meade, Esq., with this very 
remarkable Spider, which forms a connecting link between the 
species of the genera Epe'ira and Acrosoma. 

XLI. — On two new Plesiosaurs, from the Lias. By Harry 
Seeley, F.G.S., of the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge. 

[Plates XIV. & XV.] 

Thomas Hawkins, Esquire, to whose zeal English science owes 
many exquisitely wrought-out Reptiles of the Liassic seas, pre- 
sented to the University of Cambridge a series of Saurians 
which grace the walls of the Woodwardian Museum. Two are 
Plesiosaurs, both of new species : one of them, already famous 
for having the unanchylosed bones described by the late Lucas 
Barrett in his paper on the Plesiosaurian atlas and axis, displays 
limbs, ribs, all the dorsal vertebrae, and much of the neck ; the 
other and smaller fragment has a part only of the neck and back, 
ribs, episternum, coracoid, scapula, and clavicle. 

The larger fossil seems to have been imbedded laying on its 
back, with the neck swayed laterally ; but all the vertebrae now 
rest on the left side, so that the neck is curved, as though the 
head had been drawn back. Except the first four caudal verte- 
bra?, the tail is wanting, and many vertebrae are absent from the 
middle of the neck. Mr. Barrett considered the remains to in- 

Mr. IT. Sccley on two new Plesiosaurs from the Lias. 353 

dicatc a young animal ; but, though probably not aged, there is 
no evidence that it was immature. 

The species hitherto undetermined, indicated by twenty-four 
vertebras between the last of the neck and the first of the tail, 
and by eight carpal bones and five bones in the tarsus, is 
different from every other yet characterized. So it will now be 
described as 

Plesiosaurus eleutheraxon *. 

The atlas and axis are contrasted with the same bones in Plesi- 
osaurus Etheridyii, and well figured in the ' xlnnals of Natural 
History' for November 1858. To these succeed eleven verte- 
bras, which with their interspaces occupy 9f inches. The para- 
pophyses for the hatchet bones occupy at first all the width be- 
tween the epiphyses, but at the thirteenth they are found only 
on the hinder half of the side of the vertebras. The neura- 
pophyses soon extend to the whole length of the vertebras ; the 
zygapophyses are long, the neural spine compressed, wide, and 
not very high. The sides of these cervical vertebras are flat- 
tened, but the under surface between the hatchet bones is exca- 

The third vertebra is -p- inch long, and § of an inch wide 
over the articular end, which is -fe of an inch high. Subsemi- 
circular in outline in front, being flattened above, it is moderately 
concave, and, like all the cervical vertebras, has a bevelled border, 
which is always of the same width. The articular surface is 
oval in the sixth, which is nearly |- of an inch wide and -f- high. 
The thirteenth is ^ of an inch long. 

Two inches' interspace here separates the next, three vertebras, 
which are noticeably larger, have long narrow venous foramina 
between the small ploughshare bones, and extend over 3| inches. 
The last of these vertebras measures 2| inches from base to top 
of the neural spine, which is much less high in front than be- 
hind, and from front to back nearly as long as the vertebra. 

After these there is a vacant interspace of 11 inches; and 
then the remainder of the spinal column is continuous to the 
end, the thirty-five vertebras maintaining a nearly uniform size. 

In the first seven the circular parapophysis rapidly ascends the 
side, becoming elliptical, and at the eighth the articulation for the 
rib, which there becomes very much larger, is entirely supported 
on the neural arch. The sides are concave, so that the epiphyses 
form a broad rim, and inferiorly they meet in a sharp angle, 
which disappears with the first dorsal. The seven vertebras 
measure 10 inches. The neural spine is now much longer, and 
makes the height of the first of these seven cervicals 3,' inches. 

* eXevdepos, Lat. liber; u^a>v, Lat. axis. 

Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. xvi. 24 

354 Mr. II. Sccley on two new Plesiosaurs from the Lias. 

Each centrum is much higher than long. Thus there are, with 
two scattered on the slab, twenty-seven cervical vertebras pre- 
served; and if the interspaces represent the number missing, 
there must have been originally about thirty-six. The hinder 
cervical ribs are 2 inches long. 

In a former paper on Plesiosaurus macropterus, I adopted as 
the first dorsal that vertebra in which the rib rises entirely on 
the neural arch — a view since sanctioned by Professor Owen in 
his Monograph of Plesiosaurs. 

The length of the dorsal and sacral region in this specimen is 
2 feet 5 inches, and it includes twenty-four vertebras, twenty-one 
of which, measuring 2 feet 1-A- inch, have the ribs entirely 
supported on diapophyses. The remaining three, with large 
articular facets, may be considered pelvic. The first dorsal is 
an inch and a quarter long ; but these vertebras gradually become 
a little shorter, and the last dorsal measures only l-^inch. The 
venous foramina rise to the middle of the side, which is much 
more concave than it was in the neck. The diapophysial articu- 
lation is vertical, looks behind, is subelliptical, and in the first few 
vertebras more than an inch deep ; but it soon becomes smaller, 
and more circular. The caudal vertebras are shorter than those 
of the back, have flatter sides, and are marked by large hasma- 
pophysial pits. The ribs are very short, and, like those of the 
hinder part of the neck, taper to an end in about 2 inches. The 
four caudal vertebras with their interspaces measure 4A- inches. 

As in the typical specimens of all the species with which this 
one presents any affinity, it is the under surface of the limbs which 
is displayed : those of the right side are in situ ; but on the other 
side only the femur and humerus remain, the latter showing the 
upper surface. The fore limb is slightly the shorter, measuring 
23f inches, while the hind limb is 24 inches long. 

The humerus measures 8f inches long, is 3-f- inches over the 
radial end, and If inch over the greater part of the shaft. The 
proximal end is a little contracted and bent backward, and the 
rough condyle is moderately convex. The under surface is flat- 
tened and rounded, and displays at an inch below the condyle a 
slight oblique rough process, probably for attachment of the 
latissimus dorsi. The anterior border is somewhat straight, 
. being slightly concave below'and slightly convex above; but the 
posterior border is more deeply and regularly cupped. The 
superior is rather flatter than the inferior surface, except at the 
proximal end, which becomes elevated to a trochanteroid thick- 
ening for the deltoid, subscapulars, and pectoralis muscles, and 
makes the bone concave in length. The ulna is flattened, and 
slightly reniform, and a little shorter than the radius, being 
3^ inches long and 2^ inches wide, and 2-jV inches long in 

Mr. H. Seeley on two new Plesiosaurs from the Lias. 355 

front ; the radius, more convex than the ulna, is contracted below. 
It measures 2f inches over the top, 14/ inch in the middle, 
If inch at bottom, and is 34 inches long. There are 8 carpal 
bones — 5 in the upper row, 3 in the lower row; they add 
2f inches to the length of the limb. 

Thephalanges and metacarpal bones, which are gracefully curved 
backward, are in five rows, and measure 104/ inches. There are 
3 bones in the first row, 6 in the second, 9 in the third, 8 in the 
fourth, and 4 in the fifth row : they have the usual flattened 
hour-glass form, and vary much in length, the row usually named 
metacarpal being the longest. The metacarpal of the first digit 
is subquadrate, and not quite an inch long; the metacarpal of 
the fourth digit is 1-f- inch long. The most massive metacarpal 
is that of the fifth digit. The terminal phalange is always nar- 
row at the distal end. 

The extreme length of the femur is 84 inches : it has a large 
hemispherical condyle, 14 inch deep and 14/ inch wide. The 
smallest diameter of the shaft is 14- inch, and the diameter of 
the distal end of the bone is 34/ inches. The anterior side is 
longer than the posterior side, but is less deeply cupped. The 
under surface is more rounded than the under side of the 
humerus, and has a stronger rugose thickening below the con- 
dyle for the psoas muscle. 

The tibia and fibula are much like the ulna and radius, ex- 
cept that the fibula is more reniform. 

The fibula is 2 inches wide, 24/ inch long, and 24/ inches long 
in front. The tibia is 24/ inches at top, 14- inch in the middle 
and If inch at the base, and 24/ inches long. The tarsus adds 
24 inches to the limb. There are 5 bones — 3 large ones under 
the fibula and 2 small ones under the tibia, two large ones 
being in the upper row, and the others in the lower row. 

The phalanges and metatarsals are straighter than the corre- 
sponding bones in the fore limb; they are 11 inches long. 
There are 3 bones in the first digit, 7 in the second, 9 in the 
third, 8 in the fourth, and 5 in the fifth. As in the wrist of the 
fore limb, the metatarsals progressively get longer to the fourth ; 
and, as in that limb, the fifth digit articulates with a tarsal of 
the first row. 

The ilium is near the proximal end of the femur, 4 inches 
long, If inch wide at the compressed spathulate end, and -!j- of 
an inch wide in the shaft. The proximal end is large, and has 
two articular facets — one for the femur, the other probably with 
the pubes. 

Midway between the limbs is a triradiate bone, shaped some- 
what like a Greek letter v, and probably showing the upper 
surface. It resembles the ischium, but corresponds exactly with 


356 Mr. II. Secley on two new Plesiosaurs from the Lias. 

Professor Owen's account of the scapula. It is deeply cupped 
for the pectoral vacuity, and measures 4,V inches along the per- 
pendicular and nexuous exterior side, which is elevated to a 
ridge as usual, interior to which the inferior side is narrow, 
oblique, and concave. Its anterior margin is convex, and 
measures 5 f inches. This anterior limb is much wider than the 
lateral limb, which contracts in the middle. Both terminate in 
an articular end, in each measuring 1} inch; the distance over 
articulation to articulation is 3^ inch. Where the two limbs meet, 
they become prolonged into a short spur directed forward and 
outward. I cannot regard cither this spur or the broad flat limb 
as representing the clavicle. All analogy would indicate that, if 
this species had such a bone, it was applied to the exterior Hat 
side of the scapula. Nor can I believe that the scapula had in 
the animal the wonderful position which it has in Prof. Owen's 
restoration, fig. 93, ( Palaeontology/ where the left scapula appears 
to me to be applied to the right side of the animal. Certainly in 
this species the broad limb, which is there free and directed 
backward, was directed forward and downward towards the other 
scapula. Similar bones are figured in the scapular region of a 
Plesiosaur by Mr. Hawkins in pi. 25 of the ' Great Sea-Dragons.' 

This species nearly resembles P. dolichodeirus (Conyb.), and 
is but little smaller than the example recently figured by Prof. 
Owen in the Palasontographical monograph. 

The distinctive characters are, (1) that in this species the atlas 
and axis are short and separate, instead of being long and united ; 
(2) there are 24 vertebras between the neck and the tail, instead 
of 23 ; (3) the humerus is more slender, being longer ; (4) the 
bones of the forearm are wider; (5) there are 8 carpal bones in- 
stead of 7 ; (0) there but 4 bones in the fifth digit, instead of 8. 

The more marked differences of the hind limb may be esti- 
mated from the figure. Prom P. Etheridyii it is well distin- 
guished by the more numerous cervical vertebras, the 21 dorsals, 
and larger size. 

Nor docs it approach any other species so near as to need a 
minute comparison. 

Plesiosaurus cliduchus *. 

Professor Owen founded the Plesiosaurus ruyosus on a charac- 
ter which is by no means limited to that species; for the Plesiosaur 
just described shows in the cervical region, only in a less degree, 
roughnesses round the epiphyses; and the cervical vertebras of 
that which is now to be described have the same character. But 
Mr. Wm. Davies, of the British Museum, assures me that in 
the typical specimen of Plesiosaurus rugosus the characteristic 

* /cXelf, Lat. jay alum ; and e^co, Lat. habeo. 

Mr. H, Seclcy on tico new Plesiosaurs from the Lias. 357 

rugose border is present in the whole series of vertebra; ; and 
adds that the whole of the limb-bones, including the phalanges, 
as well as other parts of the skeleton, are more or less rugose. 

Our animal appears to have been mature, though not aged : 
what remains of it rests on the right side. 

In P. rugosus there are said to be about 35 or 36 cervical 
vertebra? : but the only one described is supposed to be the 15th ; 
and plate xiv. of the Monograph of Lias Plesiosaurs shows it 
to be about two-thirds the size of those at the base of the neck. 
Now, as the vertebra? from the base of the neck in our specimen 
are shorter than that from the middle of the neck in P. rugosus, 
and. as the lower dorsal vertebra? want the rugose margins, there 
is strong probability that the species is new. 

It would naturally seem a portion of a vertebral theory that, just 
as certain vertebra? between the back and tail are reckoned pelvic 
or sacral, so there might be some between the neck and back simi- 
larly modified by relations to the fore limbs, which could only be 
reckoned pectoral. At present there is no possible means re- 
cognized for determining in Plesiosaurus the limits of dorsal 
and cervical vertebra?. Prof. Owen's dictum in 1839 is different 
from Prof. Huxley's in 1858; and Prof. Owen, in 1861, lays 
down a different law to that given by him in 1865. Indeed 
the conditions seem to be different in nearly every species, the 
difficulty being to know what to do with those vertebra? where 
the costal surface is passing from the centrum to the neural 
arch, in which the ribs are extremely variable. The confu- 
sion which has hitherto marked descriptions of this region 
might be easily avoided by reckoning such vertebra? pectoral, 
and counting them separately, while it would introduce a new 
character whereby to distinguish species. 

There is the usual difficulty in this species in determining 
the first dorsal. As in P. eleutheraxon, the costal surface in 
the last few cervicals enlarges, becoming more elliptical, and 
then in those vertebra? where it is partly formed by the neura- 
pophysis becomes smaller, and enlarges again in the back. 

The first three vertebra? are clearly cervical, and the first of 
them measures — 

From base of centrum to top of neural spine. . 4,V inches. 

The height of the centrum is 1-g- inch. 

The length of the centrum is 1-f „ 

but it is longer at the top and at the bottom. 

Length through the centre 1 „ 

[ From praezygapophysis to postzygapophysis is 2-f- inches. 

The articular surfaces of the centrum are fiat at the outer 
part, and rather deeply cupped in the centre, where there is a 

358 Mr. H. Sceley on two new Plesiosaurs from the Lias. 

prominent mamillate eminence, as in P. Neocomiensis. The 
sides are flat, and margined by wide, elevated, rugose borders; 
they meet beneath in a sharp mesial ridge. The subqua- 
drate neural spine is rounded at the top, and from front 
to back measures 1 ± inch. The costal surface is circular. The 
limit of the neurapophyses on the sides of the centra may be 
clearly seen in the figure. The last cervical has the costal sur- 
face divided by a horizontal groove. 

Then follow three pectoral vertebra. The costal surface has 
now become narrow, elongated, slightly elevated, and marked 
by a depression on the centrum, immediately under it : it is 
not so near the anterior border of the vertebra. The neural 
spine of the last of these is a little broader and higher than in 
the succeeding vertebrae. 

The seventh centrum is unquestionably the first dorsal. The 
costal surface is now entirely on the neural arch, is greatly 
elevated and enlarged, oblique, and looks backward. The 
centrum is 1-^ inch long. There are eleven consecutive dorsal 
vertebrae, and three more indicated by continuous ribs in situ. 
The rib of the second dorsal is 10-V inches long; but towards 
the end of the series the ribs rapidly become short, and the four- 
teenth is only 4 inches long. The tenth and eleventh (which 
are the only centra seen) show pinched-in sides, sharp articu- 
lar margins, and the outer part of the articular surface flat. 
The eleventh is 11 inch long, and about 2 inches high. 

The episternum is a large bone with broad wings which 
taper to a sharp point behind, and between which, in front, 
there is a deep crescentic cup. It is fiat and thin, measuring 
mesially — from middle of cup in front to end of wedge behind 
2^ inches ; from horn of crescentic cup to end of wedge 4^ inch ; 
from middle of cup to end of lateral wing 31 inches. 

What remains of the coracoid conforms to the usual type ; but 
the scapula and clavicle are remarkable. 

Two inches of the coracoid go to form, with l4r inch of the 
scapula, the deep glenoid cavity for the left humerus, measur- 
ing 2^- inches across. 

On its under side the scapula sends down a sharp ridge, which 
extends all along the straight, fiat, and perpendicular anterior 
side. The side interior to the ridge is narrow, oblique, and 
concave, and, with the coracoid, forms the pectoral foramen. 
What is preserved of it measures 5 inches along the exterior 
ridge. From centre of the glenoid cavity to the pectoral foramen 
is IV inch. Least distance from ridge to pectoral foramen is 
1± inch. The pectoral foramen seems to have been elliptical, 
2f inches long and l£ inch wide. 

But the clavicle, which does not appear to have been detected 

Bibliographical Notices. 359 

before, resembles nothing so much as the spine of a Mammalian 
scapula. It is a V-shaped bone, placed exteriorly on the per- 
pendicular side of the scapula, to which it is attached for 
nearly 4 inches, widening from nothing in front to l-§- inch 
where the attachment ends behind. The exterior border is 
produced backward till the bone is 6^ inches long; but the inner 
border contracts in a curve so as to produce a free spine 2^ inches 
long, which overhangs the glenoid cavity. 

The clavicle holds the same relative position that it has in 

My thanks are due to Mr. W. Farran for the interest taken 
in producing the beautiful photographs from which the plates 
are taken. 

Plate XIV. 

P. eleutheraxon (Seeley) : a, ilium ; /3, scapula ; a', distal end of left ilium ; 
y, analogue of lesser trochanter on the under side of left femur ; 
8, great trochanter, on the upper side of left humerus ; e, large 
haemapophysial pit of first caudal vertebra; I. cervical and pec- 
toral vertebrae ; n. dorsal vertebrae; in. pelvic; i v. caudal. 

Plate XV. 

P. cliduchus (Seeley) : a, episternum ; /3, coracoid ; y, scapula ; 8, clavi- 
cle ; e, pectoral foramen; £, glenoid cavity for humerus; i. last 
three cervical vertebrae; n. pectoral vertebrae ; in. dorsal. 


A History of British Ferns. By Edw. Newman. The Fourth or 
School Edition. London : Van Voorst. 

This does not pretend to be a scientific work, and, in that respect 
as well as many others, differs from the author's former books upon 
Ferns; but why it is called a "school edition" we cannot under- 
stand. A work for schools ought to possess something of an educa- 
tional character ; but the total omission of scientific arrangement is 
not the most fitting mode of teaching. We should rather say that 
this book is intended for the purely unscientific collector and culti- 
vator of these beautiful and now popular plants. Even for such a 
purpose we much doubt if it is desirable to neglect the chance of 
conveying some knowledge of science, and transforming the mere 
collector into something, however little, of a botanist. Doubtless 
many who commence as collectors do really in time learn to desire 
some scientific knowledge of the objects in which they take an in- 
terest ; and therefore the book placed in their hands should give the 
information that they at first require. 

Mr. Newman brings forward the difference of opinion that exists 
amongst botanists upon the division of Ferns into genera as a sufii- 

3G0 Bibliographical Notices. 

cicnt reason for neglecting all generic names and characters. This 
may be convenient for the mere collector, but effectually excludes 
him from the knowledge of the structure of the fructification ac- 
quired by the study of the generic characters as given by any one of 
the botanists to whom he refers. Because A. Gray, Roth, Babington, 
and Hooker have been led to call the "same group of species" by 
different names is no reason for not pointing out the characteristics 
of the group, about which we believe that these authors do not ma- 
terially differ. 

It may be that the genera as at present accepted are to some ex- 
tent artificial, — that is, if British Ferns are alone considered; but are 
they quite so artificial if all Ferns are taken into account ? And as 
they are founded upon structure, is it not better, in a " school edi- 
tion," that even they, as the best that our present knowledge sup- 
plies, should be placed before the reader ? We certainly think so ; 
for there is much education for the observing faculties in determining 
these genera from a study of structure. The effect of neglecting the 
generic names has caused only the specific terms to be used in this 
book — a step, as it seems to us, in the wrong direction. Mr. New- 
man says that "authors plume themselves on the number and length 
of the Latin appellations they bestow on each species: no less than 
SO Latin names have been assigned to Jilix-fcemina and its varieties, 
and 4/ to Scolopendrium and its varieties." We think that this is 
rather misrepresenting the matter. No botanist does so, although 
gardeners do give useless names to an infinite number of forms. 
What botanist cares for the 47 forms of Scolopendrium 1 If we look 
at the books published by the above-named authors, we shall proba- 
bly find not a single one of these ever-varying forms noticed by 
name, but only the collective species characterized. Under the 
the >. Jilix-fa'tnina some two or three of the more marked and con- 
stant forms arc usually distinguished. These botanists certainly do 
not "plume themselves" on the length or number of the names 
given to the plants. 

The author takes credit to himself for going back to the very 
oldest names in all cases — a very good thing, doubtless, if done with 
judgment; but where is the advantage of hunting-up some obsolete 
name when all the best botanists have agreed to accept one uniform 
nomenclature? Why should we add to the confusion caused by 
synonymy, by using Polypodium myrrhidifolium (Villars) for the 
Cystop)teris montana (Link), even if Villars really meant that plant 
by that name? And why defend it by finding and using another 
obsolete name, Polypodium montanum (Vogl), for the Polypodium 
(or Aspidium or Lastred) Oreopteris of all the best botanical au- 
thorities of all countries? lie says that as "the principle of restor- 
ing prior names is now universal in zoology, I can only regret it is 
so frequently disregarded in the sister science." We thought that 
zoologists were very generally protesting against the attempt to 
change the recognized names for the uncertain and ill-defined ones 
of old authors. They think, and with much reason, that we are 
only confusing the nomenclature, and unnecessarily adding to the 

Bibliographical Notices. 3G1 

difficulties of science, by so doing. "We believed that it was generally 
allowed that the nomenclature of botany was in a better state tban 
that of zoology. Many changes have been made recently ; but tbey 
have been rendered necessary by an endeavour to bring the nomen- 
clature of different countries into harmony, not by an attempt to 
rake up and use obsolete terms which may be detected by a careful 
search into ancient or obscure writers. Hooker has not acted in 
the latter way, neither has Fries or any of the great authorities on 
botanical nomenclature. 

But enough of this. Under each species the autbor has given a 
fairly good popular description of the plant, and some useful hints 
concerning its best mode of cultivation, and also, occasionally, other 
remarks of more or less interest. The Cgstopteris dentata is appa- 
rently combined with the C. fragilis (we say, apparently, for the 
name is not mentioned) ; but the C. Dickieana is kept distinct. It 
docs not seem to us to be more constant or more distinct than several 
of the 80 forms of Athyrium Jilix-foemina. The difference stated to 
exist in their spores, however, is undoubtedly a point in Mr. New- 
man's favour. Recurvum is retained as the specific name of the 
Lastrea cemula or fcenisecii of authors. If the oldest name is 
adopted, it should be cemula, which is much older than Lowe's 
fcenisecii or Newman's recurva. We do not find that Bree ever 
called the species by that name ; and even if he had done so, the 
' llortus Kewensis ' is of much earlier date. In this case no name 
has been universally adopted, and we are therefore fully justified in 
reverting to the oldest. Multijiorum and spinosum are still retained 
for the L. dilatuta and L. spinulosa of nearly all other authors. 
Mr. Newman's own glandulosum is kept distinct. He also sepa- 
rates idiginosum from the Aspidium cristatum of Smith. A. 
remotum is likewise retained as a species. Mr. Newman con- 
siders the Aspidium (or Polypodium) alpestre "very closely allied to 
the common Lady Fern." Superficially considered, it seems so; 
but we think that they are far from being closely allied in reality. 
Asplenium acutum is separated from A. adiantum-nigrum. We give 
no opinion upon this, although inclined to consider them forms of 
one species. Asplenium Petrarchce is stated to be a real native of 
Ireland. We hope that it may prove to be so. Mr. Newman ad- 
heres to the name of Hymenophyllum unilaterale for the //. Ullsoni, 
although, if we mistake not, it has been shown that they are not the 
same plant. Ophioglossum lusitanicum is said to grow near the 
Land's End in Cornwall. Is it not the O. vulgatum /3. umbiguum 
which is found there, as it certainly is in the Scilly Isles ? 

Mr. Newman takes credit to himself for having done much towards 
causing the present popularity of Ferns. It may be a questionable 
point if he has done good or harm thereby. The result is that all 
our most interesting Ferns are being uselessly extirpated in all tole- 
rably accessible places, — uselessly ; for a very small number of those 
pulled up are ever kept alive, or preserved as specimens, or studied 
botanically. Those who visit Wales after some few years of interval 
cannot fail to notice and deplore the result. The plants which they 

362 Bibliographical Notices. 

used to look at, not gather, on the mountains are hopelessly eradi- 
cated ; and they have to go to spots more fitted for the Alpine Club 
than the botanist, to see the rarer or more interesting species. Hap- 
pily there are a few such spots to which no " tourist " is likely to 
attain, where our rare Ferns may perhaps be preserved for the grati- 
fication of a future generation, and from which, when the present 
fashion has passed away, they may spread to more accessible places 
on the hills. 

Chart of Fossil Crustacea. By J. W. Salter and H.Woodward. 
With Descriptive Catalogue. Lowry & Tennant: London, 1865. 

This is a large chart (2 feet 2 inches by 2 feet 9 inches) of the 
genera of fossil Crustacea, showing the range in time of the several 
orders, together with some recent Crustacean types analogous to 
the extinct forms. The Chart is divided transversely into fifteen 
zones of varying thickness, alternately dark and light, and corre- 
sponding to geological stages; and vertically, across these bands, are 
represented eight streams, varying in width and length, of Crustacean 
forms, — some (as the Trilobites and Eurypterids) beginning early 
and dying out in palaeozoic times, others (as the Decapods, Tetra- 
decapods, and Xiphosures) beginning either in the Devonian or the 
Carboniferous period .and still flourishing ; whilst the Brachyurous 
Decapods are first found in the Jurassic rocks. Among the lower 
groups of Crustacea, the little Bivalved Entomostraca seem to have 
had representatives for almost as long as fossiliferous strata take us 
back in time; for their "stream of history" ranges upwards from 
the chart's lowest band ("Cambrian" or " Lingula- flags"). The 
Cirripeds also are included in this conspectus of Crustacean life ; 
and the Catalogue explains that though in the Chart they range 
only from the Rhaetic strata upwards, yet good specimens of a trust- 
worthy representative (Turrilepas) have of late been recognized by 
Mr. H. Woodward among Upper Silurian fossils ; and woodcut 
figures are given at page 26. 

The Chart fully answers the purpose proposed — supplying the 
carcinologist with an eye-sketch of the Crustacean types and sub- 
types, and enabling the palaeontologist to see the coexistent forms at 
any epoch, and to trace at a glance the range of each group, whether 
occupying the stage at once in force, as in the case of the Trilobites 
and Eurypterids, or beginning with obscure traces or uncertain forms, 
and whether giving place to incoming allies or continuing in true 
succession to the present day. We need not wonder that the Chart 
is good, well-devised, and conscientiously worked out; for Mr. Salter 
is devoted to Trilobites, Palaeocarids, et hoc yaws omne, whilst Mr. 
H. Woodward is as fond as anybody of Crabs and Lobsters, Prawns, 
Shrimps, and " such small deer," not only in the fresh but in the 
fossil state ; both also have made a study of the Eurypterids, and 
both have command of the goodwill and help of their brother 
palaeontologists ; while Mr. Lowry, the engraver, has long been 
known for the successful application of his art to geology and fossils, 
prompted by a genuine love of the science in all its branches. 

Bibliographical Notices. 363 

To show the use of the Chart to the student, we cannot do better 
than adopt Mr. Salter's explanation, as given in the Introduction to 
the Catalogue : — 

" This Chart is intended to show at a glance the development in 
geological time of the different orders of the class Crustacea. Pic- 
torial representations of the different groups of fossils, in their geo- 
logical order, have been often before attempted, and the 'Tabular 
View of British Fossils,' compiled and engraved by Mr. Lowry 
(published by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge), has 
been conspicuously useful in this way. But we do not know of any 
published Chart in which the relations of the different members of a 
family or group are preserved in an unbroken series, so as to show 
the course taken by that family or order of animals in the successive 
geologic periods, from their first appearance to the present time. It 
has been found practicable (due regard being had to size and shape 
of the sections of the Chart) to arrange the species nearly in their 
right natural-history order. This could not always be done, inas- 
much as there are often members of the same genus in two geological 
divisions. It has been thought best, therefore, in the Catalogue, to 
follow the same order as that of the plate, that the student may the 
more easily, in studying each group, follow it from its commence- 
ment to its close. The rule followed is to take each group in 
ascending order, from its commencement in the lower strata to its 
close, or to modern times. The Chart shows through what length 
of time any genus existed ; and it will be observed that comparatively 
few genera (except among the small Bivalve Crustacea) range through 
more than one or two formations. When it is otherwise, the student 
has only to look in the Chart, at the next overlying formation, for 
the members of the genus he is occupied with (and they are arranged 
as nearly together as the space and other circumstances will allow), 
and then, turning to the Catalogue, he will be conducted by it over 
all the genera peculiarly characteristic of the lower formation before 
proceeding to those of a higher one. Thus, for instance, in the group 
Eurypterida he will find, in the Lower Silurian, that only foot- 
marks of a gigantic species are known ; in the Upper Silurian, the 
Hemiaspis and Bunodes are confined to that formation, while the 
great Pteryyotus and Eurypterus are figured as reaching through 
two formations. Consulting the Catalogue, he will find that Ptery- 
yotus problematicus is an Upper Silurian species, and that P. anylicus, 
a very similar form, belongs to the Devonian formation. Again, 
Eurypterus tetragonophthalmus is a Lower Devonian form ; but the 
gigantic E. Hibberti belongs to the Carboniferous formation. One 
or two in the Coal close the series. Here, then, the range of each 
genus is extended through the formations to which it belongs. ^But, 
in this particular case only, the size of the animals is so great that, 
instead of figuring P. anglicus and P. problematicus one exactly over 
the other, a single large figure is made to do duty for both. In all 
other cases, as in the genus Limulus on the right hand of the chart, 
or the genus Ilomalonotus or Culymene among the Trilobites, the 
successive species are placed one over the other, and the range of the 

304 Bibliographical Notices. 

whole genus in time is thus made evident. The student is recom- 
mended to take each group of animals as indicated by the curved or 
vertical lines of separation* by itself, as the object of the Chart is 
to show him how each tribe or order has been gradually developed 
and perfected, or otherwise, in its course. By taking, then, the 
genera and species belonging to the lowest formation first, he will 
the more readily see what changes have been introduced among a 
particular set of animals ; and having made himself thus master of 
the separate groups, he will be able afterwards better to see their 
mutual relations." 

Genera Plantarum : auctoribus G. Bentiiam et J. D. Hooker. 
Vol. i. Pars 2. London, 1865. 

We have much pleasure in announcing the publication of another 
Part of this admirable work. It consists of 293 pages, and contains 
the genera included in the orders Leguminosse, Rosacea^, Saxifrageae, 
Crassulaceac, Droseracese, Hamamelidese, Bruniaceee, Haloragese, 
Rhizophorece, Combretacese, and Myrtaceae ; and we are informed 
that a third Part will complete the Polypetalous orders and the first 
volume. It is much to be desired that no great delay may attend 
its publication. 

It is scarcely possible to give any idea of the amount of labour 
which has been expended upon this work, which must form a neces- 
sary part of the library of every botanist. We have looked rather 
hastily through the present part, and observe very few points re- 
quiring notice. In Legurninosce the Genistea?, Trifoliese, and Loteaj 
are regarded as tribes of the Papilionacca?, and of equal rank with 
Vieieee and Iledyracese ; and, amongst the genera, ISarotliamvus is 
combined with Cytisus, Arthrolobium with Ornitkopus, Ervum is 
joined to Vicia, and Orobus to Lathyrus. The order Rosaceoe is 
retained entire, notwithstanding the apparently epigynous structure 
of the Pomete. Amongst its genera, Potentilla includes Sibbaldia, 
Agrimonia includes Aremonia, Poterium includes Sanguisorba, 
Pyrus includes Mespilus. The Grossulariacese are combined with 
the Saxifrages, and also the genus Purnassia. The genus Calli- 
triche is placed in Halorageae, but Ceratophyllum is considered to 
constitute a Monochlamydeous order. 

There arc many other alterations made in the usual mode of 
grouping, but we do not think it necessary to mention them. 
Those enumerated are of the most interest to the British botanist, 
as relating to the flora of his own country. 

We have only to add that all botanists must feel anxious for the 
early continuation of this very useful work, and express our hope 
that its sale may be such as to encourage the learned authors to 
proceed as rapidly with its publication as they properly can. 

* The groups may be made more distinct by colouring the lines by 
different paints or crayons. 

Zoological Society. 3G5 



May 23, 1865.— John Gould, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 

A Revision of the Genera and Species of Amphisb^enians, 
with the Descriptions of some New Species now in 
the Collection of the British Museum. By Dr. 
John Edward Gray, F.R.S., F.L.S., V.P.Z.S., etc. 

Sir Andrew Smith having kindly presented to the British Museum, 
along with a number of other reptiles which he has described, the 
types of his genus Monotrophis, which I had not before seen, and 
two Amphisbsenians from Africa having been received from Mr. Wel- 
witsch and from the collection of my late excellent and lamented friend 
Dr. Balfour Baikie, and from Mr. Bates a species from the Amazons 
which I believed had not hitherto been recorded in the Catalogue, I 
proceeded to examine them ; and, for the purpose of making the 
comparison the more complete, I was led on to study all the speci- 
mens of this tribe which we have in the Museum. 

The natural result^of such an investigation was, that I was dis- 
satisfied with the manner in which the species had hitherto been 
arranged and described, and, after repeated examination, I have 
reduced my observations to the following results : — 

The determination of the species themselves, and the means which 
a paper resulting from the re-examination and comparison of all the 
species in a large collection afford to a student, are much more im- 
portant than any isolated description of the species regarded as new, 
however detailed and particular the description may be ; and in a 
comparative review of the species of a group or order the distinctions 
may be stated in a more condensed form. 

The Amphisbeenians are very rarely collected ; hence few species 
are found in museums and noticed in systematic catalogues. This is 
explained by their living almost exclusively in the nests of ants, and 
being seldom seen by the casual observer. There is reason to believe 
that every warm country which has ants has some form of Amphis- 
bsenians. Until lately they were thought to be confined to Tropical 
America, though one was described by Vandeli as occurring in Spain 
as long ago as 1780 ; but his essay and the animal itself were alike 
so little known to naturalists, that Professors Hemprich (in 1820) 
and Wagler each described A'andeli's species as new, the latter as a 
South-American species. Professor Kaup described a species from 
North Africa in 1830, and M. Gervais redescribed it as new in 1835. 
MM. Dumeril and Bibron have described a specimen in the Leyden 
Museum from Guinea, Dr. Andrew Smith one as occurring at the 
Cape, and Dr. Peters has added another from the east coast of Africa. 
The number of African species is in this essay raised to seven. As 
yet none have been received from Asia Proper; but Sir diaries 
Fellows brought from Xanthus the same species that is found lu 
Spain, Portugal, and North Africa. 

3GG Zoological Society: — 

The following table shows the geographical distribution of the 
species here recorded : — 

Eastern Hemisphere. 

Fam. Troyonophidte. 

1 . Troyonophis Wieymanni. North Africa. 

Fam . Amph {sheen idee . 

2. Blanus cinereus. Spain, North Africa, Asia Minor. 

3. Amphisbtenal viola cea. East Africa. 

4. Cynisca leucura. Guinea. 

5. Baikia africana. West Africa. 

Tribe Cephalopeltince. 

6. Monotrophis capensis. South Africa. 

7. Dalophia Welwitschii. West Africa. 

Western Hemisphere. 

Fam. Chirotidce. 

1. Chirotes lumbricoides. Mexico. 

Fam. Amphisbcenidce. 

2. Amphisbcena alba. Brazil. 

3. A. americana. British Guiana. 

4. A. Petrcei. Brazil. 

5. A. vermicular is. Brazil. 

6. A. Darwinii. Monte Video, Buenos Ayres. 

7. Bronia brasiliana. Brazil. 

8. Sarea cceca. West Indies. 

9. Cadea punctata. Cuba. 

10. Anops Kinyii. Buenos Ayres. 

Fam. Lepidosternidce. 

1 1 . Lepidosternon microcephalum. Brazils. 

12. L. Grayii. Tropical America. 

13. L. phoccena. Buenos Ayres. 

Tribe Cepholopeltince. 

14. Cephalopeltis lepidosterna. Brazils. 

The rings of oblong scutella on the skin are in most species inter- 
rupted on the sides, and in some species also on the vertebral line ; 
these interruptions form a more or less wide depressed groove on the 
surface of the body, and are called the lateral and dorsal lines. 

The skin at this interruption is usually marked at each transverse 
ring with two oblique grooves, which form a cross and divide the 
space into four minute triangular shields; in some cases, where the 
line is wider and less sunken, the transverse ring of shields is only di- 
vided at the sunken line by a single oblique groove caused by the 

Dr. J. E. Gray on the Amphisbcenians. 367 

tapering end of one of the oblong shields going before the end of the 
other. Sometimes this is the case with the dorsal line, and not with 
the lateral one. In some species, instead of- only the four triangular 
shields in the lateral line, the shield between the cross groove is di- 
vided into several minute scale-like shields. 

In some of the larger species, as Amphisbcena alba, some of the 
rings of shields are marked with an oblique groove crossing several 
shields, dividing each of them into two parts ; but these seem to be 
mere individual variations occurring on several parts of the back 
of some specimens, and not present in others. 

Dume'ril and Bibron give the number of the teeth as one of the 
specific characters. I have not been able to verify their observations; 
they give the following as the number. There seems to be always an 
odd number of intermaxillary teeth, the middle one being usually 

Trogonophis Wiegmanni 

Chirotes caniculatus 

9-9 18 

3.7-3 13 

6.6 12 

Amphisbcena americana et A. alba "isT?" = i6 

T> j. 5.7-5 _ 

Petrm -j^- = l6 

T. ■ ■• 4.7.4 15 

JUarivimi , „ ■ =— 

/ ./ 14 

Sarea cceca ' ' =^ 

7.7 14 

Cadea punctata lf^i" 4= li 

Anops Kingii . . I 4.7.4 15 

Blanus cinereus J 7-7 h 

Fam. 1. TrogonophidjE. 

Head oblong, depressed, rounded below ; nostrils lateral, in large 
nasal shields ; teeth conical, on the edge of the maxilla. Body 
cylindrical, covered with rings of uniform, elongate, oblong, four- 
sided shields, without any sternal disk ; lateral line sunken, narrow, 
covered with a few minute scales ; preanal pores none ; tail conical, 

Glyphodermes acrodontes, Dum. et Bibr. Erp. Gen. v. 467. 

Trogonophis, Kaup, Isis, 1830, p. 880. 

Head oblong, depressed ; nasal shields large, united by a short 
straight edge, behind the large triangular convex rostral ; crown with 
two pairs of shields ; temple with many small shields ; upper labial 
plate moderate ; lower labial shield larger, with a series of large chin- 
shields on each side, and a central gular one. Tail conical, acute ; 
preanal pores none. 

The skull of this genus has been figured by Dr. Kaup in his paper 
in the ' Isis ' quoted below. 

3G8 Zoological Society : — 

Trogonophis Wiegmanni, Kaup, Isis, 1830, p. 8S0, t. 8(51 ; 
Fcruss. Bull. Sci. Nat. xxv. 203, 1831 ; Dum. et Bibr. Erp. Gen. v. 

Amphisbana elegans, Gervais, Bull. Sci. Nat. de France, 1855, 
p. 135 ; Mag. Zool. 1835, class 3. t. 1 1 (details not good). 

Hab. Tangier (Fraser, B.M. 1848); North Africa (B.M. 184G); 
Algeria {Dumeril, B.M.). 

This animal was first described by Dr. Kaup, who showed that 
the teeth of it were placed on the edge of the jaw, as in the genera 
of the family Agamidce, which are all confined to the eastern he- 
misphere and Australia ; while all the other genera of the order 
that have been examined have the teeth on the inner side of the jaw, 
as in the family Iguanidce, which is restricted to the New World. 

It was afterwards described by M. Gervais; and even when Dr. 
Kaup had informed him, after inspecting the specimen, that it was 
the same as he had previously described, he still regarded it as new, 
because he said the skull did not agree with Dr. Kaup's figure: 
but this was a mistake. Dr. Kaup figured the skull of Trogonophis 
and of an Amphisbcena for the sake of showing the difference between 
them ; and M. Gervais must have compared his animal with the 
wrong figure. 

Fam. 2. Chirotidje, Gray, Cat. Tortoises, &c., B. M. 74. 

Head depressed, rounded on the sides ; nostrils on sides ; teeth on 
the inner side